THE FIRST HIGH-LEVEL BIOFUELS SERMINAR IN AFRICA PRE-REQUISITES FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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THE FIRST HIGH-LEVEL BIOFUELS SERMINAR IN AFRICA PRE-REQUISITES FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES

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Title: THE FIRST HIGH-LEVEL BIOFUELS SERMINAR IN AFRICA PRE-REQUISITES FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES


1
THE FIRST HIGH-LEVEL BIOFUELS SERMINAR IN
AFRICAPRE-REQUISITES FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOFUELS
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
  • 30th July -1st August, Ethiopia, Addis Abba,
  • Prof F.D Yamba

COMPETE Project Competence Platform on
Energy Crop and Agroforestry Systems for Arid
and Semi-arid Ecosystems - Africa
2
PRESENTATION OUTLINE
  • COMPETE BACKGROUND
  • PRE-REQUISITES
  • MARKETS
  • FEEDSTOCKS AVAILABILITY AT REASONABALE COST AND
    QUALITY
  • LAND SUITABILITY AND AVAILABILITY
  • PRODUCTION/TECHNOLOGIES
  • ECONOMICS
  • SOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
  • RESEARCH NEEDS
  • POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

3
COMPETE BACKGROUND
  • COMPETE Objectives
  • COMPETE will establish a platform for policy
    dialogue
  • and capacity building and identify pathways for
    the
  • sustainable provision of bioenergy
  • To improve the quality of life and create
    alternative means of income for the rural
    population in Africa
  • To aid the preservation of intact eco-systems in
    arid and semi-arid regions in Africa
  • To enhance the equitable exchange of knowledge
    between EU and developing countries

4
COMPETE BACKGROUND
  • COMPETE Main Activities and Results
  • To evaluate current and future potential for the
    provision of bioenergy in Africa
  • To facilitate South-South technology and
    information exchange capitalising the
    world-leading RDD in bioenergy
  • To develop innovative tools for the provision of
    financing for national bioenergy programmes and
    local bioenergy projects
  • To develop practical, targeted and efficient
    policy mechanisms for the development of
    bioenergy systems
  • To establish the Competence Platform to ensure
    effective dissemination and knowledge exchange

5
COMPETE BACKGROUND
  • COMPETE is co-funded by the European Commission
    in the 6th Framework Programme Specific Measures
    in Support of International Cooperation
  • The COMPETE Consortium consists of 44 partners
    from 5 continents.
  • African partners are from Botswana, Burkina Faso,
    Kenya, Mali, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and
    Zambia
  • European partners are from Austria, Belgium,
    Germany, Italy, Norway, The Netherlands, Sweden,
    and UK
  • Asian partners are from China, India, and
    Thailand
  • Latin American partners are from Brazil and
    Mexico
  • International partners are the AFDB, CI, and FAO

6
PRE-REQUISITESMARKETS
  • Markets are key component in biofuels development
  • Are influenced by knowledge on the fuel
    consumption of both gasoline and diesel,
  • And possible blending ratios which in turn are
    influenced by availability of feedstocks
  • Biofuels can completely displace fossil fuels in
    the corresponding end use equipment.
  • For example 100 ethanol flex cars.
  • However, to minimize costs of switching 100
    biofuels,
  • It is generally simpler to blend the proposed
    biofuel with the existing fossil fuel in
    proportions which will not require any
    modifications to the engine, such as E10, or B10

7
PRE-REQUISITESMARKETS
  • For example for SADC, at 10 ethanol blending,
    demand is estimated at 1.1 billion litres at 2000
    levels and increases to 1.5 billion in the year
    2015
  • In case of diesel, the SADC demand is currently
    estimated at over 3 billion litres per year at
    10 blending

8
PRE-REQUISITESFEEDSTOCKS(Ethanol)
  • Bio-ethanol is produced from crops such as sugar
    cane, sweet sorghum, corn, beet and wheat
  • A new generation of ligno-cellulosic
    bio-ethanol also includes a range of forestry
    products such as rotation coppices and energy
    grasses.
  • The main issues to consider are ethanol content,
    octane number, fractional distillation
    temperature/flash point, Calorific value

9
PRE-REQUISITESFEEDSTOCKS(biodiesel)
  • Biodiesel is made from seeds such as rapeseeds,
    sunflower, soy, palm, coconut or jatropha
  • The most important criteria for biodiesel
    feedstock is assurance of high quality feedstock
    supply as described by the following criteria
  • Iodine number (IN) indication for fuel
    stability,
  • Net calorific value indication for energy
    content,

10
PRE-REQUISITESFEEDSTOCKS(biodiesel cont)
  • Cold filter plugging point (CFPP) indication for
    winter operability,
  • Cetane number indication for ignition behaviour.
  • Distillation curve indication for smoothness of
    combustion.

11
PRE-REQUISITESLAND SUITABILITY
  • It is essential that various models are used to
    develop land suitability maps which in turn
    provide appropriate suitability maps which
    subtracts other land uses and takes account of
    soil suitability and agro-climatic data for a
    particular feedstock
  • Ideally, marginal lands are supposed to be used
    to grow Jatropha
  • For ETHANOL-The highest stem yield of sweet
    sorghum varieties are obtained on phaeozems
    (Very dark brown soils of very high productivity)

12
PRE-REQUISITESLAND VAILABILITY AND FEEDSTOCK
POTENTIAL
  • Based on the suitability maps, land availability
    on one hand, and feedstock potential at different
    levels of penetration on the other, can be
    determined.
  • The obtained data can now be compared with the
    feedstock requirements being recommended for a
    particular project

13
PRE-REQUISITESPRODUCTION/TECHNOLOGIES-Ethanol
  • Processes
  • Fermentation and distillation for sugar based
  • Hydrolysis/fermentation/distillation for starch
    based (e.g. corn) and cellulose based (e.g. pulp)
  • However, the hydrolysis route is more costly and
    requires more research in terms of improved
    innovation on technology and economics of
    production

14
PRE-REQUISITESPRODUCTION/TECHNOLOGIES-Biodiesel
  • Processes
  • Base catalysed transesterification of the oil
    with alcohol
  • Direct acid catalysed esterification of the oil
    with methanol (commonly used)
  • Conversion of the oil to fatty acids, and then to
    alkyl esters with acid catalysts

15
PRE-REQUISITESECONOMICS
  • Despite the existence of a range of conversion
    technologies, the biggest challenge is the
    availability of feedstocks at reasonable cost and
    sufficient quantities.
  • Although there is a long list of feedstocks
    available, economics of transformation are rarely
    competitive with current fossil fuel cost.
  • In some cases, national feedstocks are not
    sufficient to satisfy technically acceptable
    blending ratios, such as 10 ethanol in petrol
    (E10).
  • Economics of production is crucial for successful
    implementation of biofuel development programmes.

16
PRE-REQUISITESECONOMICS
  • In this regard it is important that knowledge and
    capacity are available to select the appropriate
    technology and feedstock, which will yield
    production costs that are competitive with fossil
    fuel.
  • For example, lessons can be learned from economic
    analysis undertaken for selected feedstocks in
    various countries for ethanol and biodiesel

17
PRE-REQUISITESECONOMICS
18
PRE-REQUISITESECONOMICS
  • Two other important factors to consider are
    international crude oil prices and the local
    taxes, levies and margins as shown below

19
PRE-REQUISITESECONOMICS
20
PRE-REQUISITESSOCIO-ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
  • The production of crops for biofuels requires
    improved efficiencies and sustainability in the
    way land is used as marginal lands can be used.
  • Stringent management must be carried out to
    achieve maximum yield and high productivity.
  • Agronomic factors, e.g. rapid increase in price
    of fertilisers can negatively impact on the
    optimum application which will prevent the proper
    growth and development of the plant.
  • Likewise, harvesting and management of available
    water is equally important for maximum production
    of the crops.

21
PRE-REQUISITESRESEARCH NEEDS
  • To improve on the availability and quality of
    suitable feedstock suitable for local conditions,
    more research is required on the feedstock
    characterisation and optimisation of feedstock
    life cycle.
  • In addition, economic analysis on feedstock
    suitability and appropriate technologies for
    conversion should provide direction towards
    cost-effective solutions.
  • As an alternative to biodiesel esterification,
    requiring imports of methanol, pure plant oil
    applications in adapted engines should be
    investigated further, as well as alternatives to
    esterification.

22
PRE-REQUISITESRESEARCH NEEDS
  • Also, appropriate biofuel logistics and transport
    issues need addressing to ensure compatibility
    with the existing infrastructure.
  • The use of GIS technology for resource assessment
    provides opportunities to identify feedstock
    availability in a comprehensive way.
  • Harvesting and storage of the feedstock raw
    material requires improvement to compaction
    techniques to increase the energy density.
  • Additionally, biofuel quality standards may
    require adaptation to suit local requirements.
  • To answer such questions, research and human and
    financial capacity is required, however this is
    often lacking in African countries

23
PRE-REQUISITESPOLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Implement National Biofuel Strategies
  • African Governments should formulate strategies
    aimed at addressing critical issues such as
    promoting local demand for biofuels as a share of
    the fossil fuel market, determine blending
    ratios establish biofuel standards, recommend
    production modalities and consider environmental
    and social concerns and providing appropriate
    incentives.
  • Institute Legal and regulatory framework
  • African Governments to set up legal and
    regulatory framework aimed at guiding and
    regulating the biofuel industry.
  • Enforce sustainable use of land and resources to
    avoid negative environmental impact of the
    biofuel industry.

24
PRE-REQUISITESPOLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Promote integrated agro-energy farming policies
  • African Governments to take into account the
    interconnectedness of the biofuel industries with
    livestock, farming, fisheries, and the
    conservation of forests and watershed areas to
    ensure maximising national benefits and
    sustainable development.
  • This integrated approach is also important for
    coherent and sustainable water and land
    management.

25
PRE-REQUISITESPOLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Support Biofuel Research
  • African Governments should support local regional
    research into suitable feedstocks process and
    logistics optimisation economic analysis for
    cost effective solutions adapting and transfer
    of technologies, such as ligno-cellulosic
    conversion searching locally appropriate
    alternatives to existing biofuels resource
    assessment, including the use of GIS and support
    laboratory capacity for the analysis of biofuel
    produced to ensure compliance with quality
    standards.

26
THE END
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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