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Cospas-Sarsat

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National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service ... 1967 16-year old girl starves to death after waiting two months for rescue. History ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cospas-Sarsat


1
(No Transcript)
2
Cospas-Sarsat
Department of Commerce National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration National
Environmental Satellite, Data and Information
Service Office of Satellite Data Processing and
Distribution Direct Services Division
3
Cospas-Sarsat
Cospas COsmicheskaya Systyema Poiska Aariynyich
Sudov which translates loosely into Space
System for the Search of Vessels in
Distress Sarsat Search and Rescue Satellite
Aided Tracking Cospas-Sarsat provides,
free-of-charge, distress alert and location
information to search and rescue authorities
anywhere in the world for maritime, aviation and
land users in distress.
4
Rescues
Persons rescued world-wide since
1982 gt11,000 Persons rescued in United States
since 1982 gt 4,000
5
History
1950s Concept of Doppler tracking developed to
locate transmitters on earth surface using
satellites
1972 Congressmen Boggs and Begich lost in Alaska
1970 Congress mandates carriage of 121.5 ELT on
general aviation aircraft
1960s Emergency beacons operating at 121.5/243
MHz used by military
1967 16-year old girl starves to death after
waiting two months for rescue
1976 Canada, France and United States begin
development of the SARSAT program
6
History
1979 - Memorandum of Understanding among agencies
in Canada, France, USA and former USSR
1988 - International Cospas-Sarsat Program
Agreement signed by governments of Canada,
France, USA and former USSR
1983 - Launch of Sarsat-1
1999 C/S Phases out 121.5/243 MHz
1998 - GEOSAR operational
1982 - Launch of Cospas-1, first save
1992 - Russia assumes responsibilities for the
former USSR
1985 - Cospas-Sarsat declared operational
7
Cospas-Sarsat Program
The following 28 countries are also formally
associated with the Cospas-Sarsat Program as
Ground Segment Providers or User States (two
organizations in Hong Kong and Taipei also
provide ground segment equipment) Algeria Austr
alia Brazil Chile China (P.R.) Denmark Germany
Greece India Indonesia Italy Japan Korea
(Rep. of) Madagascar Netherlands (The) New
Zealand Norway Pakistan Peru Saudi
Arabia Singapore Spain South
Africa Sweden Switzerland Thailand Tunisia Un
ited Kingdom
8
Organization
Cospas-Sarsat Council
Program Management
Cospas-Sarsat Secretariat
Administrative Support
Joint Committee
System Operation
Operational Working Group
Technical Working Group
Exercise Working Group
9
International Cooperation
International Maritime Organization UN
specialized agency responsible for improving
maritime safety (Mandates use of emergency
beacons)
International Civil Aviation Organization UN
specialized agency responsible for aviation
matters and improving civil aviation safety
(Mandates use of 406 MHz beacons)
International Telecommunications Union UN
specialized agency responsible for coordinating
global telecommunications (406 MHz beacon
specifications)
10
System Operation
GEO Satellites
LEO Satellites
Local User Terminal
Mission Control Center
Rescue Coordination Center
Emergency Beacons
11
Beacons
Manual or Automatic Activation 121.5/243
MHz Analog signal Approximately 600,000
world-wide and 270,000 in the United
States 406 MHz Digital signal Approximately
225,000 world-wide and 61,000 in the United
States Applications Maritime - Emergency
Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) Aviation
- Emergency Locator Transmitter
(ELT) Personal/Land - Personal Locator Beacon
(PLB)
12
Satellites
Two types of satellites Low-earth orbiting
(LEO)/polar orbiting (LEOSAR) and geosynchronous
earth orbiting (GEO or GEOSAR)
13
Satellites
LEO United States NOAA/TIROS (121.5, 243 and
406 MHz capability) - SARSAT Search and
Rescue Repeater (SARR) - Canada Search and
Rescue Processor (SARP) - France Russian
Nadezda (121.5 and 406 MHz capability) -
COSPAS GEO United States NOAA/GOES (406 MHz
capability) Indian INSAT-2B (406 MHz capability)
14
Satellites
Satellite Spacecraft Status Cospas-4 Nadezda
- 1 Operational Cospas-6 Nadezda -
3 Operational Cospas-8 Nadezda -
5 Operational Cospas-9 Nadezda-6 Operational
Sarsat-4 NOAA-11 Operational Sarsat-6 NOAA-1
4 Operational Sarsat-7 NOAA-15 Operational
Sarsat-8 NOAA-16 Operational GOES-8 Opera
tional at 75 West GOES-10 Operational at 135
West GOES-11 In-orbit Spare INSAT-2B Oper
ational at 93.5 East
15
Local Mode Operations (SARR)
121.5 243 406 MHz
16
Global Mode Operations (SARP)
406 MHz
17
Local User Terminals
LEOLUTs Track Cospas and Sarsat
satellites Recover beacon signals from
satellites Perform bit error checking/correction
on 406 MHz beacon messages Perform Doppler
processing to determine geographic
location Send resulting Doppler solutions to
associated Mission Control Center
18
Local User Terminals
GEOLUTs Track GOES and INSAT
satellites Recover beacon signals from
satellites Perform bit error checking/correction
on 406 MHz beacon messages Send resulting 406
MHz solutions to associated Mission Control
Center
19
Local User Terminals
42 LEOLUT Sites
20
Local User Terminals
7 GEOLUTs
21
Local User Terminals
Maryland
California
Guam
Texas
Hawaii
Alaska
Puerto Rico
United States LEOLUTs
22
Local User Terminals
United States LEOLUTs (Typical Configuration)
23
Local User Terminals
United States Mobile LUT
24
Mission Control Center
MCCs Receive data from national LUTs and
foreign MCCs Attempt to match signals coming
from the same beacon source Merge beacon signals
from the same source to improve location
accuracy Geographically sort data to determine
appropriate recipient of alert message Transmit
alert messages to search and rescue
authorities Filter redundant alert data Perform
System support and monitoring functions
25
Mission Control Center
24 MCCs
26
United States Mission Control Center
Spacecraft Telemetry Ephemeris Data
Communication Sites
24 MCCs
14 LUTs
USMCC
14 RCCs
7 SPOCs
Special Programs
27
United States Mission Control Center
28
United States Mission Control Center
USMCC Activity (approximately) Handle 250-400
121.5/243 alerts/day Handle 10-15 406 MHz
alerts/day Schedule and ingest data from 500
satellite passes/day Transmit 1200
messages/day Register 30 new beacons/day Update
60 beacon registrations/day Confirm 300 beacon
registrations/week Enter 35 incident feedback
reports/day
29
Rescue Coordination Centers
AKRCC
CGD9
CGD1
CGD17
CGD13
AFRCC
LANTAREA
CGD7
PACAREA
CGD8
CGD14
GANTSEC
More
Additional RCCs MARSEC, PRCC, JRCC Southcom
30
United States Cospas-Sarsat Program
Inland SAR
Maritime SAR
Research Development
System Operation
Representative to Cospas-Sarsat Program
31
United States Search and Rescue Program
Satellite Services, Environmental Information
SAR Services
DOC
DOI
SAR Facilities
Research and Development
NASA
DOD
Regulations for Radio Facilities
SAR Facilities
FCC
DOT
32
System Performance
Timing Alert notification in 5 to 120 minutes
depending on type of beacon, location and
satellite configuration Accuracy 100 meters to
20 kilometers depending on type of
beacon Reliability Depends on type of beacon
33
Problems
121.5/243 MHz Satellite Alerting System
Inefficient Numerous false alerts No
identification information available Unreliable
alerts (often originate from non-beacon
sources) False Alerts Diminishes integrity of
System Wastes SAR resources Possibly diverts
SAR resources from actual distress Interference
in Frequency Band Masks real distress signals
34
More Information
For more information visit the following web
sites http//www.sarsat.noaa.gov/ http//www.
cospas-sarsat.org/ http//www.uscg.mil/hq/g-o/g-
opr/sar.htm http//www.acc.af.mil/afrcc/ http
//poes2.gsfc.nasa.gov/sar/sar.htm
35
SARSAT Payload Description
36
SARSAT Payload
S/C Interface
37
SARSAT SARP-2 Description
38
SARP-x Description
  • Receives and processes the 406 MHz distress
    beacons transmissions
  • Measures the received frequency (accuracy 0.2 Hz)
  • Time tags the frequency measurement (accuracy ? 1
    ms)
  • Demodulates the message content (down to 34
    dB.Hz)
  • Format and store the above information.
  • Send to the SARR 1544.5 MHz transmitter the
    Processed Data Stream (PDS) consisting of real
    time and play back data.

39
SARP-x Description
  • Input bandwidth 406.01 MHz / 406.09 MHz (80
    kHz)
  • Two types of beacon periodic messages (50 s)
  • short message 0.44 s 400 bps
  • long message 0.52 s 400 bps
  • Capacity the present SARP-3 can receive and
    process 95 of the messages transmitted by 50
    distress beacons simultaneously active in the
    satellite visibility circle.

40
SARP-x Description
  • The present SARP-2 and SARP-3 memory size is 2048
    messages. SARP-3 memory may be increased by
    ground command up to 2560 messages.
  • Beacon messages are transmitted to SARR as soon
    as received and processed (real time).
  • Most recent messages is stored in place of the
    oldest one in the memory.
  • Memory is read in LIFO continuously when there is
    no real time messages to be transmitted
    (play-back).

41
SARP-x Description
  • Fully redundant
  • One unit Receiver-Processor Unit RPU
  • Receive antenna at 401 MHz and filters, also used
    on Tiros for the Argos-DCS, may be used on NPOES
    for the SARP and the Search and Rescue Repeater
    (SARR).
  • Mission data are sent to the SARR
  • an extra unit may be needed to adapt the A-DCS
    and SARP-3 Tiros interfaces to the NPOESS (TBC).

42
SARP-x Mechanical Interfaces
Length (u)
SARP-xx
Width (v)
Height (w)
Mass ()
Recever ProcessingUnit (RPU)
365 mm
280 mm
195 mm
18 kg
DCS Interface Unit ()(DIU) TBC
288 mm
210 mm
63 mm
4 kg
() without harness () may be shared with
A-DCS (TBC)
43
SARP-x Electrical Interfaces
  • Power consumption ? 35 watts
  • Pulse discrete commands 12 PDC
  • Level discrete commands 7 LDC strobe
  • Digital HK telemetry 15 TM points
  • Analog TM channels 20 TM channels
  • SARP-3 mission and instrument design are dated
    1999.
  • One cannot exclude some evolution between now and
    the N-POES SARP-xx actual development.
  • Technology evolution should be transparent for
    the satellite.

44
SARP-x Electrical Interfaces
N-POESS satellite
Receive antenna
401MHz/406 MHz
SARP-xx instrument
SARP InterfaceUnit (TBD)
Transmit antenna
power
Mission data
Cd and HK TM
RF accommodation hardware
SARRTransmitter Unit side A
1544.5MHz
Receiver Processor Unit (RPU)
side A
SARP
side B
side B
DCS
SARR ?
45
SARP-x Electrical Interfaces
N-POESS satellite
Receive antenna
401MHz/406 MHz
SARP-xx instrument
SARP InterfaceUnit (TBD)
Transmit antenna
power
Mission data
Cd and HK TM
RF accommodation hardware
SARRTransmitter Unit side A
1544.5MHz
Receiver Processor Unit (RPU)
side A
SARP
side B
side B
DCS
SARR ?
46
SARR
  • Fully redundant
  • Total size 1.6 cubic feet
  • Total weight 45 pounds
  • Total power consumpiton 47 watts

47
SARR Description
48
SARR Receiver Description
49
SARR - Transmitter
50
SARR - Transmitter
Sarsat SARR Baseband Frequency Spectrum
406 MHz Baseband
121.5 MHz Baseband
243 MHz Baseband
2.4 kbps PDS Baseband
0
6 dB
6 dB
-10
                                         
-20
-30
Relative Level of Integrated Power in Each Band
(dB)
5.0
71.0
130.0
210.0
34.5
59.5
117.0
2.4
170.0
94.0
47.0
Baseband Frequency in kHz   Note Drawing not to
scale and bandwidths given are 1 dB bandwidths
51
SARSAT Telemetry Commanding
52
SARP-2 (Analog Telemetry)
Temperature Receiver Processer Unit USO USO
Thermal Regulation SPU Box Converter Power SA
RP Converter 5v, -5v SARP Converter 12v,
-12v SARP Converter 28v Main Bus voltage
53
SARR (Analog Telemetry)
Transmitters Current (A/B side) Output Power
(A/B side) Temperature (A/B side) Baseplate
Temperature Receivers AGC (121.5/243/406) (A/B
side) Temperature (121.5/406) (A/B side) Power
Telemetry and Command Temperature (A/B
side) 28 Volt monitor 16 Volt monitor (A/B side)
54
SARP (Digital Telemetry)
SARP Relay A Status SARP Relay B Status DRU 1/2/3
Status SARP Time Clock Pseudo-Message Memory
ON/OFF Read Continuously Read Single
Shot Read/erase Single Shot Receiver Bandwidth 1
(406.01 406.09) Receiver Bandwidth 2 (406.01
406.05) Receiver Bandwidth 3 (406.01
406.037) Probably wont be available in SARP-x
55
SARR (Digital Telemetry)
SARR 121.5 Redundancy Switch SARR 243 MHz
Redundancy Switch SARR 406 MHz Redundancy
Switch SARR Tx Ouput RF Redundancy Switch
56
Telemetry Processing
NOAA CDA
Digital Telemetry Count
SOCC Take Appropriate Action
NOAA SOCC/IPD
Digital Telemetry Count
Engineering Units
Telemetry Volts
USMCC
CMCC
FMCC
DND
CNES
57
Commands
SARR Enable/disable Select Side (A/B) Change
modulation index (Rx Attenuations) Receiver Gain
Mode (Fixed or AGC) SARP Enable/disable (SARP,
DRUs, Pseudo-mode) Memory Commands Bandwidth
Selection
58
Monitoring/Commanding
Consultation
Consultation
C/S Ground Segment, USMCC, SOCC
Commands
CMCC
FMCC
SPE
SPE
USMCC
SOCC
Notification to Cospas-Sarsat
Verification
USMCC
59
Coordination
International Cospas-Sarsat Programme Agreeement
SARSAT Memorandum of Agreement
Supports
National Search and Rescue Committee
SARSAT Project Plan
Supports
Supports
Interagency Memorandum of Agreement
Telemetry and Command Procedures
National Search and Rescue Plan
Supports
Letters of Agreement
Cospas-Sarsat Program Plan
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