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Leadership Roles and management functions associated with the planning hierarchy and strategic planning

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Title: Leadership Roles and management functions associated with the planning hierarchy and strategic planning


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Leadership Roles and management functions
associated with the planning hierarchy and
strategic planning
3
Leadership roles
  • Assesses
  • - the internal and external driving forces and
    barriers to strategic planning.
  • Demonstrates
  • -innovation, vision, creativity within the
    organizational unit planning, inspiring proactive
    rather than reactive planning.
  • Influences and inspires
  • -group members to be actively involved in long
    term planning
  • Clarifies
  • -the leaders recognition of the employees value
    ,to increase self awareness
  • Encourages
  • - employees to be involved in policy formation,
    developing and implementing company philosophies,
    goals, objectives, policies, procedures and
    rules.
  • Communicates
  • - and clarifies organizational goals and values
  • Receptive
  • - to new and varied ideas
  • Role models
  • - proactive planning to employees

4
Management Functions
  • Knowledgeable
  • -regarding all the factors that effect healthcare
    planning, political, economic and social.
  • Demonstrates
  • -appropriate planning techniques
  • Organizes
  • -opportunities for participation from employees,
    peers, competitors, regulatory agencies, and the
    general public in planning.
  • Coordinates
  • -unit level planning to be congruent with
    organizational goals
  • Assesses
  • - the units constraints assets and resources for
    planning
  • Develops and articulates
  • -the Unit goals and objectives that reflect,
    philosophy, unit policies, procedures, and rules.
  • Reviews
  • - if the goals are being met and if not, what
    changes need to be made.
  • Participates
  • -actively participates in all areas of unit
    planning and operations.

5
Proactive planning
  • Reactive
  • -planners respond to a crisis which can lead to
    hasty decision and mistakes.
  • Inactivism
  • -these planners do not like change and put all of
    their efforts into maintaining conformity and the
    status quo.
  • Preactivism
  • -these planners are unsatified with the past or
    present, believing the future is always
    preferable.
  • Interactive or proactive
  • - these planners are dynamic, considering the
    past, present, and future. Leaders and managers
    must be adaptive in order to promote growth
    within their organization.

6
Planning hierarchy
  • Mission
  • Philosophy
  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Policies
  • Procedures
  • Rules

7
Mission
  • Mission statement
  • -Is a brief statement outlining the reason an
    organizations exists, and addresses its position
    regarding ethics, principles, and standards of
    practice. It is the highest priority in the
    hierarchy of planning because it influences all
    the other planning components in the pyramid
  • Vision statement
  • -Is are always future oriented while mission
    statements provide the foundation for
    organizational planning, an example of a vision
    statement would be To become an exemplar for
    healthcare in the region

8
philosophy
  • Organizational
  • Flows from the mission statement and defines the
    set of values and beliefs that guide all actions
    of the organization, it is the basic foundation
    that directs all further planning toward the
    mission, a philosophy statement can usual be
    found in policy manuals and are available upon
    request
  • Nursing
  • -The concepts of holistic care, education, and
    research, as well as the quality, quantity, and
    scope of nursing services
  • Societal
  • -Sets of beliefs that guide their behavior,
    called values. Some strongly held american values
    are individualism, the pursuit of self-interest,
    and competition, we will be discussing the effect
    of these values on our healthcare system later
    on.
  • Individual
  • -Shaped by the socialization processes
    experienced by that person.
  • Value criteria
  • 1. It must be freely chosen from among
    alternatives only after due reflection
  • 2. It must be prized and cherished
  • 3. It is consciously and consistently repeated
    (part of a pattern)
  • 4. It is positively affirmed and enacted
  • Each nurse-leader should encourage
    self-awareness in their employees through
    examination of their value system and
    understanding the role that it plays in decision
    making and resolving conflict.

9
GOAL
  • Goal
  • The ends toward which the organization is
    working, it is the aim of the philosophy, it is
    what makes the philosophy operational
  • The desired result toward which effort is
    directed
  • Measurable and ambitious, but realistic, just
    like the criteria we use in our nursing care
    plans to identify pt. outcomes

10
objectives
  • Objectives
  • Identify how and when the goal is to be
    accomplished, they are more specific and
    measurable than goals in this regard
  • Process objectives
  • Are written in terms of the method to be used, an
    example of a process objective might be 100 of
    nurses will teach their pts how to use the
    callbell within 30 mins of admission, and request
    return demonstration
  • Result-focused objectives
  • Specify the desired outcome, an example of this
    would be All post-op pts will perceive a
    decrease in their pain after the administration
    of pain medicine

11
Policies and Procedures
  • Policies
  • Plans reduced to statements or instructions that
    direct organizations in their decision making it
    is a statement of expectations that sets
    boundaries for action taking and decision making
  • Many policies come from JCAHO (Joint Commission
    Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations)
  • Implied policies
  • Not written or verbally expressed, and usually
    developed over time and follow a precedent for
    example a hospital may have a policy that
    employees should be encouraged and supported in
    their activity in regional, community, and
    national healthcare organizations
  • Expressed policies
  • Delineated verbally or in writing
  • May include a formal dress-code, a policy for
    sick leave or vacation time, and disciplinary
    procedures

12
Procedures
  • Procedures
  • Plans that establish customary or acceptable ways
    to accomplishing a specific task and outline a
    sequence of steps of required actions.
  • For example, the unit manager must provide a
    clearly written procedural statement regarding
    how to request vacation time

13
Rules
  • Rules and Regulations
  • Plans that define specific action or non-action
  • Describe situations that only allow one choice of
    action
  • Least flexible
  • Because rules are the least flexible type of
    planning, there should be as few rules as
    possible, however existing rules should be
    enforced to keep morale from breaking down

14
Overcoming Barriers to Planning
  • Omitting Goals or Objectives
  • The organization can be more effective if
    movement within it is directed at specified goals
    and objectives
  • Goals and plans keep managers focused on the
    bigger picture and keeps them from getting lost
    in the minute details
  • Similar to our care plans, we establish patient
    goals before we make interventions
  • Lack of Flexibility
  • The plan must be flexible to reach a goal, and
    allow for readjustment as unexpected events occur
  • Those who are flexible will not break Ms.
    Mancer
  • Lack of Communication Buy-in
  • Manager should include in the planning process
    people and units that could be affected by the
    course of action
  • Although everyone will not want to contribute,
    they should all be invited
  • Unrealistic Expectations
  • Plans should be specific, simple, and reasonable
  • A plan that is vague or too global can be
    difficult or impossible to implement
  • Over- Under-Planning
  • Know when and when not to plan
  • The over planner has paralysis by analysis
  • The under planner is makes false assumptions that
    people and events will naturally fall into place
    and has difficulty prioritizing against real
    needs
  • Failure to Execute the Plan
  • Have built-in evaluation checkpoints

15
Strategic Planning in the Organization
  • Strategic planning as a management process
    includes the following steps
  • Clearly define the purpose of the organization
  • Establish realistic goals and objectives
    consistent with the mission of the organization
  • Identify the organizations external
    constituencies or stakeholders, then determine
    their assessment of the organizations purposed
    and operations
  • Clearly communicate the goals and objectives
  • Develop a sense of ownership of the plan
  • Develop strategies to achieve the goals
  • Ensure the most effective use of resources is
    made
  • Provide a base from which progress can be
    measured
  • Provide a mechanism for informed change as needed
  • Build a consensus about where the organization is
    going
  • A manager has to be willing to take risks

16
Forces Effecting Long-Term Plans
  • Changes in the future of the healthcare
    organization
  • Change in information technology
  • Will result in elimination of duplication and
    provide immediate access of information
  • Change in patient demographics
  • The increasing number of seniors (baby boomers)
    will create enormous demands on the healthcare
    system
  • Change in economics
  • US ranks 21st in life expectancy and 27th in
    infant mortality
  • Cost of drugs is highest in the world
  • Changes in providers
  • Nurses will continue to decrease in supply and
    some physician specialties will increase in
    supply

17
Integrating Leadership Roles and Management
Functions in Planning
  • Leader-Manager must be skilled in determining,
    implementing, documenting, and evaluating all
    types of planning in hierarchy
  • The leader should demonstrate a proactive rather
    than a reactive management style to employees
  • Manager draws on the philosophy and goals
    established to implement planning
  • Manager appropriately assesses the constraints,
    assets, and resources available for planning
  • Manager draws on leadership skills in creativity,
    innovation, and futuristic thinking to translate
    philosophies into goals, goals into objectives,
    and so on down the planning hierarchy
  • Leader-Manager will develop the interpersonal
    skills necessary for inspiration of employees
  • Leader-Manager must be receptive to new and
    varied ideas
  • The Leader-Managers final step in the process
    involved articulating identified goals and
    objectives clearly
  • If the unit manager lacks management or
    leadership skills, the planning hierarchy fails
  • Managers who are uninformed about the legal,
    political, economic, and social factors effecting
    healthcare make planning errors that may have
    disastrous implication for the organization

18
Discussion
  • Considering the societal philosophies and values
    of the US today -- individualism, the pursuit of
    self-interest and competition
  • Do you agree or disagree that the US healthcare
    system represents these societal values?
  • This is a topic that effects managers and leaders
    planning and decision-making
  • Would you be willing to have fewer healthcare
    choices if access could be granted to all?
  • Do you believe the cost of universal coverage
    should be picked up by the consumer or by the
    employer?

19
Strategic Planning in a Clinical Setting
  • You are a nurse chosen to be on the board of a
    major county hospital, the board has begun the
    strategic planning process for the year

20
Key issues to consider in developing the
strategic plan
  • Quality
  • Sample Objective/Goal To reduce medication
    administration errors by 10
  • Information Technology
  • Consider implementation of electronic
    charting/drug administration system
  • Staff Levels
  • Analyze staff to patient ratios
  • Are nurses overworked?
  • Baylor of Garland case study
  • Baylor of Garland still uses paper charting --
    because of this many medication errors may occur
  • For example, a patient received the incorrect
    dosage of an anti-seizure medication for 2 days
    because the pharmacy scanned the incorrect
    doctors order due to the disorganization of the
    paper chart. Because of this, the patient
    experienced an unnecessary seizure before the
    error was found
  • Access
  • Sample Objective/Goal Provide care to 15 more
    patients than we did last year
  • Assess resources to available to achieve the
    objective
  • How much additional staff will be needed?
  • How much additional space will we need?
  • Will we need new construction?
  • New wing or modular building?
  • How will we pay for the addition seek funding,
    charity or debt financing (taking out a loan)?
  • Cost
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