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SYSTEMS APPROACH IN PROBLEM SOLVING RESEARCH

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2. Empiricism (antithesis) Locke and J. S. Mill. 3. Criticism (synthesis) ... 4. Relativism (antithesis of criticism) ... 2. Analiticism (antithesis of holism) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SYSTEMS APPROACH IN PROBLEM SOLVING RESEARCH


1
SYSTEMS APPROACH IN PROBLEM SOLVING RESEARCH
  • Meaning
  • Application
  • By Halim Dogrusöz
  • 13 December 2002

2
1. ENABLING LIGHT
  • Jamshid Gharajedaghi
  • a multidisciplinary team cannot produce a
    meaningful perception of the whole.
  • Think of the blind men trying to identify an
    elephant.
  • The story narrated by Mevlana
  • A group of men encounter a strange object in
    complete darkness.
  • Efforts to identify the subject by touching it
    prove fruitless, until someone arrives with a
    light.
  • The light…enables them to see the whole.
  • ENABLING LIGHT for systems thinking
  • to be knowledgeable about systems concept and
    systemic properties and
  • a methodology.

3
2. TWO DEVELOPMENTS
  • OPERATIONAL RESEARCH (OR)
  • RADAR OPERATIONAL RESEARCH TEAM (Blacketts
    Circus)
  • 3 Physiologists
  • 2 Mathematical physicists
  • 1 Astrophysist
  • 1 Army officer
  • 1 Surveyor
  • 1 General physisit
  • 2 Mathematicians
  • first OR team by P. M. S. Blackett in 1940
  • Established basic principles.
  • 1. systems approach
  • 2. interdisciplinary team
  • 3. appication of scientific method
  • GENERAL SYSTEM THEORY (GST)
  • by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in
  • Charles Morris philosophy seminar (1937).
  • problem is Analytical procedures in science.
  • a meta theory of science
  • skeleton of science
  • Society for General Systems Research 1954
  • von Bertalanffy, Boulding, Gerard, Rapoport
  • 1. Investigate the isomorphy of concepts
  • 2. Encourage theoretical models
  • 3. Minimize the duplication of effort
  • 4. Promote the unity of science
  • growth, equilibrium, centralisation competition,
    teleology etc.

4
3. HYSTORY dialectic analysis
  • DIALECTIC OF SYSTEMS THINKING
  • by ?
  • 1. Holism (thesis)
  • Aristotles dictum
  • Whole is more than the sum of its parts.
  • 2. Analiticism (antithesis of holism)
  • analyse the whole into its parts, investigate
    each, than synthesise to understand the whole.
    1700 -1900 science.
  • Renaissance
  • 3. Systemism (synthesis of the two)
  • DIALECTIC OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY
  • by C. W. Churchman
  • 1. Rationalism (thesis)
  • Plato, Aristotle, Spinoza, Leibnitz, Descartes
  • 2. Empiricism (antithesis)
  • Locke and J. S. Mill
  • 3. Criticism (synthesis)
  • Kant laws and facts are interdependent.
  • 4. Relativism (antithesis of criticism)
  • complete expression in pragmatism all truth is
    relative answers in the absolute sense do not
    exist.
  • 5. Experimentalism (synthesis of all)

5
3. BASIC ELEMENTARY CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES
  • A definition
  • A system is a set of two or more elements that
    satisfies the following thee conditions.
  • 1. Behaviour of each element has an effect on
    the behaviour of the whole
  • 2. The behaviour of the elements and their
    effects on the whole are interdependent.
  • 3. However subgroups of the elements are
    formed, each has an effect on the whole and none
    has an independent effect on it. R. L. Ackoff.
  • For every system there is a larger system
    containing it.
  • The system has a function which defines its role
    in the containing system.

6
3. BASIC ELEMENTARY CONCEPTS AND PROPERTIES
(continued)
  • Properties of a system is made up by the proper
    organisation of its parts.
  • Interactions among the parts of the system
    determine the properties of the system.
  • A system cannot be understood by analytic
    procedures.
  • A part loses its basic properties when it is
    taken out.
  • A part cannot be understood independently of the
    containing system.
  • Every natural system has an environment, with
    which it interacts.

7
4. CLASSIFICATION
  • CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS according to points of
    view.
  • 1. Natural system. 2. Artificial system
  • 1. Open system 2. Closed system
  • 1. Object system 2. Conceptual system
  • 1. Abstract system 2. Concrete system
  • 1. Physical system 2. Biological system
  • 1. Hard system 2. Soft system
  • 1. Social system 2. Sociotechnical system
  • 3. Socioeconomic systems
  • 1. Natural mechanical system 2. Functional
  • system (Ackoff and Emery)
  • CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS according to
    capability of choice in
  • action
  • outcome
  • 1. Passive functional systems
  • 2. Passive multifunctional ,,
  • 3. Reactive functional ,,
    (servomechanisms)
  • 4. Reactive multifunctional ,, (industrial
    robots)
  • 5. Active functional ,,
    (goal-seeking)
  • 6. Active multifunctional ,,
    (multi-goalseeking)
  • 7. Active multifunctional and environmentally
    independent (purposeful) systems

8
5. METHODOLOGY
  • BASIC ELEMENTS
  • analysis
  • Tansels algorithm
  • 1. Conceive an understanding of the whole.
  • 2. Analyse (conceptually) system whole into its
    parts.
  • 3. Investigate the properties of the parts.
  • 4. Synthesise the findings and go back to 1.
  • Model
  • Model is the system which represents the system
    under investigation.
  • Defining
  • conceptual defining
  • operational defining
  • measurement
  • nominal scale
  • ordinal scale
  • interval scale
  • ratio scale
  • methodology of problem solving research
  • decision ? implementation ? solution
  • Steps Of The Research
  • 1. Diagnosis and formulation of the problem
  • 2. Construction of the model
  • 3. Deriving a solution from the model
  • 4. Testing the model and the solution
  • 5. Implementing the solution
  • 6. Controlling the solution

9
6. DIAGNOSIS AND FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
Diagnosis
  • FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
  • decision maker
  • objectives of the decision maker
  • alternative courses of action
  • the context
  • cause effect, and
  • producer Product
  • relations.
  • Cause is both necessary and sufficient for the
    effect, but
  • producer is necessary but insufficient for the
    product.

10
7. SYSTEM OF OBJECTIVES
  • INTERACTIONS BETWEEN OBJECTIVES
  • EXAMPLE Objectives system of EUREKA
  • Objective a
    contributes to

  • objective b
  • Objectives a
    b contribute
  • each
    other
  • Objectives a
    b are in

  • conflict

11
ALTERNATIVE COURSES OF ACTION
  • Alternative choices.
  • A system of actions.
  • A system of decision variables.
  • May be represented by a graph.

12
8. THE CONTEXT OF THE PROBLEM
  • The system, its containing system and its
    environment constitutes the context.
  • Analysis of the context
  • 1. Identify the containing system of the
    system and its role in the containing system.
  • 2. Check the consistency of the objectives
    with this role.
  • 3. Identify the relevant alternative
    courses of action.
  • 4. Determine the interactions among all
    elements of the context.
  • 5. Construct a conceptual model of the
    context (representing the elements and
    interactions among them)

13
9. TECHNICS OF SYSTEM ANALYSIS
  • Observation on the context.
  • Model is the best instrument for understanding
    the system. Therefor construct a model in any
    form possible.
  • Organisation and interactions among elements are
    crucial.
  • Measurements on system components provide
    precision in understanding the system.
  • Graph representation for modelling in problem
    formulation stage is most practical.
  • Network flows analysis for
  • 1. Material flow
  • 2. Cash flow and
  • 3. Information flow
  • provides a convenience for a complete coverage of
    the context.

14
10. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • An available model of an artificial system
    (design documents, blueprints etc.) give
    considerable convenience.
  • Attempt to cover the system in all details is
    impossible, and actually is not necessary.
  • Take your time to discover the necessary.
  • Leverage.
  • Small changes can produce big results but the
    areas of highest leverage are least obvious.
    (Peter M. Senge)

15
11. SYSTEM OF PROBLEMS Mess Management
  • Problems do not come one at a time.
  • In real life we live through many problems at a
    time, and they are interacting.
  • Ackoff calls such a system of problems a MESS.
  • Hence we face a situation of Mess Management.
  • He suggests that such problems can be
  • resolved or
  • solved or
  • dissolved.
  • We suggest to design Management Systems
    continually to asses such situations and solve
    the problems simultaneously, taking into account
    the interactions among them.
  • Call such systems Learning Management Systems or
  • Arastiran Yönetim Sistemleri.

16
12. SYSTEM DESIGN PROBLEM
  • The containing system and the system to be
    designed are both subject to the analysis.
  • The function of the system to be designed (its
    role in the containing system) is to be
    specified.
  • Its structure and properties are determined to
    make it capable to perform the function.

17
13. ASSOSIATES OF SYSTEMS APPROACH
  • Two important associates of SYSTEMS APPROACH
  • Democracy and
  • Interdisciplinary team.
  • These interact in performing SYSTEMS APPROACH.
  • These are the corner stones of
  • Learning Management Systems or
  • Arastiran Yönetim Sistemleri.

18
14. PERSONALITY OF THE ANALYST
  • Some people are born system thinkers.
  • Some people are inclined to deep down concentrate
    on a subject and become a specialist.
  • But specialists play important role in
    Interdisciplinary teams.
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