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A case study of implementation of international mindedness in the IB Diploma Programme in a Hong Kong second language Chinese classroom

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Title: A case study of implementation of international mindedness in the IB Diploma Programme in a Hong Kong second language Chinese classroom


1
A case study of implementation of international
mindedness in the IB Diploma Programme in a Hong
Kong second language Chinese classroom
AIE Conference in DOHA, QATAR Research
Report Faculty of Education, The University of
Hong Kong LAU Kwok Ling PhD candidate, Faculty of
Education, the University of Hong Kong Supervisor
Dr. Mark Shum 21 October 2012
2
Abstract
  • This study aims at examining the concept of
    ?international mindedness' as it is evidenced in
    the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme
    (IBDP) in a Chinese as a second language
    classroom in an international school.
  • The research methodology includes in-depth
    semi-structured interviews, classroom
    observation, classroom discourse analysis
    (Christie, 2008), and text analysis of students'
    work by using Systemic Functional Linguistics
    (SFL) (Halliday, 1994), Appraisal Theory (Martin
    and White 2005).

3
Abstract
  • The findings show how the teacher in this study
    could be said to have demonstrated ?international
    mindedness in her teaching, and how students
    expressed ?international mindedness in their
    representations of values and knowledge. The
    study concludes that IB curriculum officers and
    educators should consider how to effectively
    promote international mindedness in IB curriculum
    and assessment development.

4
Statement of the problem
  • There are very few in-depth studies on examining
    the concept of ? international mindedness ' in
    Chinese as a second language in the IB Diploma
    Programme in Hong Kong, thus this study will fill
    the gap.

5
Research questions and Methodology
Research Questions Research methodology
How do the teachers of Chinese as a second language of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme implement international mindedness in teaching? Classroom observation, In-depth interview teachers with semi-structured questions. Classroom discourse analysis (Christie, 2008) , Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) (Halliday, 1994) and Appraisal theory (Martin and White 2005) will be used.
6
Research questions and Methodology
Research Questions Research methodology
How do the students of Chinese as a second language of the Diploma Programme learn international mindedness in learning? Classroom observation, In-depth interview students with semi-structured questions. Classroom discourse analysis (Christie, 2008) , Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) (Halliday, 1994) and Appraisal theory (Martin and White 2005) will be used for student text analysis.
7
Literature Review What is international
mindedness?
  • Haywood (200786-87) suggests these components
    are essential to the process of international
    mindedness
  • Curiosity and interest in the world around us,
    based on knowledge of the earth and on its human
    and physical geography.
  • Open attitudes towards other ways of life and a
    predisposition to tolerance as regards other
    cultures and their belief systems/

8
Literature Review What is international
mindedness?
  • Knowledge and understanding of the scientific
    basis that identifies the earths environment as
    a common entity of value to everyone
  • Recognition of the interconnectedness of human
    affairs (in place and time) as part of the
    holistic experience of life.
  • Human values that combine respect for other ways
    of life with care and concern for the welfare and
    well-being of people in general.

9
Literature Review What is international
mindedness?
  • Skelton (2007380-388) defines international
    mindedness as international cultural
    understanding, the cultural connection, leaving
    the self and institutionalisation, the awareness
    of self in the West and East, and the awareness
    of others co-existing in the world, the highest
    form of good. He suggests that understanding,
    appropriate knowledge and sharing these skills
    with other subjects by authentic activities of
    global issues.

10
Literature Review What is international
mindedness?
  • Walker (2005) summarizes six important
    characteristics of international education as
    follows
  •  Communication knowing how to access information
  • Negotiation the skills of persuading people to
    comprise or change their minds

11
Literature Review What is international
mindedness?
  • Political awareness understanding why nations
    have particular priorities
  • Cultural understanding recognizing that
    different groups have different mindsets.
  • Global issues studying issues that impact across
    nations
  • Criteria for truth how do we judge what is right
    or wrong? (p.1)

12
The core values and attitudes of IB School
Curriculum
  • The core values and attitudes of IB School
    Curriculum for enhancing Education for Peace
    include
  • 1. Human Rights and democracy
  • 2. Cooperation and Solidarity
  • 3. Preservation of Cultures
  • 4. Self and others
  • 5. Internationalism
  • 6. Protection of the Environment
  • 7. Spirituality
  • International Education Bureau, p.4
  • http//www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/Innovation/
    inno100e.pdf

13
The core values and attitudes of IB School
Curriculum
  • Values related to Self and Others
  • Self awareness, reliance, esteem, and
    discipline
  • Respect and empathy in our relationship with
    other loving and caring
  • Moral courage
  • Open-mindedness, trust truthfulness,
    tolerance, equanimity and reconciliation
  • Inquiry and creativity
  • International Education Bureau, p.4
  • http//www.ibe.unesco.org/publications/Innovation/
    inno100e.pdf

14
What is international mindedness?
  • The definitions of international mindedness can
    be summarized as communication, negotiation,
    knowledge, intercultural understanding, political
    awareness, curiosity and interest in global
    issues, open attitudes, criteria for truth, human
    values, critical thinking and problem solving
    skills, collaboration and creativity.

15
Research Methodology
  • 3.21 Choice of the Case Study
  • School C was opened in 1983. School C has been
    authorized as an IB school and it has been
    authorized to offer the IB Chinese B Diploma
    Programmes beginning in 1991.
  • Since the choice of the representative cases
    contributes much to the external validity of the
    case study, it is important to show that the
    school in question is typical example of the
    implementation of an IB Chinese Diploma
    Programme. I shall focus on Christie Classroom
    discourse analysis Curriculum Macrogenre in the
    Year 12 Chinese curriculum IB Diploma classroom.
    The average of students age is 17 year old.

16
Curriculum initiation
  • In the preparation, teacher gave an orientation
    of the unit plan objectives in the first lesson.
    Teacher set the task and gave the instructions
    about the aims of tasks, students were expected
    to listen and understand the focus on the task by
    group discussion and research and group
    presentation of their findings and then they have
    to write an exposition essay by independent
    construction.

17
Curriculum initiation
  • Teacher Have you even pay attentionother than
    Hong Kong, we have discussed the events in Japan,
    Middle East, what is the name of this land in
    North Africa? Libya, very good, just Libya? What
    has happened in Libya?
  • A male student Civil war
  •  Teacher The political situation in Libya?
    Political turmoilthis means the situation of the
    political system. Unrest. What is the meaning of
    unrest? Turbulence. What is the meaning of
    turbulence? Stable or not stable?
  • Student Unstable.

18
Curriculum initiation
  • Teacher I think one of the reasons that were
    being mentioned earlier has slightly affected the
    oil price. One reason. Anyone know? OK. But I
    know you must be aware of the instability of
    political situation in Libya is associated with
    the rise of oil prices, so Japan's nuclear
    radiation also related to the rising oil price,
    how?
  • Is that any relation between these three points
    (one, two and three) that I just mentioned and
    rising oil prices?
  • Teacher In fact, the events in this world tend
    to correlate with each other. One, two, three,
    yes , you three just say that these three events
    are correlated with each other. So what makes
    them correlate with each other?
  • A male student Disaster.

19
Curriculum initiation
  • Teacher
  • Very good! After this nuclear radiation accident,
    Japan's nuclear power plants, nuclear radiation,
    what causes nuclear radiation in this accident?
    Since the nuclear power plant has been demanded
    and it has to be closed after it is demanded. It
    cannot produce electricity any longer. Because of
    this event, other countries that have nuclear
    power plants have to take some measures to
    prevent the same type of accident occur to them
    and some of them even have to consider closing
    down their nuclear power plants.

20
Curriculum initiation
  • Teacher This is why so many countries such as
    America, European countries, those NATO
    countries, China pay attention to Libya even they
    are so far away from Libya. That is due to their
    ulterior motives (?????), right? Well, after the
    political unrest in this country, he is...
  •  A male student China has nothing to do with
    this issue. No, China has something
  •  Teacher China has something to do with this
    issue.
  • (Teacher indicated the Libya civil war affected
    the oil production. Western countries had sent
    military troops to Libya. Students were not sure
    whether the Libya civil war has impact on
    Chinese. Thus, the teacher indicated that Chinese
    had relationship with Libya and Chinese workers
    worked in Libya.)
  • Teacher Has someone from China even been to
    Libya? Yes
  •  A male student Yes.

21
Curriculum initiation
  • Teacher Right, OK. Therefore, How does rising
    oil prices related to those three issues
    mentioned earlier? What do those issues mentioned
    earlier have in common? All of the issues are
    energy issues. Energy issues, well, energy issues
    cause a lot of other problems, including what
    are the problems that nuclear radiation will
    cause? Is that any effect on the society?
  • A male student This is due to the desire (-ve
    judgment) of that person in Libya. He wants to
    seize power. He believes (-ve judgment) that he
    could control the resource in Libya.
  • Teacher Yes. After he gains control of the
    resource in Libya, then he will do business with
    other countries.

22
Curriculum initiation
  • Teacher guided the students the correlation of
    the world events. Students give the possible
    suggestions about the oil prices and civil war
    and the impact on the world because of the impact
    of globalisation.
  • In the further discussion, teacher guided the
    students to make a judgment and evaluation on
    America, European countries and NATO countries in
    Lybias civil war because of economic interest
    rather than fighting for social justice because
    of the impact of nuclear accident on energy
    crisis around the world.

23
Scaffolding in Curriculum Negotiation
  • Teacher I also want to show you Greenpeace and
    the oil spill in Gulf of Mexico. In these
    websites, the problems and solutions for energy
    and environmental issues are being included. Some
    of the special reports in this website are very
    useful. The terms are also available here.
    Climate change, energy crisis and the solution
    to those issues, what we can do to help?
  • Teacher This is the file that contains
    information about the food pollution as a result
    of Japan earthquake. Look, the threat of
    radiation is an impact. (-ve judgment) Then, in
    addition, the feeling of various countries (-ve
    AF) in regards of the earthquake in Japan, the
    situation after the earthquake and the panic
    buying of supplies are also contained in the
    file. Can all of you see those?
  • (Teacher scaffold the students to analysis
    energy crisis reasons and made the negative
    judgment and feeling, interdisciplinary of
    Greenpeace and the oil spill in Gulf of Mexico in
    the group discussion. )

24
Curriculum initiation
  • Rose (20078) indicates that teacher guided the
    students to learn by discussion in an unfolding
    interaction in the scaffolding learning cycle.
    Teacher probed the questions about the current
    social issues at the beginning of the discussion
    in order to arouse students interest in the
    classroom interaction. The classroom learning
    atmosphere was opened and positive with mutual
    respect and mutual trust. Teacher encouraged
    students to express their opinions and make
    judgment in the discussion. Teacher is opened
    minded in the discussion and she affirmed the
    students in the discussion in order to
    encouraging and helping students to broaden
    international mindedness.

25
Collaborative learning
  • In the regulative register, teacher divided the
    students into groups after the discussion.
    Teacher indicated students have enough ideas to
    start the discussion by collaborative learning in
    order to cultivate students confidence and
    abilities in developing inquiry skills and
    critical thinking skills.

26
Curriculum Negotiation and Co- construction
  • Group discussion
  • Male student C When radiation accident occurred
    in a place, the food that is produced from that
    place can be polluted by radiation as well. This
    causes people to lose confidence towards food
    from Japan. (-ve judgment) Therefore, after
    Fukushimas environment has been polluted by
    radioactive, Japanese cannot live in Fukushima,
    the agricultural industry in Fukushima is also
    influencedas well as some gene transformation,
    for example, physically disability and
    intelligent disability.
  • Female student A We can also try to use
    technology to solve the problem of radiation.
  • Male students E We should have more research in
    order to find the solution, because currently,
    this is the second nuclear issue that is
    impacting the whole world. So, the current
    technology is not really that advance. (-ve
    judgment)
  • ?

27
Inquiry based learning
  • Then, the teacher applied inquiry based learning
    to explore the information and seeking truth by
    questioning. She used open-end questions and open
    mindedness strategies in the students discussion
    which can encourage students engagement and
    critical thinking in the evaluation of Libya
    civil war, and nuclear power plant and making
    judgment on social justice. Teacher is a role
    model of students as a researcher and life long
    learner to pursue the knowledge and truth by
    research.

28
Interdisciplinary knowledge
  • Teacher also guided the students to analysis
    energy crisis reasons, and interdisciplinary
    knowledge in the group discussion. Students
    learn how to elaborate the reasons of energy
    crisis and then linked the issues and transfer
    the knowledge.
  • Students explore and elaborate more problems of
    relationships among social issues such as air
    pollution, health issues and the environmental
    issues caused by nuclear radiation. They were
    guided to develop organisation, elaboration and
    evaluation skills in the discussion.

29
Self-reflection on personal beliefs and moral
values
  • Teacher has open mindednenss to encourage
    students to learn from the peers through
    discussion and critical thinking. Teacher uses
    probing questions to engage students in
    self-reflection on personal beliefs and values.

30
Individual Construction Independent writing
  • First, the economic system in many countries
    is based on energy, such as Arab countries and
    Russia. If the energy resources in these
    countries are used up, economic depression will
    occur and cause unemployment as result. Social
    and health care services will be lost and schools
    will be close. (negative appreciation)
  • Students analysis the reasons of overuse the
    natural resources, which caused social and
    economic problems. A causative process indicates
    the energy crisis caused economic recession,
    unemployment, and cut the funding of social
    services and medical care services, school
    closed. It also caused global food crisis which
    caused violent protests and riots.

31
Individual ConstructionIndependent writing
  • Secondly, crisis will also occur in
    agricultural industry. People's ability to
    survive will be threatened as well. The excessive
    use of water and fertilizers will lead to a lack
    of food. If the lower class of the society unable
    to cope with those problems, there will be riots,
    looting, and so on. During the global food price
    crisis occurred in 2007 to 2008, we have already
    seen the occurrence of countless turmoil. The
    future energy crisis will lead to more riots and
    more looting. The world will not be stable.
  • Students analysis the reasons of overuse the
    natural resources, which caused social and
    economic problems. A causative process indicates
    the energy crisis caused economic recession,
    unemployment, and cut the funding of social
    services and medical care services, school
    closed. It also caused global food crisis which
    caused violent protests and riots.
  • Essay Analysis of Student A

32
Curriculum Closure Peer Assessment
  • Teacher had marked the student essays before the
    lesson and gave some essays to students for peer
    assessments by groups. Students have to explain
    the assessment reasons. Teacher explained that
    student had shown different opinions on social
    issues with good organisation by using a lot of
    key words in exposition essay.

33
Curriculum Closure Peer Assessment
  • Male student A I think that for the language
    that he uses for this essay, we give him 9 points
    because he uses the appropriate word, the flow of
    the sentences in his essay is good. I really love
    some of the sentences that he uses for his essay.
  •  Teacher Good! What about the second one?
  •  Teacher The writers presentation and structure
    for the entire essay?
  •  Male student A The flow of the essay is very
    good.
  •  Teacher Appropriate, work well with his topic?
  • Teacher and students gave feedback on the
    assessments in curriculum closure.

34
Curriculum Closure Peer Assessment
  • Teacher This is normal, right?
  • Secondly, I think he does better in the aspect of
    cultural interaction for his essay since he has
    some questions for each topic that he discussed
    in the essay. Apprecn He also thought about
    the solution for these issues. When he was doing
    this essay, he was able to present it in a very
    structured manner (first, second, third and
    conclusion) and his final conclusion of the essay
    is very convincing. Good. So what about message
    at the end of his essay? I think that he gave
    enough information for his essay . He also used
    many professional terms to support his essay, so
    I give him 9 points, ok? Yes, if I say it like
    that, do you think that our conclusion for paper
    2 today is clearer?

35
Results and discussion
  • In curriculum closure, students and teacher give
    feedbacks
  • Students have
  • global views to compare energy crisis with
    different countries.
  • makes negative judgements on social sanction in
    ethics.
  • positive recommendation caring and
    understanding.

36
Results and discussion
  • Student 3
  • For many of us, I think our daily discussion
    includes like reading the news and whats going
    on in the world being aware of whats going on
    globally and so I dont think we put extra time
    than be for our IB studies to do this learning
    but definitely I think the IB encourages us to do
    it or for Chinese its one thing. I think we
    have to do research about global, we have the
    tools to expand our knowledge about that subject.

37
Results and discussion
  • Interview with students
  • Do you think it does try that promote the feeling
    of like sharing our values or making the world a
    better place. Because we dont have an
    opportunity showing like as in exam paper, but
    then they still just like the idea behind the IB
    during program is to teach you how to think and
    so maybe by teaching individuals how to approach
    concerned global issues like you empower the
    students to analyze different problems in our
    world.

38
Results and discussion
  • Interview with teacher
  • Teacher I think the meanings of mission
    statement are very extensive. I hope children has
    international mindedness and open-minded and has
    courage to express their own views in the
    classroom discussion.
  • It is very important that teacher to be a role
    model to promote international mindedness. She
    encourages students to learn and respect
    different point of views on social issues. As
    teacher is open-minded which will help students
    to develop international mindedness and critical
    thinking by inquiry based learning.

39
Results and discussion
  • It is very important that teacher to be a role
    model to promote international mindedness. She
    encourages students to learn and respect
    different point of views on social issues. As
    teacher is open-minded which will help students
    to develop international mindedness and critical
    thinking by inquiry based learning.

40
Results and discussion
  • Vogotsky (1978 86, Christie 2000, 125 )
    indicated that Zone of proximal development as
    follows is the distance between the actual
    development level as determined as by independent
    problem solving and the level of potential
    development as determined through problem solving
    under adult guidance or in collaboration with
    more capable peers.

41
Results and discussion
  • Christie (2006166-167) indicated that teacher
    and students shared the judgment on the
    significant of the event in the pedagogic device.
  • Halliday points out (2007187) that the second
    language learning likes the first language
    learning is a problem solving activity and
    information processing.

42
Results and discussion
  • In quality assurance, the IBO has to make sure
    that all IB schools follow the mission statement
    and promote the spirit of international education
    in the school authorization and evaluation
    processes. One IBO curriculum officer said,
  • The school must have a mission philosophy that
    lies well with IB mission philosophy. When we go
    into a school for the authorization and
    evaluation processes, we talk to the school and
    ask them the questions. How do they ensure that
    the mission statement is included in the school
    mission statement? Are the schools promoting
    internationalism?

43
Results and discussion
  • How do we promote international mindedness in the
    school in teaching and learning?
  • The classroom learning atmosphere was opened and
    positive with mutual respect and mutual trust.
  • Teacher and students need the ability to
  • think globally
  • cultivate intercultural understanding
  • supported by the school leaders and parents
  • work co-operatively and take responsibilities in
    society
  • think in a critical and systemic way.

44
Results and discussion
  • How do the sensitive political social issues can
    be assessed in the assessment?
  • I hope this study will contribute to promote
    effective implementation of international
    mindedness in teaching and learning Chinese as a
    second language in IB curriculum.

45
Reference
  • Christie, F. (2006). Pedagogy and the Shaping of
    Consciousness. London. Continuum.
  • Christie, F. Derewianka, B. (2008). School
    discourse. London Continuum.
  • Halliday, M.A.K. (1978). Language as social
    semiotic The social interpretation of language
    and meaning. Australia Edward Arnold (Australia)
    Pty Ltd.
  • Halliday, M.A.K. (1994). An introduction to
    functional grammar. Australia Edward Arnold
    (Australia) Pty Ltd.
  • Hallilday, M.A.K. (2000). An introduction to
    functional grammar. Beijing Foreign Language
    Teaching and Research Press.
  • Haywood, T. (2007). A Simple Typology of
    International Mindedness and Its Implications for
    Education. The SAGE Handbook of Research in
    International Education, London SAGE
    Publications Ltd. Page. p.86-87.
  • IBO (2009). IB Learner Profile Booklet.
    http//www.ibo.org./mission (July 2, 2009)
  • Martin, J.R. Rose, D. (2002). Working with
    discourse. Beijing Beijing University Press.
  • Martin, J.R. White, P.R.R. (2005). The Language
    of Evaluation Appraisal in English New York
    Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Morris (1996) The Hong Kong School Curriculum
    Development, Issues and Policies. Second edition.
    Hong Kong Hong Kong University Press, p123-128.
  • Skelton, M. (2007). International Mindedness and
    the Brain The difficulties of Becoming. The
    SAGE Handbook of Research in International
    Education, London SAGE Publications Ltd. Page.
    p.380-388.
  • Walker, G. (2005). What I have learned about
    international education? Biennial Conference of
    IB Nordic Schools. Stockholm 9 September 2005.
    (p.1-p.8)
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