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CCS Haryana Agricultural University


As per the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), SA ... on agriculture (in this share of female workforce 85%) remains outside its ambit ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CCS Haryana Agricultural University

J.C. Katyal Vice Chancellor
CCS Haryana Agricultural University
Haryana, India
South Asia (SA) Region
  • As per the South Asian Association for Regional
    Cooperation (SAARC), SA comprises of seven
    countries India, Pakistan, Bangla Desh, Sri
    Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives
  • Notwithstanding this political alliance- led
    delineation, statistics on the state of
    agriculture and agriculture dependent population,
    largely include India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri
    Lanka and Nepal to designate South Asian Region.

Population and Area
  • World Population 6.6 billion
  • SA Population 1.5 billion
  • World Area 13 billion ha
  • South Asia Area 449 million ha
  • Thus, South Asia has to feed 23 of the world
    population from merely 3.6 of the world area

South Asia - Agriculture
  • SA - a home to the most ancient agriculture based
  • One of the most resource rich regions,
    particularly bio-diversity
  • Region as a whole has high incidence of natural
  • SA is characterized by high levels of food
    production happening of Green Revolution
  • Emerging as a growing centre for manufacturing,
    trade and services
  • Despite successes, SA suffers from high density
    of population, environmentally stressed
    agriculture, high levels of rural poverty, gender
    inequality and social exclusion, natural
    resources degradation, depletion of land and
    water and a growing rural urban divide

South Asia - Farmers
  • Farmers living in different realities and facing
    different futures small and marginal farmers
    dominate, holding size shrinking, subsistence
    farming, high rate of unemployment, supplement
    incomes by combining crops and livestock
  • Share of agriculture dependent population
    continues to be high
  • Out-migration has to some extent relieved
    economic pressure left out population
    represented by infirm and females who have
    limited capacity and capability to invest in
    restorative management and soil and water
    conservation, all leading to accelerated damage
    of natural resources
  • Awareness and interest are increasing in
    technologies and policies on sustainable
    agricultural practices

S A- New Agriculture
  • Diversification and value addition are seen as
    tools of raising incomes, nutrition and
    sustainable growth of agriculture, which at
    present is stagnating or declining
  • A right mix of pro-farmer and pro-nature
    technologies, their transfer and enabling
    environment (education/training, inputs,
    infrastructure) and policies (prices and market
    links) are necessary elements of breaking the
    barriers of stagnation and or decline in
    agricultural productivity, profitability and
    sustainability of farming
  • Education and training for know how and skill
    building come as the front ranking strategy for
    relieving population pressure
  • Voice for lessening gender inequalities and
    mainstreaming is focus of development discussions

Productivity and profitability women hit
  • Falling agricultural productivity growth rates,
    rising costs, declining profits, high debt,
    spurious seeds and pesticides, cheap imported
    agricultural produceall cause severe distress
    and need urgent attention
  • An estimated 27 Indian farmers did not like
    farming because it was not profitable. In all,
    40, if given a choice, prefer to quit farming
    (NSSO Report 496)
  • Women lives are dependent on and intimately
    affected by the present state, particularly of
    male farmers and falling profitability of
    farming. If a farmer commits suicide due to
    mounting debt and falling profitability, the
    widow in fact becomes a living corpse

Sectoral distribution of WWF () (HDSA, 1997 and
Country Agri. Industry Services WWF
India 62 11 27 27
Pakistan 47 20 33 42
B. Desh 59 13 28 40
Nepal 93 1 6 40
S. Lanka 49 21 30 36
Bhutan 92 3 3 32
Maldives 25 32 43 22
S A - State of Women Workforce
  • Employment of WWF is very high
  • WWF in agriculture often lacks basic services,
    education and health care
  • Low level of rights on productive assets worsens
    their situation
  • Micro-nutrient and vitamin A malnutrition remain
    stubbornly high
  • WWF is most unorganized because of unpaid nature
    of work and tradition-forced social
    responsibility of working maximum, demanding
    minimum and eating whatever is leftover in the

Women Contribution and Status
  • Women contribute to two-thirds of the worlds
    work hours, produce 50 per cent of the worlds
    food supplies
  • Women work in fields, take care of families and
    manage household
  • Despite the services rendered by women in the
    family and work place, they make up for nearly 70
    per cent of the worlds poor and more than 65 per
    cent of the illiterates

Women The Major Work Force in Agriculture
Women at Work
Pesticide Spray
Wheat harvest
Health safety issues of women in Agriculture
  • Burden of family planning
  • Dangerous machinery
  • Unsafe electrical wiring and appliances
  • Livestock-transmitted diseases
  • Exposure to toxic pesticides
  • Reproductive hazards
  • Stress
  • Ergonomic adversaries
  • Data gathered thus far point out that women with
    at least a secondary level education eventually
    give birth to one third to one half as many
    children as women with no formal education

Source PRB, 2007
  • India represents more than 90 of the SA region
    in terms of land and demographic resources
  • In order to narrate new agriculture in the
    context of education and technology transfer
    hereafter I cite India data as an illustration
  • With minor deviations, Indian situation is
    generally applicable to state of agriculture in
    South Asia

HRDPerspective Indian Agriculture
  • To sustain an agricultural growth rate of 4,
    Indian agriculture (for that matter SA
    agriculture also) must become efficient,
    diversified, broaden its export basket, and
    prepare to compete in ever more global markets
  • To sustain 4 agricultural growth, India needs
    new-look technologies, a hierarchical brigade of
    knowledge and skilled men and women workers,
    necessary systemic and institutional reforms in
    AE, supporting infrastructure and pro-agriculture

Gender-wise student make up ()
Perspective gender integration or mainstreaming
in AE
  • Integration fitting gender issues within the
    existing course curricula and programs without
    adjusting gender considerations in sector and
    program priorities
  • Mainstreaming gender considerations are central
    in the construction of educational policy and
    programs. Not only do the women become part of
    educational budgeting, women and men jointly
    reorient majority of the educational agenda
  • Mainstreaming has proved to be elusive

Transition from integration to main- streaming
causes of slow progress
  • No serious attempt to clearly identify gender
    sensitive core AE agenda and development of
    policy packages in support of that agenda
  • Insufficient attention while designing budgets
    that support women oriented AE agenda (including
    enabling issues)
  • Lack of clear indicators to measure outcome and
  • (Source modified version of Jahan, 1995,)

AE Focus Gender
  • Common perception Higher opportunity costs and
    lower benefits from educating girls. Preference
    goes to sons
  • General scene Lack of boarding facilities,
    separate toilette facilities in schools
  • Larger view AE not a preferred subject for girls

Female Faculty
  • Sanctioned strength 23000 in position less than
  • 87, 76 and 79 of the positions of assistant
    professors, associate professors and professors
    are filled
  • Relative proportion of females (circa 2000)
    20 (10 Assis. Prof., 6 Assoc. Prof. and 4
  • In recent years proportion changing fast
  • Insignificant females in managerial positions

Level of Technological Awareness and
  • Low level of awareness and understanding on
    modern farming techniques and lack of competence
    and necessary skills are fundamental elements of
    overdependence on agriculture as sole source of
  • Only 40 of farm households access various
    sources of information. About 70 information
    comes from non formal sources to which women have
    hardly any reach
  • Women are also suffer maximum due to less
    education and training, which discourage mobility
    and shrink opportunities for off-farm vocations
  • Organized education and training cover only 4 of
    the workforce 57 workforce dependent on
    agriculture (in this share of female workforce
    85) remains outside its ambit

Technological Needs of WWF
  • Women have different tech. requirements due to
    disparate priorities, problems and needs.
    Examples food crops for food and fodder, local
    breeds of livestock, backyard poultry, goat
    rearing, local herbal remedies, less drudgery,
    efficient energy for cooking
  • Women need greater awareness and understanding
    of how technologies affect household economies,
    their sustainable performance and overall health
    of environment
  • Gender oriented technology transfer and
    up-skilling women competence is of fundamental
    necessity if what Himachali women feel Our lives
    are no different from that of our bullocks has
    to be reversed

Emerging Issues of SA Agriculture
  • Falling productivity, profitability stability
    of agriculture
  • Water becoming most critical
  • Climate becoming more deviating and unpredictable
  • Land availability shrinking
  • Agriculture becoming more complex competitive
  • Technologies that include WWF to have far larger
    role than ever
  • Markets and consumers are having bigger say in
    what and how agricultural produce should be
  • Agricultural research shifting from problem
    reduction to problem solving approach
  • Economic growth will follow equity gender
  • Place of people will be increasingly central to
  • A new look technology transfer system that treats
    agriculture in all its aspects and is responsive
    to knowledge and skill needs of farm men and
    women in real time format is necessary to be
  • Only 40 of the farmers have access to
    information on modern methods of farming in India

Relative importance ( farmers) of different
sources of accessing information
Source Farmers Source Farmers
P. farmers 17 Village fair 02
Input dealers 13 Credit agency 02
Radio 13 Miscellaneous 02
Television 09 Training 01
News papers 07 KVK 01
Exten. agents 06 NGO/private 01
Cooperative Soc. 04 Farmers tours 0.2
Output buyers 02 All sources 40
Demonstrations 02 All sources 40
Source NSSO, 2005

Common Goals of SA Agriculture
  • To infuse faster transfer of environmentally
    friendly and time appropriate technologies to
    fulfill food nutritional needs
  • To improve conservation of natural resource
  • To establish linkages to imbibe changing consumer
    needs promote commercialization,
    diversification, access to global markets
  • To undertake research and technology development
    transfer to counter ill effects of natural and
    man-made growth retardants
  • To emphasize development of HR, specifically
    WWF, by modernizing formal/non-formal education
  • Necessity is to develop a new look technology
    transfer system village based, farmers and
    farming system driven, real time, supported by a
    technology transfer facilitator and above all
    links farmers to input dealers output buyers

Trends in food grain production (M tons)
Year Haryana India
1998-99 12.1 203.6
1999-00 13.1 209.8
2000-01 13.3 196.8
2001-02 13.3 212.8
2002-03 12.3 174.8
2003-04 13.2 213.5
2004-05 13.1 204.6
2005-06 13.0 208.6
Data source Statistical Abstract Haryana
(2005-06) and Agricultural Research Data Book
Yield-gap Analysis
Crop Farmers yield (t/ha) FLD (t/ha) gap irrigated
Wheat 2.8 3.8 27 86
All oilseeds 0.8 1.2 29 25
All pulses 0.6 1.1 42 16
P. millet 0.4 2.0 56 8
Need for Comprehensive Solutions Focus
Technology Transfer (TT)
  • Farming system approach
  • Address small and marginal farmers concerns
  • Build rural knowledge economy
  • Capability development to access and use of new
    scientific knowledge
  • This requires
  • Scientists to develop situation specific
  • Professionals/para-professionals for fast
    dissemination of technology
  • Knowledge and skillful farmers for adoption and
    application of technology

Stress Points of TT System
  • TT service does not cover physical, social and
    economic aspects of an integrated farming system
  • Technology transfer for improving livestock
    productivity is covered poorly
  • Livestock sector largely managed by women- their
    skill and knowledge needs remain neglected
  • Fragmented approach of technology transfer needs
    integration all components (c to c) of farm
    business do not perform optimally
  • Uniform technology packages for all categories of
    farmers gender sensitivity atypical miss
  • Less emphasis on cautions and precautions for
    accepting use of agro-chemicals integrated
    solutions more a rhetoric and less a reality
  • Reach of technology transfer limited (typically
    to WWF), unable to offer real time solutions. Use
    of digital solutions only on margins

Operational holdings in India
Holding size (ha) and category Area () Holdings ()
lt 0.5, near landless 7.0 42
0.5-1.0, marginal 10.2 20
1.0-2.0, small 18.8 19
2.0-4.0, semi medium 23.8 12
4-10, medium 25.3 06
gt 10, large 14.8 01
Source Agricultural Research Data Book (2006)
Small and Marginal Farmers
  • Maximum concentration of poverty
  • Have less land more dependent population
  • Unemployment/underemployment common
  • Limited marketable surplus
  • Diversify agriculture more than large farmers
  • Affected more by resources inadequacies less
    due to technological inappropriateness
  • Suffer maximum distress during years of natural
  • TT method a potential strategy

A New Extension Model
  • Addresses a farming system and provides holistic
    solutions to raise income, employability and
  • Includes resource poor small marginal farmers
    (women also)
  • Provides real time solutions for all aspects of
    farming is multidisciplinary emphasizes
    partnerships combines traditional and advanced
    means and methods
  • Is village based, assures farmers participation
  • Focuses on education and training for
    intensification, multiple use of resources and
    vertical integration with a market value chain
  • Builds competence capacity for off-farm

Long-term Vision
  • Long-term vision of the extension model is to
    sustainably modernize agriculture in each village
    and to ensure that every rural person in
    employable age group (18-60 years) is employed
  • In short-term ( 5 years), mission is to partner
    with other extension/development agencies,
    grassroots level organizations, private service
    providers/agri-business houses for creating a
    sustainable village based real time technology
    transfer system for the development of
    agriculture in all its aspects leading to more
    income, larger employability ensured health of
    natural resources
  • The technology transfer system will be evolved,
    tested and applied in two village clusters of 10.

Context of New Extension Model
  • Income
  • Employment
  • Sustainability

Approach and Strategy
  • Focus Education and training for building
    knowledge and awareness for conservation
    agriculture, cost reduction, increasing livestock
    productivity, primary processing, off-farm
    vocations, protection and sustainable use of
    natural resources, use of non-conventional energy
  • Strategy Education and training, village based,
    use of conventional and digital means,
    partnerships, multidisciplinary and eco-centric

  • Technology transfer facilitators
  • Non-formal technology transfer agents
  • Networking of research and diverse development
  • ICT
  • Village-cluster based ATIC
  • District level ATI

Organization of New- look Extension System
  • Village based Two enterprising farmers having
    high school qualification to work as grassroots
    level extension workers for technology transfer
  • They will be supported by full time
    professional-graduate (PG) TT facilitators
  • PG will also facilitate backward-forward links
    with markets, credit extending other agencies,
    KVKs HAU scientists
  • Assess farmers need and analyze constraints
    throgh diagnostic studies
  • Based on diagnostic analysis he will prioritize
    the activities in association with the two
    selected farmers
  • Team of graduates pursuing agri-business and
    agri-clinic scheme will be linked to new TT

Organization of New- look Extension System Contd.
  • Agriculture Training Institute Organized on the
    pattern of ITI, ATI will build-up a class of
    expert farmers and self-employable work force
    in different areas of agriculture for
    productivity enhancement-
  • Trainings in low volume and high income
    diversified areas
  • Primary processing, use of alternate source of
    energy, nutrient rich feed blocks preparation,
    seed production
  • Apply a right mix of education and training with
    emphasis on skill building in real life
  • Use of conventional and ODL will be integrated to
    enable maximum participation of WWF

Organization of New- look Extension System Contd.
  • Technology mediated information transfer for
    learning and skill building
  • Apply real time transfer of technology to
    modernize agriculture
  • To develop decision support expert systems
  • Link small and marginal farmers to markets
  • Develop off- farm employment capabilities and

Activities and Programmes
  • Philosophy
  • ATIC facilitates farmers participation in -
  • Real time information access
  • Technology transfer and application
  • Need based education for knowledge and skill
  • Establishing partnership for inputs and credit
  • Market links for remunerative prices

Reforms Required
  • Institutional reforms
  • Manpower demand projections to serve holistic
    development of agriculture and existing and
    emerging sectors of economy
  • Reorientation of course curricula to develop
    knowledge, skills and entrepreneurial mindset of
    students to take up self employment, perform in
    the job market, contribute to rural livelihood
    security and attract foreign students
  • Availability of competent faculty and qualified
    technical aides,
  • Linking research with industry and field
  • System reforms
  • Infrastructure rehabilitation and refurbishing
  • Smoothening of administrative procedures
  • Ensuring financial resource
  • Transformation of delivery systems through
    encouragement approach

Expected output and outcome
  • A village based extension system that provides
    real time solutions to all aspects of a farming
    system (from cultivation of crops to rearing and
    raising of livestock in unison to marketing of
    produce to its consumption and beyond)
  • Enhancement of income and employability leading
    to improved quality of livelihoods, particularly
    of small and marginal farm men and women
  • Enlarged possibilities for maintaining continuity
    of agriculture as an enterprise and sustaining
    quality of natural resources and rural
  • Availability of a model for harnessing synergy
    arising from multi-disciplinarily and
    multi-institutional functioning

And Finally
  • AE needs modernization of course curricula to
    focus on employability, economic growth,
    environmental security and gender sensitivity
  • AE programs initiate institutional and systemic
  • Addresses formal and non-formal education
  • Harnesses the power of tech-mediated delivery
  • Contd.

And Still Finally
  • The extension model suggested by me is not
    intended to replace the existing TT system
  • It rather strengthens its contribution by
    focusing more on farming as an integrated
    enterprise, village based extension, real time
    extension, gender mainstreaming, partnerships
    both with farmers and other agencies performing
    individually in the village
  • It looks for an improved system, a gender
    sensitive system, a robust system, a sustainable