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Modern Periodic Table

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The Periodic Table is a listing of all the known elements. The elements are ... Ductile (can be drawn into wires). Lustrous. Chemical Properties of Metals ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Modern Periodic Table


1
Modern Periodic Table
  • Mrs. Coyle

2
Part I
  • Introduction.
  • Periods and groups.
  • Metals, nonmetals and metalloids.

3
The Modern Periodic Table
  • The Periodic Table is a listing of all the known
    elements.
  • The elements are organized by
  • Atomic number
  • Chemical Properties

4
Groups and Periods
  • Group( or Family) a vertical column. Elements in
    groups have similar chemical properties.
  • Period a horizontal row.

5
Groups and Periods are numbered.
  • There are 7 periods.
  • There are 18 numbered columns.

6
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7
IUPAC
  • International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
  • 1985 new system for labeling groups.

8
Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids
  • Elements can be classified into
  • Metals
  • Nonmetals
  • Metalloids (semimetals)

9
Nonmetals
Metals
Metalloids
10
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11
Actinides and Lanthanides
12
Physical Properties of Metals
  • Good conductors of electricity and heat.
  • Malleable (can be hammered into sheets).
  • Ductile (can be drawn into wires).
  • Lustrous.

13
Chemical Properties of Metals
  • Easily lose electrons.
  • Form positive () ions.

14
Nonmetal Physical Properties
  • They do not have the properties of metals.

15
Nonmetal Chemical Properties
  • Gain electrons.
  • Form negative ions.

16
Part II
  • Valence Electrons
  • Group 1
  • Group 2

17
-Niels Bohrs Model Distinct Energy Levels
18
Periods
  • The periods (rows) of the periodic table indicate
    the highest energy level occupied by one or more
    electrons.

19
Valence Electrons
  • The electrons the occupy the highest energy level
    of an atom.
  • Valence electrons play a key role in the chemical
    properties of an element.

20
A Groups (Old System)
  • The A groups are numbered 1?8.
  • The number of the A groups correspond to the
    number of valence electrons.

21
Group 1- Alkali Metals
  • 1 valence electron (ns1)
  • Form a 1 ion.
  • Note Hydrogen, a nonmetal, is located in the
    first column because it has one valence electron.

22
Group 1- Alkali Metals
  • Lithium
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Rubidium
  • Cesium
  • Francium

23
Sodiums Reaction with H2O Produces Hydrogen
24
Reactivity of Alkali Metals
  • Increases from top to bottom of the group.
  • Which is more reactive Cesium or Sodium?

25
Note
  • Sodium and Potassium are stored in oil to keep
    them from reacting with oxygen and water in the
    air.
  • Cesium is stored in glass tubes of argon gas( an
    inert gas).

26
Group 2- Alkali Earth Metals
  • Beryllium
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium
  • Strontium
  • Barium
  • Radium

27
Group 2- Alkali Earth Metals
  • Have 2 valence electrons.
  • Form 2 ions.

28
Group 2- Alkali Earth MetalsReactions with Water
  • Be does not react with water.
  • Mg reacts with hot water.
  • Ca, Sr, Ba react easily with cold water.
  • Which way along the group does reactivity
    increase?

29
Notes
  • There is Mg in chrolophyll
  • C55H72O5N4Mg
  • Calcium is in your bones, chalk, limestone,
    toothpaste, pearl (all as calcium carbonate).

30
The Periodic Table
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