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Title: AMS


1
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Experiment (AMS)
and Space Exploration
AMS
S.C.C. Ting
December 2005
2
AMS A TeV (1012 eV) Magnetic Spectrometer in
Space 3m x 3m x 3m, 7t, 0.5m2 sr
The AMS detector has been under construction for
10 years.
y03K193_2ea
3
Physics of AMS
Cosmic rays
Light rays and neutrinos
  • Nobel Prizes,
  • Pulsar,
  • Microwave,
  • Binary Pulsars,
  • (4) X Ray sources

AMS will perform accurate measurements of
energetic charged cosmic rays (0.2 GeV/n to 2
TeV/n) and high energy gamma rays (0.5 GeV to
300 GeV)
4
Worldwide Participation in the AMS Experiment on
the Space Station
FINLAND
RUSSIA
HELSINKI UNIV. UNIV. OF TURKU
I.K.I. ITEP KURCHATOV INST. MOSCOW STATE UNIV.
DENMARK
UNIV. OF AARHUS
NETHERLANDS
GERMANY
ESA-ESTEC NIKHEF NLR
RWTH-I RWTH-III MAX-PLANK INST. UNIV. OF KARLSRUHE
KOREA
USA
EWHA KYUNGPOOK NAT.UNIV.
AM FLORIDA UNIV. JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV. MIT -
CAMBRIDGE NASA GODDARD SPACE FLIGHT CENTER NASA
JOHNSON SPACE CENTER UNIV. OF MARYLAND-DEPRT OF
PHYSICS UNIV. OF MARYLAND-E.W.S. S.CENTER Texas
AM College Station YALE UNIV. - NEW HAVEN
FRANCE
ROMANIA
CHINA
BISEE (Beijing) IEE (Beijing) IHEP (Beijing) SJTU
(Shanghai) SEU (Nanjing) SYSU (Guangzhou) SDU
(Jinan)
GAM MONTPELLIER LAPP ANNECY LPSC GRENOBLE
ISS UNIV. OF BUCHAREST
SWITZERLAND
ETH-ZURICH UNIV. OF GENEVA
TAIWAN
SPAIN
CIEMAT - MADRID I.A.C. CANARIAS.
ITALY
ACAD. SINICA (Taiwan) CSIST (Taiwan) NCU (Chung
Li) NCKU (Tainan) NCTU (Hsinchu) NSPO (Hsinchu)
ASI CARSO TRIESTE IROE FLORENCE INFN UNIV. OF
BOLOGNA INFN UNIV. OF MILANO INFN UNIV. OF
PERUGIA INFN UNIV. OF PISA INFN UNIV. OF
ROMA INFN UNIV. OF SIENA
MEXICO
UNAM
PORTUGAL
LAB. OF INSTRUM. LISBON
16 Countries, 56 Institutes, 500 Physicists
95 of AMS is constructed in Europe and
Asia. It is a major international commitment to
the US space program.
5
U.S. participation in AMS-02
MIT
U. Becker, P. Fisher
YALE
R. Sandweiss, A. Chikanian, E. Finch, R. Majka
J. HOPKINS
A. Pevsner
MARYLAND
E.U. Seo, A. Malinine
FLORIDA AM
Texas AM
KSC
JSC
R. ONeal
The strong and competent support by JSC has made
AMS possible.
y97638_1.ppt
6
Prof. Peter McIntyre Texas AM
University Worlds leading expert
on superconducting magnet accelerator technology
and pioneered the CERN p p-bar collider leading
to the discovery of the W Z
7
AMS Laboratories
TRD assembly in Aachen
Silicon Tracker in Perugia
Magnet control in Madrid
Calorimeter in Annecy
Electronics in CSIST
Silicon Tracker in ETH
y04K516b
8
There has never been a large superconducting
magnet in space due to the extremely difficult
technical challenges
AMS-01
STEP ONE A Permanent Magnet to fly on STS-91
1- Stable no influence from earth magnetic
field 2- Safety for the astronauts Minimum
field leakage out of the magnet 3- Low weight
no iron
B 0.5 Gauss
AMS-02
STEP TWO A Superconducting Magnet for ISS with
the same field arrangement
9
AMS-01 STS-91
10 Magnets were made
7 to study Field Calculation, Field Leakage,
Dipole moment
3 (full size) for Space Qualification, test to
Destruction and Flight.

The first full size magnet under vibration test
y01K009
10
First flight AMS-01
Approval April 1995, Assembly December 1997,
Flight June 1998
AMS
y96207_05b
11
Referees report Physics Letters B 490 (2000)
p. 27-35
This is a paper with completely new data on the
proton flux. It is of unprecedented quality.
12
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13
Tracing the origin of cosmic rays from precision
measurements of incident momentum vector and
location
Run/Event 897171331/310063 06-Jun-98 223348
Lat/Long 50N/27W
Side Views
Top View
RE
AMS-01/STS-91
Earths radii RE
RE
RE
Earths radii RE
RE
Primary proton, EK 516 MeV, Measured at RE
1.06 , traced back to RE gt 8
14
AMS paper Leptons in Near Earth Orbit
Physics Letters B 484 (2000) p. 10-22
Referee report
"This paper supplies entirely new data of the
highest quality .
Positrons / Electrons
e / e
Magnetic latitude
y2K116_04.ppt
15
Helium in Near Earth Orbit
(Mass of He4 3.7 GeV He3 2.8 GeV)
Helium spectrum
80
102
He4
3.650.09
70
He4
10
Rigidity (GV)
60
He3
50
1
Events
0
-0.4
0.4
0.8
-0.8
40
Magnetic Latitude (rad)
30
2.860.04
He3
40
20
30
Events
10
20
10
0
10 (GeV)
5
1
2
3
4
5
6
0
Physics Letters B vol.494 (3-4) (2000) p.193-202.
Mass (GeV)
Referee report This paper is an exciting and
important paper again from the AMS Collaboration.
It should be published.
AMS-01 results were not predicted by any cosmic
ray model
y99089_05.ppt
16
Construction of the AMS-02 Superconducting magnet
Racetrack Coils (2x6)
Dipole Coils (2x)
2,500 l Superfluid He
Vacuum Tank
17
For a magnet with long duration without refill
and light weight, use superfluid Helium
Indirect cooling with cold heat exchanger




He










He





He





He




He
Normal liquid Helium 4.2K
Superfluid Helium 1.8K film flow
In Space Cold Heat exchanger cannot be
uniformly cooled
In Space Cold Heat exchanger is uniformly
cooled
18
Flight Vacuum Case at JSC
19
Flight superconducting magnet coils are fully
assembled
  • Volume 35 cu. ft.,
  • Field 8,600 Gauss,
  • Weight 1 ton

20
I459A
?T0.001C
y04K623a
21
Application of Superconductivity
Super-Conduction at -270C (Kammerlingh-Onnes
1911)
I
current
US Superconducting Magnet Projects
started in 1972, cancelled in 1983 (due to
quench issues).
ISABELLE
started in 1974, commissioned in 1983
TEVATRON
started in 1983, cancelled in 1993 (due to
magnet quality issues).
SSC
started in 1989, commissioned in 2000
RHIC
y01K530_05a.ppt
22
New technology to eliminate quench new
superconducting cable
Coil Tests at 1.8 K It is not possible to quench
the coils except by outside heating
Technique now widely used in industry
23
40 strand cabling machine (Switzerland)
Cabling spot with 4 wheel rolling mill
Co-extrusion of the Insert at Nexans (Switzerland)
The quality control system reduces the Quench
Probability by a factor 2000 Developed by the
Bureau of Standard of Switzerland
(EMPA), ETH-Zurich Marti-Supratec
ETH-AMS
Al
Al
RD
NbTi
Nb3Sn
AMS cable
50,000 Gauss
110,000 Gauss
16 km
BABAR
FNAL
BELLE
ATLAS
CMS
4.5 km
50 km
43 km
8 km
y04K624
24
New Technology for superconducting magnet in space
Light weight 8 Watt cryocooler for space in
strong magnetic field
Vibration test at NASA Goddard Center
Test in magnetic field at MIT
25
New Technology for superconducting magnet in space
Thermal Mechanical Pump transfers superfluid
helium at zero gravity in strong magnetic field.
26
New Technology for superconducting magnet in space
A passive phase separator in a strong magnetic
field at 1.8K and zero gravity to remove helium
gas from superfluid He tank
Passive Phase separator (PP)
Colder
?T 0.001C
HeII cannot escape
Warmer
HeII
Cold Heat Exchanger
Flight Hardware
27
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28
Transition Radiation Detector (TRD)
Distinguishes electrons and positrons from all
other particles
V0.99999C
20 mm
One of 20 layers
Radiator
6 mm
Xe/CO2
5248 tubes L(max) 1.8m
All Flight Hardware Modules produced. Assembly
complete in 2005.
29
Anti-Coincidence Counters
Coordinator W.Wallraff, RWTH-Aachen
TRD (5248 channels)
TOF
Superconducting Magnet
ACC (1/16)
2500 L SF Helium
TOF
RICH (10880 channels)
ECAL (1300 ch.
Precision milling of wave length fiber grooves
30
Silicon Tracker
Production completed. Test results from
accelerator.
8 planes 6.6 m2 Largest Silicon Detector with
10 ?m accuracy
y04K513_05
y03K193_03_ca.ppt
31
Silicon Tracker Flight Hardware
All 8 planes (200,000 channels) have been produced
Sensor positioning (Geneva)
Ultrasonic wire bonding (ETH-Z)
32
AMS-02 Tracker Laser Alignment System
AMS-01
33
Ring Imaging Cerenkov Counter (RICH)
Coordinator G.Laurenti, INFN-Bologna
Reflector
Particle (Z,v)
Test results at 158 GeV/n
Radiator
?
? ? velocity v
?
Reflector
Li
C
He
Ca
O
Light (?) intensity ? Z2
10,880 Photon detectors
34
RICH Test Beam Results E 158 GeV/n
Z
v/c
Charge measured up to Z 26 (Fe)
Velocity resolution 0.1
35
AMS-02 Calorimeter
Measuring energy of electrons and ???rays
3D Sampling
LAPP Annecy
INFN Pisa
IHEP Beijing
Lead
Fibers (ø1mm)
PM on Both End
Shower ? e energy
Coordinator F. Cervelli
y01K525_6bEcalLscap.ppt
36
ECAL Flight Module
37
Energy and Angular Resolution of ECAL from test
beam measurements
38
AMS-02 Electronics
Coordinator M.Capell, MIT
TRD (5248 channels)
Trigger Rate 2000 Hz
TOF
Tracker (200000 channels)
Average Data Size 3.5 Mbit
TOF
RICH (10880 channels)
ECAL (1300 ch.
The level of redundancy is shown in
parenthesis. 650 microprocessors made at
CSIST, Taiwan
The AMS electronics is based on Accelerator
physics technologies. It is 10 times faster
than commercial space electronics.
Radiation Effects on Components
Heavy nuclei
Heavy nuclei
(A) Radiation tolerant
(B) Radiation sensitive
Integrated Circuit (Si)
Integrated Circuit (Si)
- - - -

I 0
I increasing
(A) For a radiation tolerant IC, the
current induced by a heavy ion is 0
(B) For a radiation sensitive IC, the current
induced by a heavy ion increases, leading
to 1) Bit-flips - a logic state is
changed, 2) Latch-ups - the IC or circuit
are damaged.
Only radiation tolerant chips (A) are allowed in
space.
39
Accelerator testing of AMS and components
Tandem heavy ion Van de Graff, Catania
High intensity proton cyclotron, Indiana
Heavy ion accelerator, Darmstadt
High energy proton and ion accelerator, Geneva
40
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41
2005 - 2006 Assembly of all Flight Hardware onto
the Superconducting Magnet
TRD
TRD
TOF
Magnet and Tracker
TOF
RICH
ECAL
RICH
Tracker
ECAL
42
Thermal system
Thermal-Vacuum Test at ESA (Noordwijk)
y03K301b_088_1.ppt
43
Physics of AMS-02
Rigidity
44
Physics examples of AMS 1. Search for antimatter
The Big Bang requires the existence of an
antimatter universe
Cosmic antimatter cannot be detected on earth
because matter and antimatter will annihilate
each other in the atmosphere
45
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46
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47
Antimatter
Matter
2x109 nuclei
Number of events
Nuclear charge
If no antimatter is found gt there is no
antimatter to the edge (1000 Mpc) of universe.
The physics of antimatter in the universe is
based on the existence of a strong Time
Reversal Violation the existence of Baryon Number
Violation (proton decay) Grand Unified
Theory Electroweak Theory This is the main
research topic for the current and next
generation of accelerators world wide
the Foundations of Modern Physics
48
2. Dark matter There are many theoretical
suggestions that SUSY particles ??? are at
least part of the Dark matter.
y97089_2a.ppt
49
AMS and Dark Matter The fluxes of antiprotons and
positrons may be sensitive to dark matter
50
3. Strange Quark Matter Strangelets
Known quarks u, d, s, c, b, t
Carbon Nucleus
Strangelet
Z/A 0.5
Z/A lt 0.12
Strangelets a single super nucleon with many
u, d s - Stable for masses A gt 10, with no
upper limit - Neutron stars may be composed
of one big strangelet
50
Searches with terrestrial samples low
sensitivity. with lunar samples limited
sensitivity. in accelerators cannot be
produced at an observable rate. in space
candidates
Jack Sandweiss, Yale
51
Strangelet candidate from AMS-01
Observed 5 June 1998 111316 UTC Lat/Long
-44.38/23.70, Local Cutoff 1.950.1 GV, Angle
77.5 from local zenith
Front view
Side view
AMS-01
Amplitude gt Z, ?2
?1
Candidate
Z/A
Rigidity 4.31 0.38 GV Charge Z 2 ?1
?2 0.462 0.005 Mass
16.450.15 GeV/c2 Z/A 0.114
0.01 Flux (1.5 lt EK lt 10 GeV) 5x10-5 (m2 sr
sec)-1
Background probability lt 10-3
52
4. The ratio 10Be / 9Be determines
i) the cosmic ray confinement time in the
galaxy, and ii) the mean density of
interstellar material traversed by cosmic
rays.
One of the most important measurements in cosmic
ray physics
For additional physics examples, see Appendix 2
y01K22ge.ppt
53
Identify g Sources with AMS
g ? e e
g
e
e-
Unique constraints P E P- E- ? ?-
y01K062_2a
y01K062_03.ppt
54
Welcome Prof. Peter McIntyre Texas AM
University Worlds leading expert
on superconducting magnet accelerator technology
and pioneered the CERN p p-bar collider leading
to the discovery of the W Z
55
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56
IMPLEMENTING ARRANGEMENT BETWEEN THE DEPARTMENT
OF ENERGY AND THE NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE
ADMINISTRATION REGARDING THE ALPHA MAGNETIC
SPECTROMETER IN SPACE PROGRAM

III. RESPONSIBILITIES
1- NASA
NASA provides 3 years on ISS Project Management
(Stephen Porter)
2- DOE
DOE provides Science Management Detector
construction Reviews International collaboration

57
Department of Energy - Division of High Energy
Physics Two reviews of AMS, April 2-3, 1995 and
March 15, 1999, by
Professor Robert K. Adair Yale University
Professor Barry C. Barish California
Institute of Technology
Professor Stephen L. Olsen University of Hawaii
Professor Malvin A. Ruderman Columbia University
Professor David N. Schramm University of Chicago
Dr. George F. Smoot Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory
Professor Paul J. Steinhardt University of
Pennsylvania
Members of the National Academy of Sciences
and annual peer reviews by DOE
58
see Appendix 3

59
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60
ESA is providing complete TVT, complete EMI test
61
Major International Commitments to NASA
WE JUST DECIDED LAUNCHING MONEY DIRECTLY INTO
SPACE WAS CHEAPER

FFR

CHF

Lira
DM
y97141b..ppt
62
Discoveries in Physics
Original purpose, Expert Opinion
Discovery with Precision Instrument
Facility
2 kinds of neutrinos, Time reversal
non-symmetry, New form of matter (4th Quark)
AGS Brookhaven (1960)
p N interactions
FNAL Batavia (1970)
Neutrino physics
5th Quark, 6th Quark
Partons, 4th Quark, 3rd electron
SLAC Spear (1970)
ep, QED
PETRA Hamburg (1980)
6th Quark
Gluon
Super Kamiokande (2000)
Proton decay
Neutrinos have mass
Hubble Space Telescope
Galactic survey
Curvature of the universe, dark energy
Dark Matter, Antimatter Strangelets,
?
AMS on ISS
Exploring a new territory with a precision
instrument is the key to discovery.
y96402nac.ppt
63
The application of superconducting magnet
technology to space exploration can provide
  1. Accurate data on radiation flux
  2. Radiation shielding
  3. Propulsion
  4. Energy generation
  5. Energy storage (SMES)

64
History of Russian/Soviet Research on
Superconducting Magnets in Space
Cosmos - 140 Cosmos
213 1967-1968 Luch
(Beam) Kosmicheskie Issledovanija, vol. VI, No.
1, 1968. Kosmicheskie Issledovanija, vol. VII,
No. 75, 1969.
Cosmos spacecrafts 1974 ??R 4, Obzor
? Kosmicheskie Issledovanija, vol. XII, No. 6,
1974
Cooling of observation equipment sensors
Study on operation of superconducting solenoid in
space
Work at TSNIIMash, Russia - 1980
Problems Control of angular motion Gyros
off-loading Power stores Magnetic radiation
protection
Superconducting solenoid with superconducting
current converter (current 1000 A)
65
Combined space experiment Unity
(Work at TSNIIMash, Russia)
Magnetic Transducer
  • Main problems
  • Study on interaction of artificial
    magnetosphere with outer space, terrestrial
    magnetosphere and ionosphere
  • Development of principles of construction of
    magnetic radiation protection systems for
    spacecraft and their elements
  • Development of principles of construction of
    magnetic control of orientation and
    stabilization of large-scale space objects

Rod
Cryomagnet
Instrumentation
Girder
Girder
Mating Unit
Progress Space Vehicle
Research Module
For additional examples, see Appendix 5
66
Soviet Space 25 MW MHD Nuclear Power Propulsion
System
Main Hydrogen Pump System
Booster Hydrogen Pump System
Hydrogen-Lithium Mixer
Start-up Turbines
Lithium Pump
Uni-Pole Electric Motors
Uranium Pressure Displace Feed System
H2
Fluid Rate Controller
Li
Lead-Vismut Pressure Displace Feed System
Helium-Xenon Balloon
Radiation Shielding
Compressor
Recuperator
GFB Stabilization Magnet System
Compressor/Generator Drive Turbine
GFB
Cooler-Radiator
Reactor Structure Elements
SFA
Shutoff Valve
MHD Generator ExcitationSystem
MHD Generator Current Tap
Superconducting Magnet
Courtesy of Kurchatov Institute
y05K054a
67
Russian Participation in the AMS Magnet
The Russians are supporting the magnet
cryo-system by providing 5.1M and 332 man-years
for work in Switzerland, Germany and the UK.
Helium Tank
Vacuum Tank
68
Radiation protection for manned space travel
ii- Solar flares
i- Galactic Cosmic Rays 90 rem/year
NASA Model of Galactic Cosmic Rays
H
He
10-1
1
10
102
103
104
105
O
Kinetic Energy (MeV/nucleon)
Fe/10
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
500
Cosmic Ray Nuclei
Kinetic Energy (MeV/nucleon) C.K. Ng et al., ICRC
2001 3140
Fe
p
He
B
Ne
P
Ca
Mn
Co
0.01
US National Council on Radiation Protection a
career limit of 200 rem. The lethal dose is
300 rem.
y04K171c
69
AMS will provide a permanent galactic cosmic
radiation monitor for all nuclei, for all energy
ranges with 1 accuracy.
Accelerator measurements of AMS-02 detector
Oxygen flux
Energy
Time
Energy (GeV/n)
y04K419_04a.ppt
70
Superconducting magnets for radiation protection
  1. No field outside space ship - For EVA and to
    eliminate torque
  2. No field inside crew compartment - Safety for
    astronauts

Fe
B0 Outside
Magnet Design and Radiation Dose Computation (5
physicists, 60 weeks)
Task CPU Time (Weeks) Pentium-IV 3.4 GHz Time Spent (Weeks) 5 physicist group
(1) Magnet design - 1
Field calculation 1 2
Total for 10 cases 10 20
(2) Radiation transport software development - 5
(3) Magnet shielding 3D Dose computation 40 2
Total for 10 cases 400 20
(4) Passive shielding 3D Dose computation 20 1
Total for 15 cases 300 15
Grand total 710 60
y04K409
For properties of Superconducting magnet
shielding, see Appendix 6
71
NASA Exploration Establish a base on the Moon
72
Lunar Surface Habitats Radiation Safety
Analysis NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton,
VA National Research Council, Washington, DC
College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA
On the lunar surface radiation exposure is given
by Galactic Cosmic Rays and by particles created
by interaction between GCRs and surface material
  • Moon Base Outpost Phase
  • Crew 8, Stay 90d, total 107d
  • Spacecraft and Surface Habitats built in large
    volumes
  • ? Surface Habitats shielded with a Regolith cover
  • ? Shelter for Solar Particle Events (SPEs)
  • Optimization Results
  • ? Shielding Mass 10,000 T
  • ? Total Dose Equivalent 2.72 rem
  • ? Maximum Missions 20/34 for women/men

DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program
Contractor Workshop June 27-30, 2001, Washington,
DC
y05K143
73
Radiation protection system on the moon based on
existing AMS technology
Coil-to-coil support
1. No field outside magnet 2. No field inside
crew compartment 3. Minimum secondary radiation
inside crew compartment 4. Complete shielding of
solar flares 5. Total weight 30 T 6. Dose 2.5
rem/mission
Superfluid He vessel
Roof cap toroid
Ø 15 m
Coil support
6.2T
Side toroid
6.2T
Ø 5.6 m
2.25 m
8 m
Crew compartments
Thermal shield
2.25 m
Superfluid He vessel
Lunar surface
y05K153
74
Future NASA Exploration Manned mission to Mars
75
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76
Mars reference design weight estimates
2009 Piloted Mission 1 Surface Hab with Crew
Lander
Exploration payload (Earth-Return Habitat
Element)
y05K012Kounine.ppt
77
Magnetic radiation protection system for Mars
mission by B. Blau, V.Choutko, S. Harrison, A.
Herve, S. Horvarth, H. Hofer, H.P. Marti, I.
Vetlitskiy, et al, (CERN, ETH, MIT, SCL) with
AMS technology
Internal coil support (7.4 ton)
Barrel toroid (8.8 ton)
Coil-to-coil support (1.5 ton)
6.2 tesla
Propulsion, energy and life support
Crew compartment
Ø 5.6 m
Ø 15 m
4.5 m
2 m
0.5 m
1.0 m
Endcap toroid (0.6 ton)
8 m
Superfluid He vessel (0.4 ton vessel 0.7 ton
He)
Thermal shield (7.1 ton)
plus Straps (1.4 ton) Services (2.8 ton)
Weight of complete system 30.7 ton
78
Simulation of particles magnetic radiation
protection system
based on 2x109 particles
Endcap toroid
Crew compartment
Crew compartment
Barrel toroid
Solar Flare (side view, 50 MeV proton)
Multiple GCR (end view, including 25 GeV proton)
Using NASA Model BFO Dose Calculation
Magnetic shielding reduces dose from 90 rem/y to
19 6 rem/y (uncertainty due to lack of
knowledge of GCR from existing data).
y05K007V3
79
GCR 90 rem/y
GCR 90 rem/y
On Earth
On ISS
Earths magnetic field 360,000 Gm 36 Tm
Earths magnetic field 500,000 Gm 50 Tm
100 km of air 10 feet of Al
Earths Shadow
Earths Shadow
Earths Shadow
R 20 rem/y
R 0 rem/y
To Mars
To Mars
5.6 m
Propulsion, energy, and life support
Magnet lt 30 tons
Crew
B
4.5 m
500 tons Methane
Aluminum
1000 tons
R 196 rem/y
R 196 rem/y
Of the 26892 man-days spent in space only 303
have been in Apollo Mission outside the
magnetosphere (1.1)
y05K063p
80
Superconducting magnets for energy and propulsion
UF4-KF fuel mixture
Channels for Wall Cooling
Reactor
BeO
Super- conducting magnet
exhaust sent to high-T radiators and condensors
Swirl MHD Flow
Power conditioning for propulsion engine
(a) MHD/GCR cross section view
Vapor Core Reactor with MHD power conversion
(b) Plan view of sample trajectories in disk
Prof. Samim Anghaie, Director, Innovative Nuclear
Space Power and Propulsion Institute, INSPI
University of Florida, Gainesville.
y04K118b
81
Superconducting Magnets for Electric Propulsion
(JSC)
Superconducting Coils
High power electric propulsion such as VASIMR and
other applied field plasma rockets relies on the
technology of superconducting magnets operating
in space.
Magnetic Field Lines
VASIMR Isp 10-30 Ksec
Superconducting Coils
y04K117a
82
Magnetics - Cross Cutting Applications for
Plasma Propulsion
Function Benefit Requirement Applications
Plasma Generation High temperature, Maintain density 1 to 5 Tesla 0.1 MJ/kg VASIMR, FRC, fusion
Plasma Storage High temperature, Maintain density 1 to 5 Tesla 1 MJ/kg VASIMR, FRC, fusion
Plasma Transfer High temperature, Maintain density 1 to 5 Tesla 0.1 MJ/kg VASIMR, FRC, fusion
Plasma Accelerator Mechanism Magnetic pressure, MHD Lorentz force 1 to 10 Tesla 1 to 20 MJ/kg AJAX, MHD Bypass, MAPX
Magnetic Nozzles Thrust, plasma detachment 1 to 5 Tesla VASIMR, FRC, fusion
Magnetic TVC Flow control 0.5 to 2 Tesla Virtual inlets, steering
Magnetic Augmentation for other EP Electron/plasma confinement 0.5 Tesla Hall, FRC, MPD, LFA, PIT
Power, motors, processors Lorentz force, power conversion 0.1 Tesla Light weight APU, actuators
Energy Storage Reusable, rechargeable, essentially solid state 10 MJ/kg SMES
Marshall Space Flight Center Propulsion Research
Center
83
Application of Superconducting Magnets in Energy
Storage (SMES)
½ LI2
The energy stored in a magnetic field
For AMS-02 L 50 H, I 460 A stored energy
5 MJoules. Typical CERN magnets have a stored
energy of 3 GJoules.
A 360 MJ SMES system in Japan
Another project exists for a 2 GJ SMES.
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  • Exploration Applications
  • Radiation Protection
  • Propulsion System
  • Power Generation
  • Energy storage (SMES)
  • . . . .

The use of AMS-02 Magnet as a NASA Exploration
Technology Test Bed as proposed by JSC
Engineering Directorate, S. Porter (JSC 62908)
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C
Tests in Space Forces on Superfluid Helium
-271.35
Superfluid helium tends to coat and flow over
all internal surfaces.
Film flow
Film flow
Thermal
Thermal gradients give rise to pressure gradients.
Magnetic
Helium is diamagnetic, so is weakly repelled
by magnetic fields.
Gravity
In Space
On the ground
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Tests in Space Induced Quench
Natural convection (1-g ONLY)
On the ground
Internal convection
In space
1. Determine amount of helium required to
recool the coils after a quench. 2. 0-g
rate of heat transfer from magnet to helium
with large temp. differentials
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  • Summary
  • Explore the foundation of modern physics (Grand
    Unified and Electroweak Theories, Time Reversal,
    SUSY and proton lifetime).
  • Worldwide support for ISS science

AMS
  • Accurate data on the radiation flux.
  • Advance superconducting magnet technology for
    exploration
  • ? Cosmic radiation shielding ? Propulsion
  • ? Energy generation ? Energy storage (SMES)

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