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Introduction to Kingdom Stramenopila

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Evolution of similar features independently in different evolutionary lineages, ... in steel tanks, a tiny marine creature is capable of producing Omega-3 fat, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Kingdom Stramenopila


1
Introduction to Kingdom Stramenopila
  • Pl P 421/521
  • Lecture 20

2
Kingdom Stramenopila
  • Also Straminipila, colloquial name
    stramenopiles
  • Includes diatoms, chrysophytes, brown algae and
    some protozoa
  • Phyla of fungal-like organisms
  • Hyphochytriomycota
  • Labyrinthulomycota
  • Oomycota

3
Stramenopiles
  • Name means straw hair and was introduced by D.
    J. Patterson in 1989 based on tinsel-type
    flagellum
  • Presence of filamentous thallus in stramenopiles
    and Fungi is evidence of convergent evolution

http//Microscope.mbl.edu
4
Convergent Evolution
  • Evolution of similar features independently in
    different evolutionary lineages, usually by
    different developmental pathways

5
Eukaryotes--From Tree of Life Project
http//tolweb.org/tree?groupEukaryotescontgroup
Life
6
Stramenopiles Mitchell L Sogin and David J.
Patterson
7
Phylum Hyphochytriomycota
  • Occur in soil, fresh water and marine habitats
  • Saprotrophs or parasites on algae and fungi
  • Hyperparasites of Oomycete oospores and spores of
    AM fungi
  • Closely related to Oomycota

8
Characters
  • Cell walls contain chitin and cellulose
  • Thallus types similar to chytrids
  • Holocarpic or eucarpic (mono- or polycentric)
  • Zoospores with one anteriorly inserted tinsel
    flagellum
  • Sexual reproduction poorly known
  • 2 families, 6 genera, 23 species

9
Thallus types in hyphochytrids
10
Hyphochytrium catenoides
Eucarpic, polycentric thallus photo by D. J.
S. Barr
11
Phylum Labyrinthulomycota
  • Called marine slime molds
  • Parasitic or saprotrophic
  • On marine organisms such as mollusks, aquatic
    plants or on organic debris
  • Labyrinthula zosterae responsible for wasting
    disease of eelgrass (Zostera marina)

12
Characteristics
  • Ectoplasmic net produced by bothrosomes
    (sagenogens)
  • Thallus covered with thin, golgi-derived scales
  • Biflagellate zoospores with long, tinsel
    flagellum and shorter whiplash flagellum

13
Classification
  • Two families
  • Labyrinthulaceae (labyrinthulids)
  • Spindle-shaped trophic cells glide through
    ectoplasmic net
  • Zoospores have eyespots
  • Thraustochytriaceae (thraustochytrids)
  • Thallus covered with scales, anchored by
    ectoplasmic net and converted into zoosporangium
  • Zoospores lack eyespots, covered with layer of
    scales

14
Ectoplasmic net formed from bothrosomes trophic
cells have a single layer of golgi-derived scales
Trophic cells surrounded by ectoplasmic net
Labyrinthula zoospores contain a dark eyespot,
but lack surface scales
Zoospores lack an eyespot and are surrounded by a
single layer of scales
Thraustochytrium thallus wall composed of layered
scales formed by golgi apparatus
Thraustochytrium
15
Labyrinthula
Ectoplasmic net
http//www.botany.uga.edu/zoosporicfungi/labyrint.
htm
16
Labyrinthula trophic cells
bothrosome
http//www.arches.uga.edu/charla/labies.html
17
(No Transcript)
18
Eelgrass (Zostera marina)
  • Eelgrass beds are an important component of
    coastal areas
  • provide habitat to a diversity of animals
  • Provide food for overwintering waterfowl
  • Provide erosion protection

19
Wasting Disease of Eelgrass
  • Eelgrass populations on both sides of the
    Atlantic underwent major decline in 1930s
  • Recovery occurred slowly over 40 year period
  • Second decline occurred in 1980s
  • Causal agent identified as Labyrinthula zosterae

20
Rapid Blight Disease in Turf
  • Labyrinthula sp. was isolated from cool season
    turfgrasses including Poa (bluegrass), Lolium
    (ryegrass) and Agrostis (bentgrass) in 11 states
    in U.S. and now also in Scotland
  • First observed in southern CA in 1995
  • In Arizona, it is associated with high salinity
    irrigation water

http//www.bspp.org.uk/ndr/july2005/2005-41-2.jpg
21
Thraustochytrids
  • Ectoplasmic net and enzymes produced by
    thraustochytrids can grow into and degrade
    aquatic plants, mollusk shells, etc.
  • Schizochytrium and Thraustochytrium are used for
    commercial production of omega-3-fatty acids

22
Making food from water--Invisible but invaluable
raised in steel tanks, a tiny marine creature is
capable of producing Omega-3 fat, a product in
great demand.
                                      FAT-RICH FLOUR SINTEF scientist Jose Rainuzzo shows off a powder consisting of dried micro-organismsthat are rich in highly desirable fat. To put it very simply, you could say that we are trying to produce fish feed and dietary supplements from seawater, says SINTEFs Jose Rainuzzo. More precisely, the Peruvian scientist and his colleagues are exploring the properties of a micro-organism that lives everywhere in the ocean. The organism,Thaustrochytrids, has characteristics that place it on the boundary of the plant and animal kingdoms. SINTEF scientists believe that it could be a possible source of Omega-3 fat for aquaculture and for the health
http//www.ntnu.no/gemini/2005-01e/food.htm
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