Overview of the History, Tradition, and Development of the American Fire Service - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Overview of the History, Tradition, and Development of the American Fire Service

Description:

Introduction This chapter ... Early American History Early regulations on ... Slide 9 Early History and Symbols of the Fire Service Slide 11 The Middle ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:836
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 29
Provided by: delmarlea
Learn more at: http://www.delmarlearning.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Overview of the History, Tradition, and Development of the American Fire Service


1
Chapter 1
  • Overview of the History, Tradition, and
    Development of the American Fire Service

2
Introduction
  • This chapter covers
  • Importance of the mission of the fire service
  • Purpose of a mission statement
  • Major events that alter the history of the fire
    service
  • History of firefighting and emergency response

3
The Mission of theFire Service
  • Firefighter tasks are the same all over the world
  • Save lives and property from fire and other
    emergencies
  • Different fire departments have different
    approaches
  • Mission synonymous with purpose for existence
  • Legal authority to act in a certain manner
  • Mission statement
  • Written declaration describing things it intends
    to do to protect citizenry or customers
  • Every individual responsible for mission

4
Roots in the Past
  • Factors common to all agencies
  • Organizational structure
  • Inventory of facilities, apparatus, equipment,
    methods
  • Programs to protect life and property
  • Categories of programs
  • Fire and emergency operations and fire prevention
  • Arson investigation
  • Training
  • Emergency medical services
  • Communications and maintenance

5
Figure 1-1 Understanding the history of the fire
service is like climbing a ladder.
6
Ancient Beliefs
  • Turning point in human history recognition of
    value of fire
  • Initial challenge manage fire, prevent it from
    destroying its user
  • Ancient Greeks believed fire was a gift from
    Prometheus
  • Phoenix myth fire powerful destroyer and giver
    of life
  • Ancient cultures used fire fire destroyed their
    homes and consumed their property

7
Recorded History
  • Vesta Roman goddess, protector of hearth fire
  • Hero of Alexandria created first fire pump
  • 22 B.C. magistrates reported fire outbreaks at
    night
  • Familia publica organized along military lines
  • A.D. 6 Cohortes Vigilum permanent fire brigade
  • Housed in barracks toured the city at night
    looking for fires

8
Recorded History (contd.)
  • Emperor Augustus created seven cohorts
  • Seven military units under command of a tribune
  • Groups under a prefect (officer of equestrian
    rank)
  • Each prefect had 500 men, later expanded to 1000
  • Vigiles were a variety of specialists
  • Roman leaders attempted to regulate building
  • After fall of Rome, no organized fire brigades
    for 1000 years
  • Legacy of organized firefighting left by Rome

9
Figure 1-3 An early European hand-operated pump
based on the ancient Roman design.
10
Early History and Symbols of the Fire Service
  • Crusades Order of Saint John of Hospitaliers
  • Dedicated to treatment of battlefield wounds
  • Knights of Malta
  • Dedicated to saving lives by serving as
    stretcher-bearers
  • Symbol on uniform and shield determined friend or
    foe
  • Red cross worn by Order of Saint John
  • Maltese cross worn by Knights of Malta

11
(A)
(B)
Figure 1-4 Symbols taken from history (A) red
cross and (B) Maltese cross.
12
The Middle Ages
  • Fire continued to destroy European cities
  • Technological advances around the globe not
    widely available in Europe
  • Fire brigade created in China, not copied in
    Europe
  • A.D. 1100 1600 English devised fire
    regulations
  • Laws requiring home owners to have ladders,
    buckets, and barrels of water handy
  • Arson a serious crime
  • Punishment to be burned alive

13
The Middle Ages (contd.)
  • 1666 Great Fire of London
  • Community leaders placed emphasis on elimination
    of conflagration
  • Next 200 years creation of almost all basic fire
    protection institutions of the modern age
  • Organization of fire departments
  • Creation of fire insurance industry
  • Rise of technology to prevent and combat fires

14
Early American History
  • Early regulations on prohibition of wooden
    chimneys, limitations on candle-making
  • Early settlements built of wood emphasis on
    prevention
  • 1637 firemarks used by insurance companies
  • Fires fought by bucket brigades
  • Early 1700s Boston designated fire wardens
  • 1718 fire societies, era of volunteer
    firefighter
  • 1752 Benjamin Franklin started Philadelphia
    Contributorship

15
Early American History (contd.)
  • Fire companies extinguished only the fires of
    insured buildings
  • Volunteer firefighters extinguished any fire
  • Fire used as a weapon of war
  • 1800 1850 better protection, more powerful
    hand pumpers, development of fire helmet
  • Arson became common in mid-1800s
  • 1853 first full-time, paid firefighting service
  • Steam-powered fire engine replaced hand-pumps

16
The Civil War
  • Establishment of paramilitary organizational
    practices
  • Firefighters became soldiers in the Civil War
  • Most of the countrys experienced firefighters
    were lost to the war
  • Military veterans replaced lost firefighters
  • Introduced military rank structure
  • Command and control similar to infantry tactics
  • Coloration and design of uniforms
  • 1873 National Association of Fire Engineers

17
The Industrial Revolution
  • 1870s through 1900 U.S. moved from farming to
    industry
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
  • Designed and installed automatic sprinklers
  • Standard number 1
  • Basic research in fire engineering started in
  • Alarm systems
  • Fire hydraulics
  • Aerial apparatus
  • Steam-powered fire pump

18
The Beginning of the Twentieth Century
  • International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF)
  • National Board of Fire Underwriters (NBFU)
  • Evaluated level of fire defense in different
    cities
  • Emphasis on fire prevention
  • 1920s firefighter education reform
  • Fire Chief Ralph Scott
  • Firefighting Bulleting Number 155, series 44,
    Federal Board of Vocational Education, 1931

19
Technology, Transition, and Times of Change
  • Different technology in service simultaneously
  • Pre-World War I stations had both horse-drawn and
    motorized fire apparatus
  • Several pieces of equipment had to be assembled
    to fight a fire
  • Internal combustion combined three apparatus into
    one
  • Advances in ability to reach fire, but not in
    capacity to fight fire once on the scene

20
Figure 1-16 Triple combination engine companies
can carry water and hoses and other equipment as
well as pump the water. (Owned and photographed
by William Killen)
21
The Effects of World War II
  • War accelerated need to deal with fire
  • Fire still a weapon of war
  • Research resulted in
  • Indirect attack method
  • Improved foams for use in fire service
  • Improved personal protective clothing
  • Improved fire nozzle technology
  • Fire service became more paramilitary
  • Other innovations improved communications
    (radio), diesel engines

22
Modernization of the Fire Service
  • Modernization is a process
  • Information half-life how long it takes for 50
    of information to become obsolete
  • 1700s about 100 years
  • Half-life has decreased with every generation
    over last 100 years
  • Technological obsolescence any given technology
    is only useful for a period of time
  • Steamers replaced hand-pumpers
  • Diesel replaced gasoline

23
The Fire Service of Today
  • Acceleration of change related to duties of
    firefighter and agency staffing
  • Hazardous materials response
  • Search and rescue
  • Terrorism incidents
  • 1947 National Conference on Americas fire
    problem (Harry Truman)
  • Texas City Disaster first catastrophic hazardous
    materials event in America

24
The Fire Service of Today (contd.)
  • 1960s Johnson Foundation Wingspread Conference
  • 1970s National Commission on Fire Protection and
    Control America Burning
  • United States Fire Administration created
  • Incident command system (ICS) created

25
The Fire Service of Today (contd.)
  • Twenty-first century
  • 30,635 fire departments and 1,140,900
    firefighters
  • Fire department in the U.S. responds to one fire
    every 20 seconds
  • U.S. has fourth highest death rate among
    industrial nations one person dies every two
    hours in a fire

26
Figure 1-17 The fire service has expanded into
many areas, including hazardous materials
response.
27
The Fire Service of Today (contd.)
  • The fire service also plays a large role in EMS

Figure 22-2 Firefighters are often called on to
assist EMS crews with patient care.
28
Lessons Learned
  • Firefighters career is like climbing a ladder
  • We must give due credit to the past
  • Future contains difficult challenges and
    opportunities
  • Firefighters must develop skills that did not
    exist previously
  • Motto of the Roman fire brigade Semper Vigilans
  • Always Vigilant
About PowerShow.com