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The Persian Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm The Technological Aspects

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The Persian Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm The Technological Aspects By: Jonathan Kurniawan and Justin Leong Coalition Forces Iraqi Forces Jordan Yemen Palestine ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Persian Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm The Technological Aspects


1
The Persian Gulf WarOperation Desert StormThe
Technological Aspects
  • By Jonathan Kurniawan
  • and Justin Leong

2
Coalition Forces
  • The United Arab Emirates
  • The United Kingdom
  • The United States of America
  • Morocco
  • The Netherlands
  • New Zealand
  • Niger
  • Norway
  • Oman
  • Pakistan
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Qatar
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Senegal
  • South Korea
  • Spain
  • Syria
  • Turkey
  • Afghanistan
  • Argentina
  • Australia
  • Bahrain
  • Bangladesh
  • Belgium
  • Canada
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Denmark
  • Egypt
  • France
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Hungary
  • Honduras
  • Italy
  • Kuwait

3
Iraqi Forces
  • Jordan
  • Yemen
  • Palestine Liberation Organization
  • The Iraqis never really had military support.
    Only moral and economical support was given to
    Iraq to fight the war.

4
Overview of the WarThe Invasion of Kuwait
  • After the Iran Iraq War, Iraqs economy was low.
  • Seeing that the oil rich fields would help their
    economy, and claiming that Kuwait was a part of
    Iraqi history, Saddam Hussein decides to invade
    Kuwait.
  • August 2, 1990 Iraq invades Kuwait by surprise.

5
Overview of the WarThe Response
  • August 7, 1990 Operation Desert Shield initiated
    to protect Saudi Arabia from possible Iraq
    invasion
  • November 7, 1990 The United Nations allow the
    use of military force against Iraq if Iraq does
    not withdraw its forces from Kuwait.
  • January 16, 1991 Operation Desert Storm begins.
    A coalition of 36 different countries, including
    the U.S. prepares to liberate Kuwait. Along with
    the liberation, the bombing of Baghdad begins.
    The Air campaign starts
  • January 17, 1991 Iraq fires SCUD missiles at
    Iran hoping to bring them into the conflict. Iran
    luckily does not respond.
  • January 25, 1991 Iraq opens oil wells, polluting
    the Persian Gulf, and set fire to the oil fields.
  • February 23, 1991 The land war begins.
  • February 27, 1991 Iraq is defeated.

6
Overview of the WarThe Aftermath
  • Though the coalition was successful at liberating
    Kuwait, there were many consequences
  • Kuwait suffered greatly from the war
    Economically.
  • Like every war, there were casualties and many
    injuries.
  • Many people suffered from what was called Gulf
    War Syndrome, which was a collective group of
    medical ailments that affected many veterans of
    Operation Desert Storm
  • The oil fires that were ignited by the Iraqis
    greatly polluted the environment.
  • The oil that was dumped into the Persian Gulf
    greatly polluted the water.

7
Ground TechnologyCoalition Forces
Troops
Vehicles
  • The Coalition Troops employed were highly
    trained, yet they did not have too much field
    experience. Much of their victory was due to
    their more advanced technology than the Iraqis.
  • Coalition vehicles were highly advanced than the
    old soviet-era vehicles used by the Iraqis. A
    large factor that destroyed coalition vehicles
    was friendly fire. Most coalition vehicles were
    lost to friendly fire.

8
Ground TechnologyIraqi Forces
Troops
Vehicles
The Iraqi conscripts were men drafted in my the
government. Some were trained, and from those
few, many of them have experienced battle much
more than the coalition forces. They had the
advantage by fighting on their homeland and
having more battle experience. Yet their main
disadvantage was their lack of advanced
technology.
The Iraqi vehicles were not very advanced. They
were old soviet-era tanks that were sold to them
many years ago. Most of their vehicles consisted
of transformed civilian vehicles that have
machine and old age machinery. These vehicles
hardly stood a chance against the more modern
coalition vehicles.
9
Air TechnologyCoalition Forces
  • The coalition forces had a great advantage over
    the Iraqis with more modern and advanced
    aircraft. The coalition and achieved and
    maintained air superiority throughout the war.
    Coalition bombers ran around the clock air
    strikes on targets in the battlefield. Anti-air
    was a very little problem since coalition
    aircrafts were able to jam signals and destroy
    the anti-air pieces before being shot upon. Some
    also say that computer based anti-air units were
    destroyed by computer viruses sent by the US. Air
    support assisted the ground forces. Carrier-based
    aircrafts also took part and were an advantage to
    the coalition effort. Aircraft carriers located
    in the Persian Gulf launched several planes to
    destroy artillery pieces, bunkers, and support
    the ground troops during fighting.
  • One famous attack carried out by the coalition
    forces was the Road of Death. When the war was
    near an end, the Iraqis looted Kuwait and fled
    back to Iraq. Several U.S. planes dropped strings
    of bomb upon the fleeing Iraqis in punishment for
    looting Kuwait. Because of the large amounts of
    damage and the deaths of the Iraqis, this area
    was nick named The Road of Death.

10
Air TechnologyIraqi Forces
  • Not much is known about the role Iraqi aircraft
    played in the 1991 conflict, but the Iraqi planes
    were definitely not a threat to the coalition
    force. The Iraqis possessed a wide variety of
    antique and modern aircrafts. Only about half of
    their aircrafts were able to take off into the
    air. Even so, most were shot down soon by
    coalition anti-aircraft fire. For the few planes
    that were able to take off survive or pass the
    anti-air fire, they had no chance against the
    coalitions advanced aircrafts. Iraqs planes were
    easily shot down by the coalitions more advanced
    war planes.

11
Naval TechnologyCoalition Force
  • During the beginnings of the air campaign, and
    the ground war, ships were used to assist in the
    attacks. Even before the war started, freight
    ships were used to transport vehicles, aircrafts,
    and troops to the Middle East. In the air
    campaign, aircraft carriers housed, repaired, and
    launched aircrafts to fight against the Iraqis.
    During the ground attack, the old WWII
    battleship, the USS Missouri, sieged the coasts
    where Iraqi installations were located. Beach
    head landings were conducted to trick Iraq forces
    into a WWII D-Day invasion. Iraq concentrated its
    forces along the coasts of the Persian Gulf.

12
Naval TechnologyIraqi Forces
  • Nothing is known about the Iraqi navy. Most
    likely they did not possess one. If they did, it
    was not employed. The Iraqis didnt expect a
    naval attack and had to react by concentrating
    ground forces along the coastlines, only to be
    sieged by the gigantic cannons of the USS
    Missouri.

13
Bibliography
  • June A. English, Thomas D. Jones. Scholastic
    Encyclopedia of the United States at War.
    Scholastic Inc., 1998
  • Encarta Online - http//encarta.msn.com/
  • Army Technology - http//www.army-technology.com/
  • Naval Technology - http//www.naval-technology.com
    /
  • Military Analysis Network - http//fas.org/man/
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