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Bio-control agents and Bio pesticides in Grapes IPM Introduction Biological control is an important component of IPM where deliberate use of bioagents /biopesticides ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bio-control%20agents%20and%20Bio%20pesticides%20in%20Grapes%20IPM

  • Bio-control agents and Bio pesticides in Grapes

  • Biological control is an important component of
    IPM where deliberate use of bioagents
    /biopesticides (predators, parasitoids and
    pathogens) are made in the crops to maintain pest
    population at a level below that causing economic
    loss either by introducing them into the
    environment of pest or by increasing the
    effectiveness of those already present in the
  • Crop ecosystems are replete with natural enemies
    but these needs to be conserved against harmful
    effect of pesticides.

Bio control agents
  • Bio-control agents Important bio control agents
    commercially available are species of Parasitoids
    like Trichogramma, Bracon, predators like
    Chrysoperla,, Coccinellids etc.,
  • With a view to regulate manufacture, use and
    quality, these bio-pesticides have been brought
    under the preview of Insecticides Act, 1968.

  • Biopesticides (also known as microbial
    biological pesticides) are pesticides derived
    from such natural materials as animals, plants,
    bacteria, and certain minerals to control plant
    diseases and arthropod pests.
  • Among bio-pesticides, different species of
    Trichoderma, Nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV),
    Paecilomyces, Metarrhizium, Beauveria,
    Pseudomonas, Verticillium, Bacillus and plant
    products like neem are notable ones.

Advantages of biocontrol agents and biopesticides
  • They are inherently less harmful than
    conventional pesticides.
  • They generally affect only the target pest and
    closely related organisms, in contrast to
    broad-spectrum conventional pesticides that may
    affect organisms as different as birds, insects,
    and mammals.
  • They often are effective in very small quantities
    and often decompose quickly, thereby resulting in
    lower exposures and largely avoiding the
    pollution problems caused by conventional

Biopesticides of plant origin
  • Biopesticides of plant origin like, Neem,
    Symbopogam, etc. are being popularized as a
    component of Integrated Pest Management approach
    for Pest Control to preserve the
    agro-eco-system, development of resistance, pest
    resurgence etc.
  • Foliar spray of Azadirachtin 1 _at_ 2 ml/l or 5 _at_
    1 ml/l after pruning to deter sucking pests
    feeding tender tissues.

  • For insect pests
  • Mealy bugs
  • Release of Australian lady beetle/grub
    Cryptolaemus montrouzeri (also known as mealy bug
    destroyer) _at_ 10,000 per ha.
  • Both adults and larvae kill mealybugs. Single
    grub can feed 900-1500 eggs or 300 nymphs or 30
    adults in its lifetime.
  • Spray of insecticides should be avoided during
    and after the release of beetles / grubs. Release
    should be done during evening hours.

Predator grub feeding on mealy bug
Predator adult feeding on mealy bug
  • Other predators like Green lace wing, Chrysoperla
    carnea, Lepidoptera predator, Spalgius epius are
    found effective.
  • Parasitoids like Anagyrus dactylopii found
    parasitizing mealy bug up to 70.
  • Biological control involves identification of the
    predators, their rearing and field release.

Eggs of Chrysoperla
A third-instar green lacewing attacks a grape
a female Anagyrus sp. near a vine mealybug mummy
showing the round parasitoid exit hole
Spalgius adult and its larva feeding on mealybugs
  • Mealy bugs and Thrips
  • Foliar spray of fungal BCA, Verticillium lecanii
    or Beauveria bassiana (2x108 cfu/ml ) _at_ 5 g/ ml/l
    is advised whenever there is a lapse of 15 days
    after fungicides spray and whenever temperatures
    are between 25-30oC and RH gt 90.

Mealybug infected with V. lecanii
  • For Disease causing pathogens
  • Commonly these are microbial biological
    insecticides, but there are also examples of
    fungal control agents, including Trichoderma
    spp., Bacillus subtilis and Ampelomyces
    quisqualis (a control agent for grape powdery
    mildew) are used to control plant pathogens.
  • Soil application / spray of Trichoderma during
    monsoon or rainy periods during Sep/Oct also be
    given for reducing the inoculum of pathogens like
    Alternaria, Cladosporium, Botryodiplodia etc.
  • These sprays can also be given in combination
    with safe fungicides.

Ampelomyces quisqualis (a control agent for grape
powdery mildew)
  • The fungus Ampelomyces quisqualis is a naturally
    occurring hyperparasite of powdery mildews.
  • It infects and forms pycnidia within powdery
    mildew hyphae, conidiophores, and cleistothecia.
  • This parasitism reduces growth and may eventually
    kill the mildew colony.

Grape cluster infected with powdery mildew
Electron micrograph of powdery mildew colony on
grape leaf showing pycnidium of A.quisqualis
PHOTO D.Gadoury
Biological control/ Bio-control agents
  • Against post harvest pathogens
  • BCA, Trichoderma harzianum can be used in grapes
    especially for the control of post harvest
  • In the grapes meant for export, two sprays of
    this stain given at 20th and 3 or 5 days before
    harvest can provide very good control of
    post-harvest diseases at reduced dose of Sodium
    metabisulphite (Grape guard).
  • In case of enhanced rotting of grapes due to
    raisins occurring few days before harvest,spray
    of Trichoderma has effectively prevented the
    spoilage of fruits.

Fungal bio control agents
  • Spray formulations of Trichoderma _at_ 2-5 ml/l to
    control infection of Alternaria, Cladosporium on
    leaves to delay leaf fall.
  • 1 or 2 sprays at 10 days interval may be given
    when high humidity prevails during Sep - Oct.

Lets sum up
  • Use of Biocontrol agents or Bio-pesticides is
    usually compatible with most other tactics of
    pest management except the use of broad spectrum
    synthetic organic pesticides.
  • Chemical ecology of the host plant-insect pest -
    Natural enemy interactions needs to be studied to
    identify the factors favouring colonization by
    the NES.
  • With increasing concerns regarding the impact of
    conventional insecticides, parasitoids and
    predators appear poised for greater role in
    future environmentally- benign IPM programmes.