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Forest Health and Ecosystem Management

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Title: Forest Health and Ecosystem Management


1
Forest Health and Ecosystem Management
  • Zhong Chen 1 and Michael R. Wagner 2
  • 1 Office of Academic Assessment, Northern
    Arizona University, and Jiangsu Institute of
    Botany
  • 2 Regents Professor, School of Forestry
  • Northern Arizona University

2
Outline
  • Why Important?
  • Forest Health Definitions
  • Ecosystem Management (EM)
  • Measuring Forest Health (FH)
  • Forest Health Monitoring
  • Roles of Insects and Fungi in EM
  • Summary

3
Why FH Is An Important Concept?
  • Rio Accord (1992) and International Treaties
  • USFS Land Ethic
  • SAF Task Force
  • Ecosystem Management
  • Healthy Forest Initiative

4
International Treaties
  • 1992 UN Conference on Environment and
    Development (Rio Accord)
  • Statement of Forest Principles
  • Criteria to characterize sustainable forestry
  • 1995 Santiago Declaration
  • Criteria and indicators of sustainability
  • 1995 (continuing) Montreal Process

5
Montreal Process Santiago Declaration
  • Montreal Process est. 1994
  • Santiago Declaration est. 1995
  • For the conservation and sustainable management
    of temperate and boreal forests
  • To develop and implement internationally agreed
    criteria and indicators
  • Member countries represent 90 of temperate
    boreal forests (60 of worlds forests). 45 of
    global trade in timber
  • Europes forests are not included

Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, China,
Japan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Russian
Federation, U.S.A., Uruguay
6
Montreal Process Santiago Declaration
  • Framework for determining the status of the
    condition of forests
  • Enhance national dialogue about sustainable
    forest management
  • Can also assess trends at the regional or local
    scale
  • make better informed decisions about forest
    management

7
Criteria of Santiago Declaration
  • Conservation of biological diversity
  • Maintenance of productive ecosystems
  • Maintenance of forest ecosystem health and
    vitality
  • Conservation of soil and water resources
  • Maintenance of forest contributions to global
    carbon cycles
  • Maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple
    socio-economic benefits
  • An effective, legal, institutional and economic
    framework for forest conservation and sustainable
    management
  • (several subsections for each criteria)
  • 67 indicators in total

8
Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators of
Sustainability
  • Ecosystem health and vitality
  • of insects and disease affected
  • Presence of exotics
  • Abiotic stressors (fire, weather, salt)
  • Management use (land clearing, grazing)
  • Air pollution
  • Biological indicators
  • Insect/plant/animal diversity
  • Nutrient cycling
  • Primary productivity

9
Johannesburg Summit 2002
  • World Summit on Sustainable Development
  • Public-private partnership
  • Renewable energy development
  • Water, energy, health, agriculture and
    biodiversity
  • Self evaluation of criteria and indicators of
    healthy forest ecosystems

10
Healthy Forest Initiative
  • Reduce risk of severe wildfires
  • Administration reform
  • - Streamline NEPA
  • - Amend appeal rules
  • - Expedited ESA Consultation
  • Legislation
  • - Healthy Forests Restoration Act 2003
  • - Stewardship contracts

11
Healthy Forests Restoration Act 2003
  • Expedited vegetation analysis and treatment
  • Administrative review
  • Maintenance of old growth forest and retention of
    larger trees
  • Community Wildfire Protection Plans
  • Money spent 50 in UWI
  • Judicial review-expedited (balance short and long
    term environmental impacts)
  • Others

12
History of Forest Outputs of Social Interest
  • Commodity Era ? 1900s timber, minerals, forage,
    water
  • Multiple Use Era ? 1960s recreation
    opportunity, visual quality, fish and game
  • Ecosystem Sustainability Era ? 1990s ecosystem
    management to sustain ecological processes,
    biodiversity and forest structure

13
Forest Health Definition
  • Widely used term
  • Unanimous support
  • Utilitarian vs. ecosystem sustainability
    definition
  • Based on criteria and stakeholder objectives
  • Selected Definitions

14
White mountains, AZ
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Utilitarian Forest Health
  • Forest health is a condition where biotic and
    abiotic influences on the forest (that is pests,
    silvicultural treatments, harvesting practices)
    do not threaten resource management objectives
    now or in the future.

20
Ecosystem Centered Forest Health
  • A forest condition that does not threaten
    management objectives and is resilient to changes
    and characterized by a fully functional community
    of plants and animals a productive, resilient
    and diverse ecosystem that is sustainable.

21
Utilitarian View
  • Focus on commodity output
  • Consistency with objectives

Ecosystem Centered View
  • Focus on ecological processes
  • Consistency with objectives

22
Forest Health Definition Ecosystem Viewpoint
-An Alternative Definition
(Kolb et al. 1994)
  • A healthy forest ecosystem has the following
    characteristics
  • 1) The physical environment, biotic resources,
    and trophic networks to support productive
    forests during at least some seral stages.

23
Forest Health Definition Ecosystem Viewpoint
-An Alternative Definition
(Kolb et al. 1994)
  • 2) Resistance to catastrophic change and/or
    ability to recover from catastrophic change at
    the landscape level
  • 3) A functional equilibrium between supply and
    demand of essential resources (water, light,
    nutrients, growing space) for major portions of
    the vegetation

24
Forest Health Definition Ecosystem Viewpoint
-An Alternative Definition
(Kolb et al. 1994)
  • 4) A diversity of seral stages and stand
    structures that provide habitat for many native
    species and all essential ecosystem processes.

25
Ecosystem Management
  • Ecosystem management means using an ecological
    approach to achieve the multiple-use management
    for national forests and grasslands by blending
    the needs of people and environmental values in
    such a way that healthy, productive, and
    sustainable ecosystems.
  • Emphasis on sustaining ecological functioning vs.
    commodity output.

26
Pillars of Ecosystem Management
  • Represents evolution of social values and
    priorities
  • Concept must be connected to specific landscape
  • Objective is to maintain ecosystem to achieve
    societal value
  • Recognizes ecosystem can tolerate stress/use
  • Ecosystem management is not equal to biological
    diversity
  • If sustainability is desired it must be defined
  • Scientific information important butsocietal
    decision
  • (Lackey 1995)

27
Ecosystem Health Counterpoint
  • Invalid Analogy
  • mammalian health much simpler than ecosystem
    health
  • not possible to define optimum condition for
    ecosystem
  • ecosystems do not have genetic codes to transfer
    fitness to progeny
  • Lack of basis for objective assessment
  • pre-settlement benchmark insufficient
  • insufficient descriptors (indicators)
  • (Wicklum and Davies 1995)

28
Forest Health Equivalents-NOT!
  • Restoration Ecology
  • Restored forest healthy forest?
  • Certification
  • Certified forest may not be healthy

29
Limitations to Restoration Ecology
  • Do we know what ecosystem were like?
  • -Basis for selecting reference
    condition
  • -Stand replacing vs. low intensity fire
  • Can we get there if we want to?
  • -Climate change
  • -Presence of exotics
  • -How ecosystems function
  • Do we want to go there?
  • -Human as part of system ecosystems
    lack objectives
  • -Are historical conditions were
    sustainable?
  • -Economics of restoration
  • -Fire and global climate budget

30
Measuring Forest Health
  • Indicators (values, endpoints, indicators)
  • Range of historic variability
  • Develop healthy standard i.e. STIFH
  • Develop monitoring programs

31
Criteria for Ecological Indicators
  • Conceptual Relevance
  • Relevance to assessment and ecological function
  • Feasibility of Implementation
  • Data collection methods, logistics, information
    management, quality assurance, and monetary costs
  • Response Variability
  • Measurement error, temporal and spatial
    variability, and discriminatory ability
  • Interpretation and Utility
  • Confidence of results, assessment thresholds, and
    linkage to management action
  • (Jackson et al. 2000. Evaluation guidelines for
    ecological indicators. EPA/620/R-99/005)

32
Insect Indicators i.e. ground beetles
Ecosystem Function i.e. prey base diversity
Ease of Measurement
Societal Value i.e. biodiversity
Societal Relevance
33
Insect Indicator ? Societal Value
  • Insect Societal
  • Indicator Mechanism Values

Ground prey base diversity
Biodiversity beetles Ant diversity
Microbial biomass Sustainability Butte
rfly Understory
diversity Aesthetics -abundance and
diversity
34
Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) Program
-Initiated in 1990 to provide information on the
status, changes, and trends in forest health
and sustainability -Plot component of FHM
integrated with Forest Inventory and Analysis
program in 1999 -The FHM program provides
information on all forest lands to
land-managers and policy makers -Other
monitoring programs of state and federal level
http//fhm.fs.fed.us/ism/index.shtm
35
  • Forest Health Monitoring (FHM)
  • Objectives/Mission
  • Establish a monitoring system throughout the
    forests of the U.S. to determine detrimental
    changes or improvements that occur over time.
  • Provide baseline and health trend information
    that is statistically precise and accurate.
  • Report annually on status and changes to forest
    health.

http//fhm.fs.fed.us/ism/index.shtm
36
FHM regions North East, North Central, South,
Interior West, West
USDA Forest Service Regions
37
A. Detection Monitoring
  • Main objectives
  • Collect info. on the condition of forest
    ecosystems
  • Estimate baseline conditions and trends
  • Detect changes in forest health

38
Detection Monitoring (Contd)
  • Covers all forested land in U.S.
  • Most extensive of the monitoring methods
  • 1. Survey Component
  • Surveys for insects, diseases and other
    stressors made off-plot. Performed at the
    State level (FHP).
  • 2. Plot Component
  • Network of permanent plots located using
    systematic grid system across the entire U.S.

39
B. Evaluation Monitoring
  • When major changes or trends in forest health
    indicators are detected by Detection Monitoring
  • Purpose
  • Determine the extent, severity, and causes of
    undesirable forest health changes.
  • Address likely cause-and-effect relationships,
    identify associations between forest health and
    forest stress indicators.
  • Identify management consequences and alternatives
    for reducing the effects of forest stress.
  • Identify research needs.

40
Evaluation Monitoring (Contd)
  • Projects are usually 1 - 3 years
  • Results are presented at the annual FHM Working
    Group meeting
  • If objectives are not met, then research
    component of FHM is initiated
  • Assembling all pertinent data and literature
    regarding forest health problem
  • Analysis of that data
  • Formulation of hypotheses (by forest service,
    universities or industry)

41
C. Intensive Site Ecosystem Monitoring
  • Purpose
  • Better understand processes and mechanisms of
    forest ecosystems.
  • -More intensive, long-term measurements
    of indicators.
  • Identify indicators for regional FHM
  • Improve predictive and interpretive evaluation of
    forests
  • Support biotic and abiotic monitoring at research
    sites

Monitoring takes place, not on the grid but on
specific sites
42
D. Research on Monitoring Techniques
  • Supports all three monitoring components
  • Development and testing of indicators
  • Summarize results of indicator measurements,
    write informal and executive reports
  • Needed to continually improve the effectiveness
    of FHM

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Role of Insects Fungi in EM
  • Decomposer
  • Agents of disturbance
  • Stand development
  • Stand structure
  • Snag recruitment
  • Source of food
  • Insects, fungi, wildlife

45
Agents of Mortality Risk (Insects)
  • BARK BEETLES
  • Douglas-fir beetle fir engraver beetle
  • pine engraver Jeffrey pine beetle
  • mountain pine beetle round headed pine beetle
  • spruce beetle western balsam bark beetle
  • western pine beetle
  • DEFOLIATORS
  • Douglas fir tussock moth western spruce budworm
  • OTHER INSECTS
  • balsam wooly adelgid hemlock wooly adelgid

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Agents of Mortality Risk (Diseases)
  • ROOT DISEASE
  • Annosus root disease Subalpine fir decline
  • DWARF MISTLETOE
  • OTHER PATHOGENS
  • Commandra blister rust White pine blister rust

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Decomposers
  • Fungi are important in mesic forests
  • Insects/fire in xeric forests
  • Termites especially important
  • Regulators of carbon cycle
  • Nutrient cycling rate
  • -Rates and pools of nutrients
  • -Insects, fungi, fire regulate both
    rates and pools

53
Agents of Disturbance
  • Relative importance
  • - Insects gt Fungi gt Fire
  • Dimensions of disturbance
  • -Rate 1/yr
  • -Spatial distribution, single tree vs
    patch
  • -Frequency (disturbance in time)
  • -Severity
  • Classification of insects as agents of
    disturbance
  • IF are agents of disturbances and consequence of
    disturbance

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Succession
  • Alternative successional pathways
  • IF are disturbance agents
  • Severe disturbance--- earlier successional stage
  • Mild disturbance--- promotes succession to climax
  • Successional stage affects insect community

56
Canopy arthropod biomass in old-growth and
regenerating coniferous forests at the H. J.
Andrews Experimental Forests in Western Oregon
57
Snag Recruitment
  • Value of snags to wildlife
  • Snag and log decomposition classification
  • Different classes different wildlife habitat
  • Tool in determining history of disturbance

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Source of Food
  • Important separate food chains
  • -Fungi-Collembola-Insects-Birds
  • -Fungi-Squirrels
  • -Fungi-Deer
  • Human food
  • -Commercial industry- Chanterelles
  • -Form of eco-development
  • -Needs regulation
  • Symbiotic association
  • -Mycorrhizae
  • -Bark beetles/Blue stain
  • Lichens

60
Insects, Fungi, and Wildlife
  • Insects Fungi positive effects
  • -Snags
  • -Create cavities
  • -Improve habitat
  • -Dynamics of snags following outbreaks
  • Insects Fungi negative effects
  • -SPB has same preference as red-
  • cockaded woodpecker

61
Insects, Fungi, and Wildlife
  • Wildlife positive effects on I F
  • -Disseminate seeds/spores
  • -Create wounds for fungi
  • Wildlife negative effects on I F
  • -Birds regulate insects
  • -Mammals regulate insects

62
Historic Conditions
  • Methodology to assess historic condition
  • -Historic records
  • -Stand structure
  • -Dendrochronology techniques
  • -Polynology (pollen analysis)
  • -Restoration treatments

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Rodeo fire through mountainous forested terrain,
June 24, 2002
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Human Needs and Invertebrates
  • Values of invertebrates
  • -Ecological
  • -Human food
  • -Products
  • -Trade in insects (ecotourism)
  • -Cultural value
  • Perception of invertebrates
  • -Attitudes towards invertebrates
  • -Ranking of public attitude
  • Reasons for negative attitude

70
Conservation Biology of Insects and Fungi (I)
  • Guiding principles of conservation biology
  • -Evolution is essential to survival
  • -Ecosystems are in dynamic disequilibrium
  • -Humans are part of the system
  • Soules principles
  • -Diversity of organism is good
  • -Ecological complexity is good
  • -Evolution is good
  • -Biotic diversity has intrinsic value
  • Why conservation biology of invertebrates?

71
Conservation Biology of Insects and Fungi (II)
  • Invertebrate inventory
  • -Inventory documents the spatial
    distribution of populations, species, guilds,
    communities and ecosystems
  • -Use of inventory
  • Inventory monitoring
  • -Monitoring assess changes in ecosystems,
    species, populations in response to natural
    factors, human disturbance, as management
    activities over time
  • Insect/fungi conservation action
  • Indicator species/assemblages

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Basic attitudes towards invertebrates
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Summary (1)
  • Changing societal expectations require that
    managers address forest health issues even if
    there are not precise measures of forest health.
  • Relative condition of a forest based on selected
    ecological indicators and the collective value
    judgment of stakeholders of that forest.
  • Critical elements of a healthy forest include
    physical environment (water soil), trophic
    networks (producers predators decomposers),
    resistance to catastrophic change (fire
    insects), equilibrium in resources (carrying
    capacity), diversity (forest serial stage,
    structure, biodiversity).

76
Summary (2)
  • Historic perspective of insects and fungi must
    change to incorporate greater understanding of
    the ecological roles these organisms play.
    Insects and fungi must be monitored, managed and
    in some cases conserved. Conservation biology
    applies to all organisms in the ecosystem.
  • Sustaining commodity yield without sustaining
    ecological processes will not meet public
    expectation of a healthy forest.
  • Stakeholders and managers must agree on
    indicators or standards that indicate when a
    healthy forest condition is achieved. Forest
    managers will need to address criteria and
    indicators of sustainable forest management and
    forest certification standards.

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