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Developmental Theories

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Why do we need developmental theories? ... of perceived control promote or attenuate a disposition to engage in crime and delinquency ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Developmental Theories


1
Developmental Theories
  1. Life-course perspective
  2. Age-graded theory of crime
  3. Colvins differential coercion theory
  4. Thornberrys Model
  5. Tittles Model

2
Why do we need developmental theories?
  • Each of the theories tries to explain between
    individual differences
  • What about within individual differences?
  • Do you believe that people do not change?

3
Why do we need developmental theories?
  • Each of the theories tries to explain between
    individual differences

What about within individual differences?
4
Age-graded life course theory
  • The age-graded life course was introduced by
    Robert Sampson and John Laub in the early 90s
  • This theory attempts to explain the trajectories
    and transitions of criminal behavior over the
    life course
  • Trajectories are pathways or lines of development
    over the life span such as work life, marriage,
    parenthood, self-esteem, and criminal behavior

5
Transitions
  • Transitions are marked by specific life events
    (e.g. first job or first marriage) that are
    embedded in trajectories and evolve over short
    time spans. (Sampson and Laub 1992)

6
The life-course perspective
  • The life-course perspective focuses on the role
    that stability and change in behavior play in
    development over the life-course
  • Life-course theory implies there is a connection
    from childhood into adulthood and transitions or
    turning points can redirect the life-course

7
Life course theory
Life is a dynamic process. As people travel
through the life course they are bombarded by
changing perceptions and experiences and as a
result their behavior will change directions
(sometimes for better and sometimes for worse)
8
Life course theory
9
Age-graded theory of crime
  • Certain life events allow previously deviant
    youth to give up a life of crime
  • Childhood delinquency is linked to adult crime,
    alcohol abuse, general deviance, economic
    dependency, educational failure, unemployment,
    divorce, and even charges in the military
  • Despite this continuity, job stability and strong
    marital attachment in adulthood inhibit adult
    criminal and deviant behavior

10
Dynamics of criminal behavior (can you think of
any theories that could explain these scenarios?)
11
Age-graded theory of crime
  • Sampson and Laub identify two transitions (career
    and marriage) that decrease or even eliminate
    recidivism

12
Age-Graded Life-Course Theory
13
Role of career
  • Work is important - because workers are likely to
    experience close and frequent contact with
    conventional others and the informal social
    controls of the workplace encourage conformity
  • At-risk youth can turn away from crime and lead
    normal non-criminal lives if they can maintain
    steady employment

14
Role of Marriage
  • Marriage creates positive social bonds and builds
    trust
  • Successful marriages have been shown to in crease
    stature and self-worth while promoting conformity
    to societal norms/roles
  • (1990) Mark Warr states For many individuals,
    it seems, marriage marks a transition from heavy
    peer involvement to a preoccupation with ones
    spouse. That transition is likely to reduce
    interaction with former friends and accomplices
    and thereby reduce the opportunities as well as
    the motivation to engage in crime

15
Empirical Support
  • Christopher Uggen completed a study to test
    Sampson and Laubs age-graded theory on the
    effects of employment and recidivism
  • The study examined over 3,000 people with an
    official arrest history drawn from nine U.S.
    cities and they were randomly assigned to the
    control or treatment program
  • Those in the treatment group were offered minimum
    wage jobs
  • Members of both groups reported work, crime, and
    arrest information at nine-month intervals for up
    to three years. (Uggen 2000)

16
Empirical Support
  • The findings show that those that were given jobs
    had a slightly lower rate of recidivism then
    those in the control
  • When examining the treatment group by age the
    over 27 group showed the lowest rate of
    recidivism
  • The findings of Uggens study give validation and
    cast doubt onto Sampson and Laubs theory
  • Uggens study does show that there is a
    relationship to employment and recidivism however
    it does not show the early life affect that
    Sampson and Laub would lead a reader to believe

17
Mark Colvin-Differential Coercion Theory
  • Two sources of coercion
  • Interpersonal (parents, peers, significant
    others)
  • Impersonal (unemployment, poverty, fear of
    crime)

18
Mark Colvins coercion theory
  • Colvin lists four types of control relationships,
    cautioning these are ideal types and that
    coercive relationships exist on a continuum

19
Sources of Coercion
  • Ultimately, the sources of coercion are both
    within the immediate environment and within
    structural institutions such as family, work, and
    include interactions with government agencies
  • Coercive control (or lack thereof) learned by
    parents in the setting of the workplace and
    interactions with government agencies is
    reflected in the way parents raise their children.

20
Type I
  • The individual experiences non-coercive and
    consistent control.
  • This tends to result in low levels of anger and
    high levels of self-control and self-efficacy.
  • The individual does not experience modeling of
    coercive behavior and perceives control to be
    balanced
  • The individual develops non-criminal delinquent
    behavioral outcomes.

21
Type II
  • Involves non-coercive but erratic control
  • Like the Type 1 relationship there is low anger,
    high self-efficacy, an internal locus of control,
    and no modeling of coercive behavior
  • However, the individual develops low
    self-control, social bonds are of intermediate
    strength
  • Behavioral outcomes include a tendency to engage
    in hedonistic deviance and manipulation of
    authority, and to become involved in minor street
    crime and white-collar crime

22
Type III
  • Involves coercive but consistent control
  • This tends to result in rigid self-control
    because of constant fear, and weak social bonds
  • There exists a high level of self-directed anger,
    strong modeling of coercive behavior
  • Behavioral outcomes include low probabilities for
    criminal and for pro-social behavior, high
    probability for mental health problems such as
    depression, and some probability for righteously
    enraged assault or murder

23
Type IV
  • Involves coercive and erratic control
  • This tends to result in low self-control, low
    self-efficacy, and high levels of other-directed
    anger
  • Social bonds are extremely weak and alienated.
  • There is strong modeling for coercive behavior
  • Persons under this type of control are likely to
    engage in defiant and hostile acts toward
    authority figures, to coerce and intimidate
    others, and to have a strong likelihood of
    involvement in chronic predatory street crime

24
Colvins differential coercion theory
  • Focuses on Type IV, arguing that chronic criminal
    behavior primarily results from poorly developed
    socialization based on an erratic schedule of
    coercion
  • Along with coercion, individual levels of
    perceived control promote or attenuate a
    disposition to engage in crime and delinquency

25
Relationship with GST
  • Colvins theory is properly categorized as a
    strain theory
  • Agnews theory argues that aversive situations
    generate anger, which then generates crime
  • Colvins theory focuses on coercion as one of the
    many possible aversive situations described in
    Agnews theory
  • It then further specifies that erratic coercion
    is more important than other aversive situations
    because it results in strong and other-directed
    anger, which then generates chronic criminality

26
Relationship with GST
  • Colvins theory is more specific than Agnews in
    that it includes a more precisely focused
    dependent variable chronic criminality vs. a
    wide range of crime and delinquency
  • It also proposes a more specific independent
    variable the experience of erratic coercion vs.
    the experience of a wide variety of aversive
    situations

27
Differences
  • Compared to Agnew, Colvin downplays the role of
    negative emotions as the intervening mechanism
    between negative experiences and crime, although
    his arguments here are quite consistent with
    Agnews.
  • Agnew not only provides for a greater range of
    negative stimuli, but also he focuses much more
    strongly on the negative emotions that may result
    in delinquent behavior.
  • Colvins theory, in contrast, focuses more on
    learning mechanism of criminality

28
Interactional Theory
  • Terence Thornberry (1987)
  • Interactions are very important in shaping the
    behavior
  • Attachment to parents, peers, social institutions
    change over time
  • Further, delinquents not only are influenced by
    their social surroundings but also have an impact
    on others through their behavior

29
Thornberrys Model
  • Interactive or reciprocal
  • The base for the model came from control theory
    and social learning theory
  • Fundamental cause of delinquency lies in the
    weakening of social constrains over the conduct
    of the individuals
  • Next step is association with delinquent peers
  • This association foster delinquent values and
    delinquent behavior

30
Thornberrys Model
1
3
Weak parental attachment
Delinquent association
Delinquent behavior
2
4
5
6
This model answers the contradiction between
Social Learning theory and Control theory about
what goes first deviant behavior or association
with delinquent peers.
31
Thornberrys Model
  • Interactional process creates a behavioral
    trajectory that predicts increasing involvement
    in delinquency and crime
  • Initial weak bonds lead to high delinquency, the
    high delinquency further weakens the conventional
    bonds
  • Combination of these effects make it difficult to
    reestablish bonds to conventional society at
    later age

32
Thornberrys Model
  • What about effect of employment, college,
    military, and marriage?
  • These variables play an important role in
    determining whether delinquency will continue or
    desist

33
Pattersons Social-Interactional Developmental
Model (1989)
  • Children and their environment are in constant
    interchange
  • The start of antisocial behavior happens in
    dysfunctional families (harsh and inconsistent
    discipline, little positive parental involvement,
    poor monitoring)
  • Family members directly train the child to
    perform antisocial behaviors

34
Pattersons Social-Interactional Developmental
Model (1989)
  • In dysfunctional families, coercion is a way of
    life
  • Child might see that only coercion can stop other
    family members from employing hitting
  • Antisocial children manifest conduct problems
    outside the home (rejected by peers)
  • Later they gravitate toward deviant peer groups
  • This association reinforces delinquent behavior
  • Later these children will have dysfunctional
    families and promote coercion

35
Tittles Control Balance Theory
  • Control theorists focus on the factors that
    restrain the behavior of individuals
  • Tittle made an innovation by arguing that people
    are not only objects of control but also agents
    of control
  • Each person has a certain amount of control that
    she/she is under and a certain amount of control
    she/he exerts

36
Tittles Control Balance Theory
  • Tittle sought to have a General Theory and thus
    to explain all forms of deviance
  • For some, the relative amount of control is in
    balance (Control Balance )
  • Some suffer from deficit of control and others
    experience a control surplus (Control Imbalance)
  • Control balance is associated with conformity and
    Control imbalance tends to be associated with
    deviance

37
Tittles Control Balance Theory
Exploitation
Balance
Submission
Defiance
Predation
Plunder
Decadence
Conformity
Repression
Autonomy
38
Tittles Control Balance Theory
White-collar crimes
Serious forms of crime
vandalism
Exploitation
Balance
Submission
Defiance
Predation
Plunder
Decadence
Conformity
Repression
Autonomy
39
Tittles Control Balance Theory
  • Predisposition to deviance is in each of us
  • Human nature has a strong urge for autonomy (to
    escape the control that others wish to impose on
    us)
  • Motivation appears when two conditions transpire
  • A person becomes aware of his/her control
    imbalance
  • A person realizes that deviant behavior can
    change this imbalance and person must
    experience" negative emotion of being humiliated
    or denigrated

40
Tittles Control Balance Theory
  • Once motivation has emerged, deviant behavior
    still might not occur
  • Opportunity must be present
  • Constraints (fear of being caught, moral
    ambitions, social bonds) also must be overcome
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