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Aboriginal Peoples in Canada

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Title: Aboriginal Peoples in Canada


1
Aboriginal Peoples in Canada
  • Pre-Columbus and Post John Wayne

2
  • The people lived in peace and harmony without
    judging each other and in the spirit of
    non-interference.

3
Disruption of Our Peace
  • False assumptions
  • The first held Aboriginal peoples to be
    inherently inferior and incapable of governing
    themselves.
  • The second was that treaties and other agreements
    were, by and large, not covenants of trust and
    obligation but devices of statecraft, less
    expensive and more acceptable than armed
    conflict. Treaties were seen as a form of
    bureaucratic memorandum of understanding, to be
    acknowledged formally but ignored frequently.

4
Continued
  • The third false assumption was that wardship was
    appropriate for Aboriginal peoples, so that
    actions deemed to be for their benefit could be
    taken without their consent or their involvement
    in design or implementation
  • The fourth was that concepts of development,
    whether for the individual or the community,
    could be defined by non-Aboriginal values alone.
    This assumption held whether progress was seen as
    Aboriginal peoples being civilized or assimilated
    or, in later times, as resource development and
    environmental exploitation.

5
1340s
  • Norsemen from Iceland and Greenland are believed
    to have voyaged to what is now called
    Newfoundland.
  • There is archeological evidence of a settlement
    at LAnse aux Meadows on the northern peninsula
    of Newfoundland.
  • It is believed that the settlement was abandoned
    after conflict with the Beothuk

6
1453
  • Constantinople falls to the Turks and the
    Europeans no longer have land access to the
    Orient. They search for another passage West

7
1497
  • John Cabot set into a bay and named the area
    Terra Nova or New Found Land

8
(No Transcript)
9
1615
  • Three Recollet Friars were brought over for
    missionary work. A Friar, Gabriel Sagard writes
    The boys and young men of Canada and those
    particularly from the land of the Huron, have
    always had the capability of turning to evil as
    soon as they could, and the young to prostitution
    as soon as they were able to even mothers and
    fathers often act as pimps to their own
    daughters. One can attribute this partly due to
    their nudity, and partly due to the lack of
    spices and wine, and another part to their use of
    tobacco, the smoke of which stupifies them and
    goes straight to the brain.

10
1703
  • A missionary observed Among the Illinise there
    are several Hermaphrodites who go in a Womans
    habit, but frequent the company of both sexes.
    These Illinise are strongly given to sodomy.

11
1781
  • Smallpox epidemic in northern regions of North
    America kill countless Aboriginal peoples and
    leave them vulnerable to missionaries and
    trappers for survival. It is estimated that 90
    of the original population of the continent died
    from diseases that Europeans brought with them.

12
1800
  • Chronicle Sodomy is a crime not uncommonly
    committed many of the subjects of it are
    publicly known, and do not appear to be despised,
    or to excite disgust one of them was pointed out
    to us he had submitted himself to it, in
    consequence of a vow he had made to his mystic
    medicine, which obliged him to change his dress
    for that of a squaw, to do their work, and to
    permit his hair to grow.

13
(No Transcript)
14
1829
  • The Beothuk were the original inhabitants of
    Newfoundland when European settlers first
    arrived. The total Beothuk population at any one
    time is thought by present day archaeologists to
    have numbered between 500 and 1000 individuals.
    Following contact with the Europeans, disease,
    malnutrition, conflict with settlers and
    disruption of traditional Beothuk fishing sites
    by settlers resulted in the extinction of the
    Beothuk people by 1829.

15
1867
  • The British Parliament passes the British North
    America Act. Aboriginal peoples become wards of
    the Crown.
  • And whereas it is just and reasonable, and
    essential to Our Interest and the Security of
    Our Colonies, that the several Nations or Tribes
    of Indians, with whom We are connected, and who
    live under Our Protection, should not be molested
    or disturbed in the Possession of such parts of
    Our Dominions and Territories as, not having been
    ceded to, or purchased by Us, are reserved to
    them, or any of them, as their hunting grounds

16
1876
  • The Indian Act was passed, detailing the Canadian
    governments system for controlling and
    assimilating Indians.

17
1884
  • Bowing to pressure from churches, Ottawa passes
    an amendment to the Indian Act making attendance
    for Aboriginal children aged 7-15 years mandatory
    at the schools.

18
Disruption of our peace (contd)
  • In 1879, Sir John A. MacDonalds government
    created church run boarding (residential) schools
    to assimilate Aboriginal children into white
    culture.

19
(No Transcript)
20
Non- Aboriginal values were thought of as
superior to Aboriginal values
21
Male Role as prescribed by the Church
22
Female Role as prescribed by the Church
23
(No Transcript)
24
(No Transcript)
25
1907
  • The Montreal Star reports that 42 of children
    attending residential schools die before the age
    of 16 and calls the situation a national disgrace.

26
1921
  • Duncan Campbell Scott, the Deputy Superintendent
    General of the Department of Indian Affairs,
    writes to the Indian Agent in Brocket, Alberta
    urging him to dissuade Indians from dancing.

27
1942
  • The Canadian government invokes the War Measures
    Act and removes the Stoney Point people to nearby
    Kettle Point to create a military base.

28
1943
  • R. Hoey, the DIA superintendent of welfare and
    training, on receiving from the principal of St.
    Georges school (located on the Fraser River just
    north of Lyttons, BC) a set of shackles that had
    been used routinely to chain runaways to the
    bed and reports other abuses at school, wrote,
    I can understand how why there appears to be
    such a widespread prejudice on the part of the
    Indians against residential schools. Such
    memories do not fade out of the human
    consciousness very rapidly.

29
1960s
  • Thousands of Aboriginal children were taken out
    of their homes, families, communities and
    cultures and raised in non-Aboriginal middle
    class homes. Many wound up in the United States
    and some as far away as Europe.

30
1960
  • Indians finally receive the right to vote in
    Canada. They first get to exercise this right in
    1962.

31
Disruption of our peace has resulted in a painful
legacy
  • High rates of disease including , but not limited
    to, HIV/AIDS, Diabetes, TB etc. (one Aboriginal
    person per day is infected by HIV)
  • While Aboriginal people make up 2.8 of the
    Canadian population they represent 18 of the
    federally incarcerated population
  • Aboriginal people make up a large percentage of
    street involved people and those involved in the
    sex trade
  • Aboriginal women and children suffer from
    emotional, sexual and physical abuse at alarming
    rates
  • The life expectancy of Aboriginal people is less
    than the Canadian public.

32
1969
  • The Canadian government released its White Paper
    on Indian Policy, calling for the complete
    assimilation of Indians into Canadian society by
    eliminating our special status. The National
    Indian Brotherhood which was formed in 1968,
    successfully lobbied Parliament and the public to
    defeat the White Paper.

33
(No Transcript)
34
1985
  • Bill C-31 is passed into law in Canada

35
1989
  • Anishnawbe Health of Toronto started their Street
    Patrol which uses vans to do outreach on the
    streets of Toronto.

36
1990
  • The Oka Crisis The Kanesatake Mohawks take a
    stand after 270 years of land encroachment by
    governmental, religious and secular
    non-Aboriginal people.

37
1993
  • By 1993, 465 people are employed to deliver
    programs created by the National Native Alcohol
    and Drug Abuse Program (which was established in
    the mid-70s). To date, the program has funded
    some 400 community-based alcohol and drug
    treatment projects and 51 Aboriginal treatment
    centres across Canada.

38
1995
  • Dudley George was shot by police on the night of
    September 6, 1995 when more than forty OPP
    officers equipped with riot gear attacked a group
    of unarmed Aboriginal people occupying Ipperwash
    Provincial Park. After police withdrew without
    providing medical assistance to George. His
    family rushed him to the hospital themselves. He
    died that night.
  • The group was protesting the failure of the
    federal government to return land adjacent to the
    park that had been temporarily expropriated
    more than 50 years earlier.

39
1998
  • The Aboriginal Healing Foundation was created to
    promote healing from residential school trauma
    following discussions with residential school
    survivors.
  • Through the AHF it comes to light that the secret
    of sexual abuse has occurred to two generations
    of men in one Southern Ontario Aboriginal
    community. One priest was responsible for this
    assault on an entire community.

40
2000
  • The Assembly of First Nations reports that there
    is no recent information on suicide rates of
    First Nations people at the national level. Most
    recently published data for the period of 1979
    1993 shows that suicide rates among First Nations
    men are 2.6 times higher than for Canadian men in
    general and 4 times higher than average for First
    Nations women. First Nations youth aged 15-24
    were 4 to 8 times higher than the national
    average.

41
2002
  • It is estimated that one person of First Nations,
    Metis or Inuit descent is infected with HIV every
    day in Canada.
  • Aboriginal women represent almost 50 of the
    Aboriginal HIV epidemic.

42
2004
  • The new Liberal government in Ontario agrees to
    launch an inquiry into Dudley Georges death in
    1995. The George family drops its lawsuit on the
    strength of this promise.

43
2006
  • Former Premier Mike Harris appears before the
    Inquiry into Dudley Georges death and lies about
    his involvement in the decisions leading up to
    the fatal shooting.
  • Everybody knows
  • John Wayne is formally acknowledged as a fraud
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