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PROJECT PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATION

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Prof. P.O. Oladele Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti At Agricultural Entrepreneurship Workshop Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State May 11, 2016 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PROJECT PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND EVALUATION


1
PROJECT PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION, MONITORING AND
EVALUATION
  • Prof. P.O. Oladele
  • Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti
  • At
  • Agricultural Entrepreneurship Workshop
  • Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State
  • May 11, 2016

2
Outline
  • Overview of Project and Project Management
  • Project Life Cycle
  • Project Planning
  • Project Implementation
  • Project Monitoring
  • Project Evaluation

3
OVERVIEW OF PROJECT AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT
4
Overview of Project
  • A project is a unique endeavour to produce a set
    of deliverables within clearly defined
    constraints of time, cost and quality.
  • A project is an investment activity where
    resources are used to create capital assets which
    produces benefits overtime and has a beginning
    and an ending with specific objectives.

5
Project Vs. Programme
  • A programme is an ongoing development effort or
    plan.
  • A programme is therefore a wider concept than a
    project. It may include one or several projects
    at various time, with specific objectives linked
    to the achievement of higher level of common
    objective e.g. a health program may include a
    water project, as well as construction of a
    health center both aimed at improving the health
    of a given community which previously lacked easy
    access to these essential facilities.

6
Project Vs. Programme
  • Projects which are not linked with others to form
    a program are sometimes referred to as stand
    alone projects.
  • A project to build a feeder road from an interior
    agricultural district to a district headquarter
    may qualify to be a stand alone project.
  • When projects are designed to improve health of
    the community such as rural clean water supply
    project, health center construction project, pit
    latrine construction project and sanitary
    education project they can be referred to as a
    programme.

7
Project Vs. Business Operations
  • Projects are different from business operations
    in terms of uniqueness, timescale, budget,
    resources, risks and change.
  • Uniqueness Every project is different from the
    last one, whereas operational activities
    typically involves repetitive (if not identical)
    processes
  • Timescale A project has clearly specified start
    and end dates within which deliverables are
    produced to meet customers requirements.
  • Budget A project has a maximum limit to the
    expenditure within which the deliverables must be
    produced, to meet the customers requirements
  • Resources A project is allocated a specified
    amount of labour, equipment and material at the
    start.
  • Risk A project entails uncertainty and
    therefore carries business risks
  • Change The purpose of a project is typically to
    improve a situation through the implementation of
    change.

8
Project Management
  • Project Management is the capacity to marshal
    resources, lay out plans, program work and spur
    effort for a temporary endeavor which is finite
    in that it has a defined beginning and ending,
    and which is undertaken to create a unique
    product or service.
  • Project Management is the utilization of skills,
    tools and management processes to undertake a
    project successfully .

9
Project Management
  • Project management methodology includes
  • A set of skills specialized knowledge, skills
    and experience help to reduce the level of risks
    and improve the likelihood of success.
  • A suite of tools Project managers use several
    types of tools to ensure a projects success
    rate. These include templates, forms, registers,
    software, checklist, etc.
  • A series of Processes A suite of management
    processes are needed to monitor and control the
    project such as time management, cost
    management, quality management, change
    management, risk management, etc.

10
Measure of Project Success
  • A successfully managed project is one that is
    completed at a specified time, acceptable quality
    delivered on or before the deadline, and within
    the budget.
  • In addition, client satisfaction will indicate
    success and possibility of replication or
    sustainability.
  • Each of these parameters is specified in details
    during the planning phase of the project. This
    specification then forms the basis for evaluating
    the project during the implementation phase.

11
Rationale for Project Management
  • The essence of project management is to
  • Maximize chances of reaching the objectives of
    the project which fits with the specification,
    and respect or exceed the agreed QUALITY to be
    delivered in TIME, SCOPE and BUDGET
  • Strive for efficiency because of limited
    resources which are available, and the need to
    achieve the objectives of the project as earlier
    as possible

12
Key Measures on Project Management
  • Define the objectives, goals and products of the
    project e.g in animal health project you need to
    have objectives and goals of the project
  • Check for feasibility i.e is the project viable
    or not
  • Make a project plan or schedule of activities
  • Organize the people who are going to carry out
    the project and make sure that communication is
    clear
  • There is a need to have a baseline data
  • Then execute the plan
  • Control the activities and monitor the progress
    of the project

13
Key Measures on Project Management
  • Measure and assess the project against the
    baseline
  • Evaluate the project
  • Re-plan any changes to the project implementation
    with greater precision until project completion
  • Close the project
  • Learn lessons from the project

14
PROJECT LIFE CYCLE
15
Project Life Cycle
16
Project Life Cycle
17
Project Life Cycle ADDIE Model
  • ANALYSIS PRE-PRODUCTION
  • DESIGN PRODUCTION
  • DEVELOPMENT PRODUCTION
  • IMPLEMENTATION POST-PRODUCTION
  • EVALUATION POST-PRODUCTION

18
Project cycle stages
19
Project cycle
  • A cycle is a sequence of events which a project
    follows.
  • These stages (events) or phases can be divided
    into several equally varied ways, depending on
    the executing agencies or parties involved e.g.
    world bank, Africa Development Bank, etc
  • But some of these stages may overlap

20
Project conception
  • At this stage an idea regarding a required
    intervention in a specific area is conceived
  • The idea is usually formed through discussion
    with specialists and local leaders from the
    community as a need based issue and this is
    crystalized in to a proposal

21
Project conception Statement of Problem
  • A statement of the problem, not the solution.
  • Normally contains errors, ambiguities,
    misunderstandings
  • Need a written definition of requirements and
    deadlines
  • Should be clear, complete
  • It is usually rigorous to eliminate
    misunderstandings, contradictions, oversight of
    technical difficulties

22
Project Conception
  • Projects are conceived through
  • Need To make available to all people in an area
    minimum amount of certain basic material
    requirements a need assessment survey will
    establish the agency for intervention
  • Market demand This can be domestic or overseas
  • Resource availability This includes
    opportunities to make profitable use of the
    available resources
  • Basis of technology improvement

23
Project conception
  • Natural calamity These are mainly against the
    adverse effects of natural events such as floods
    and drought
  • Political considerations
  • usually identified by technical specialists,
    sometimes politicians
  • sometimes identified from other proposals to
    extend on-going programs
  • suggestions often arise due to present or
    anticipated lack of supply of some product

24
Project Identification
  • Potential projects arising from ideas which were
    formed or crystalized in the first stage are
    determined
  • The information in the proposal from project
    conception may be submitted by an individual or
    community representative to an agency capable of
    identifying an institution to provide the
    necessary support to realize the expectation

25
Project Identification
  • The type of information provided at this stage is
    usually general and descriptive in nature.
  • The information is basically provided to justify
    an intervention through a felt need in the
    community.
  • Usually some objective judgment is applied to
    assess the proposal or a set of proposals to
    establish if the proposal can proceed to the next
    stage of the cycle.
  • In many ways, stages one and two are so
    interlinked but some people call them
    identification phase.

26
Project Preparation
  • This stage involves a more thorough exercise of
    collecting data and information on the proposed
    project.
  • The exercise is performed by personnel with
    technical skills in consultation with the target
    and beneficiary community.
  • Project preparation contains design of a set of
    proposals that are feasible technically,
    financially and economically, and which are also
    socially acceptable

27
Project Preparation
  • Decisions are made on scope of the project,
    location, site and size amongst others.
  • The details of a feasibility study depend on the
    complexity of the project and on how much is
    already known about the proposal.
  • A succession of increasingly detailed feasibility
    studies are sometimes called for in corporate
    projects.
  • The feasibility studies provide opportunity to
    shape the project to fit its fiscal and social
    environment and exclude relatively poor
    alternative ways of achieving the project goals.
  • A careful preparation may cost up to 10 of the
    total projects investment, but this is absolutely
    necessary to ensure projects efficiency.

28
Project Appraisal
  • This involves a further analysis of a proposed
    project
  • At this stage, a critical review of the proposal
    is undertaken
  • A systematic and comprehensive review is
    undertaken by an independent team in consultation
    with project stakeholders
  • This provides an opportunity to re-examine every
    step of a project plan, and to examine if the
    proposal is justified before funding

29
Project Appraisal
  • This is based on project plan, but may involve
    new information if the appraisal team feels that
    some of the data used in preparation or some
    assumptions are faulty.
  • The implication of the projects in the society
    and the environment is also thoroughly evaluated
    and recommendations are made
  • Similarly technology, design, financial measures,
    commercial agents, incentives, economic
    parameters are variedly scrutinized

30
Project Appraisal
  • On the basis of an appraisal report decisions are
    based about whether to go on with the project or
    not
  • The appraisal report may also change the project
    plan or develop a new plan

31
Project Selection
  • This is achieved on the basis of stakeholders and
    the available resources
  • For example, treasury may impose a budget ceiling
    on ministries with a big portfolio of investment
    calling for prioritization of the important or
    core and low priority projects

32
Project Selection
  • Projects are usually selected based in part on
    numerical indicators of value of costs and
    returns (Return on Investment (ROI), Net Present
    Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), etc.)
  • large-scale projects look at the same as above,
    but also national income, income of typical
    farmer
  • the typical yardstick might be market price
    (actual price at which goods and services are
    traded)
  • sometimes market price is not used instead, a
    better indicator of value (shadow price) is used
    (shadow price value based on scarcity of the
    resource)

33
Negotiation and Financing
  • Once the project to be implemented is agreed on,
    for donor funded projects, discussions are held
    on funding and associated aspects of funding such
    as conditions for grants, repayment period and
    interest rates on loans
  • Flow of funds from the stakeholders and if there
    is co- financing or not
  • This culminates in an agreement document for the
    project which binds the parties involved during
    the implementation of the project

34
PROJECT PLANNING
35
Project Planning
  • This is a stage before actual the implementation
    begin or before the start of a new phase of
    implementation of the project
  • The exercise is conducted at the level of the
    project and involves the implementers,
    beneficiaries and the funding agencies i.e all
    the stakeholders to the project

36
Project Planning
  • Project planning involves enabling the project
    management team to address the important
    implementation issues including the realigning of
    project objectives, scope, financial arrangement
    and implementation schedule given the overall
    project structure and the resource and working
    environment
  • The likelihood of further changes occurring
    either in design or fiscal and policy environment
    that may affect the project are also discussed

37
Project Planning
  • During the exercise, the team should define
    clearly as possible the objectives and hierarchy
    of the projects objectives
  • One technique for defining and analyzing the
    objectives is the logical framework approach or
    goal oriented project planning approach

38
Stages of Project Planning
  1. Preliminary coordination with various parties
    (client, developer, government agency)
  2. Provide detail description of various tasks
    involved.
  3. Deriving project budget.
  4. Work on schedule.
  5. Project status report.
  6. Project termination.

39
Rationale for project coordination with various
parties
  • Define objectives scopes of the project.
  • Technical objectives are established.
  • Basic areas of performance responsibilities
    delegated.
  • Tentative schedules and budgets are worked out.

40
Key Elements of Project Plan
  • Overview
  • Short summary of the objectives and scope of the
    project.
  • Objectives
  • Detailed statement of the goals (profit, etc .)
  • General Approach
  • Describes both the managerial and the technical
    approaches.
  • Contractual Aspects
  • A complete list and description of all reporting
    requirement.

41
Key Elements of Project Plan (cont.)
  • Schedules
  • Various schedule and lists of all milestone.
  • Resources
  • Budget.
  • Cost monitoring and control.
  • Personnel
  • Personnel requirements (subcontracting)
  • Evaluation Methods
  • Be evaluated against the standard.
  • Potential Problems
  • Anticipate potential difficulties.

42
Project Planning format
43
Project Planning format
44
Hierarchical Planning System
  1. Goals must be specified.
  2. Identifying the set of required activities to
    achieve the goals.
  3. Each activities and events can be decomposed into
    sub-activities and sub-events.

45
Planning Process Tools
  • Work Breakdown Structure (WBS).
  • Linear Responsibility Chart.
  • Bar charts and activity network
  • Gantt Chart

46
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Project sub-divided into hierarchical units of
    tasks, work packages, and work units.
  • Project is breakdown into a group of activities.
  • Each activity is breakdown into a task list.
  • This task list is put into a calendar.
  • Then, assign people, time, money and other
    resources.
  • Each part of unit tasks, work packages and work
    units is budget able, in terms of money, labor
    hours, and other requisite resources.

47
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
  • Schedule Task list into calendar.

48
Activities Work Breakdown Structure
  • Breakdown task into activities
  • Top-down refinement possible
  • List activities which form a single operation or
    function which you know is achievable

49
Work Breakdown Structure Example
Goal
Activity
Activity
Activity
Activity
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
Task
50
Work Breakdown Structure Example
Replace Car
Choose Make/Style
Shop for Car
Make Purchase
Define Needs
Body
Negotiate
Mileage
Online
Finance
SUV?
Space
Dealers
Prep
Make?
Features
Buyer
Receive
Cost Limit
Colors
Set Price
51
Bar charts and activity networks
  • Graphical notations used to illustrate the
    project schedule
  • Show project breakdown into tasks. Tasks should
    not be too small. They should take about a week
    or two
  • Activity charts show task dependencies and the
    critical path
  • Activity Bar charts show schedule against
    calendar time

52
Task durations and dependencies
What is the minimum total duration of this
project?
53
Activity network
54
Activity bar chart (Gantt chart)
slack time
one week, 5 business/working days
55
Gantt chart
56
Staff allocation
57
Task Allocation
  • Assign tasks to specific people (or teams)
  • Order tasks so that they occur in a logical
    sequence
  • Match tasks to abilities of the team
  • Allow for flexibilities the team can do
    sub-planning
  • Match task with personalities and goals
  • Person 1 needs more responsibility
  • Person 2 needs more detail
  • Person 3 needs to learn how to use the
    fluorescent microscope
  • One person (or team) may do multiple tasks (e.g.
    to reduce boredom).
  • Do not overspecify

58
Time Estimation
  • Start at the bottom of the tree. I.e. sum the
    time for individual subtasks to estimate total
    task time.
  • Times are based on previous experience
  • They are always wrong plan accordingly
  • Example How long should it take you to climb the
    statue of Liberty?
  • Estimate the number of steps
  • Estimate the time per step
  • Can do a preliminary study on a flight of stairs
  • Add extra buffer where tasks depend on one
    another
  • Weigh speed against quality

59
Linear Responsibility Matrix
  • Show the relationship of personnel (who is
    responsible for what) and to identify where
    special coordination is necessary.

60
Linear Responsibility Example
61
Linear Responsibility Example
62
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
63
Project Implementation
  • The implementation phase has three (3) phases
  • Investment period
  • Development period
  • Full development period

64
Project Implementation
  • The investment period forms the life of the
    project investment period referred to when the
    major project are undertaken, and can take 1-3
    years depending on nature of project
  • The development period occurs as production build
    up
  • Full development is reached when production peaks
    up
  • Both financial and economic analysis of the
    project relates to this time horizon

65
Stages in Implementation
66
Investment Period
  • This is the critical stage of any project since
    the objective of the earlier effort was to have
    the project to be undertaken.
  • At this stage the activities of the project are
    carried out and funds disbursed to facilitate the
    activities.
  • The management should ensure that the project is
    carried out according to the design, however,
    depending on the fiscal and policy environment
    there may be need for flexibility to the reality
    on the ground.
  • Monitoring or progress reporting therefore
    becomes crucial.
  • Implementation is a process of refinement or
    learning from experience and can be considered as
    a minicycle in a larger project cycle.

67
Project Implementation
  • Process whereby project inputs are converted to
    project outputs.
  • It may be looked at as
  • Putting in action the activities of the project.
  • Putting into practice what was proposed in the
    project document (i.e. transforming the project
    proposal into the actual project.)
  • Management of the project or executing the
    project intentions.

68
Project Implementation (cont.)
  • Implementation usually done by implementing
    agency (organization) that prepared the project
    and received funding for it.
  • Other organizations that participate in the
    implementation of the project
  • by way of collaboration, say by according good
    working relationship, extending technical advice
    or seconding their staff to the project
  • are referred to as co-operating agencies.

69
Approaches to project implementation
  • Top-down approach
  • Implementation mainly done by agencies from
    outside the community with limited involvement by
    the beneficiaries.
  • Bottom-up approach
  • Beneficiaries implement the project. Outside
    agencies may provide the financial resources and
    technical assistance.
  • Collaborative participatory approach
  • Both top-down and bottom-up approaches to project
    implementation are applied in the process.

70
Project Implementation Plan (PIP)
  • Project Implementation Plan includes
  • a) The project implementation schedule
  • This is concerned with
  • What activities can produce expected project
    outputs?
  • What is the sequence of these activities?
  • What is the time frame for these activities?
  • Who will be responsible for carrying out each
    activity?

71
Project Implementation Plan (PIP)
  • The following methods may be used to answer the
    above questions
  • Gantt chart
  • Critical Path Method (CPM) or Net work analysis
  • Project Evaluation and Review Techniques (PERT)
  • Simple formats

72
What is a GANTT Chart?
  • The Gantt chart is also referred to as the
    progress chart.
  • It is a chart showing the timing of project
    activities using horizontal bars.
  • It is one of the techniques of project
    scheduling, which depicts the frequency of
    activities and determines the period of time for
    implementation.

73
How to determine a GANTT chart
  • Determine the parts or implementation phases of
    the project and the sequence in which the
    associated activities shall be carried out
  • Then estimate the amount of time required for
    each activity
  • List the activities that can be carried out at
    the same time and identify those to be carried
    out sequentially

74
How to construct a GANTT chart
  • Time represented on the horizontal axis, and
    activities on the vertical axis.
  • Bars are entered to indicate the time period
    allocated for each activity and the state of
    progress at any particular point in time.

75
Example Maize farming project
  • Activity
  • Marketing
  • Threshing
  • Harvesting
  • Weeding
  • Planting
  • Preparing seedbed
  • J F M A M J J A
    S O N D
  • Time period/ months

76
The Simple Format
77
Project Implementation Plan (cont.)
  • b) The role of the implementing agency
  • The specific responsibilities of the key staff
    during project implementation and monitoring are
    outlined.
  • c) Beneficiary participation
  • The involvement of the beneficiaries in planning
    and implementation and what is expected of them
    is spelt out.

78
Project Implementation Plan (cont.)
  • d) Organizational structure and staffing
  • Here the following are sought
  • Project structure for purposes of management
  • Qualifications and skills for the staff
  • Job descriptions and specifications for the staff
  • Technical assistance if needed
  • e) Financial management
  • This looks at funds management, accounting
    period, financial reports and statements and how
    often they will be made?

79
Project Implementation Plan (cont.)
  • f) Reporting system
  • This looks at who will be reporting to whom and
    how often. There is need to design standard
    reporting formats.
  • g) Sustainability
  • The concept of sustainability is based on belief
    that project should result in benefits that have
    lasting effect. Project should be sustained
    beyond the life of funding - especially if it is
    a grant.
  • Project should not exhaust the available
    resources like raw materials and labor.

80
Project Implementation Plan (cont.)
  • Time control and remedial action
  • Time taken to implement project activities is
    one measure of successfulness of supervision or
    monitoring of project implementation.
  • Supervisor pays particular attention to time
    control measures, time scheduling and its
    supervision, time extension and postponement,
    damages for non-completion and defect or warranty
    period.

81
Project Implementation Plan (cont.)
  • Supervision of implementation of project
    schedule
  • This involves a set of checks and balances to
    ensure that the schedule is being adhered to.
  • To ensure that the time schedule is being
    adhered to, the project activity time listing can
    be of great importance.

82
Project Activity Time Listing
83
Factors affecting project implementation
  • Factors that lead to success of projects
  • Political Commitment
  • Simplicity of Design
  • Careful preparation
  • Good management
  • Involvement of beneficiaries/community
  • Factors and problems that lead to failure of
    projects
  • Financial Problems
  • Management problems
  • Technical problems
  • Political problems

84
Factors affecting project implementation
  • Other typical implementation problems
  • Poor scheduling of projects leading to delays in
  • Poor scheduling of projects leading to delays in
    implementation.
  • Misallocation of funds
  • Delay and sometimes lack of counterpart funding
  • Lack of accountability and transparency
  • Bureaucracy in decision-making.
  • Selfishness/nepotism/favoritism by some project
    managers.

85
Factors affecting project implementation
  • Other typical implementation problems (cont.)
  • Weak monitoring systems
  • Natural calamities like drought, earthquakes,
    landslides, and hailstorms.
  • Policy changes
  • Migration of beneficiaries
  • Lack of team work
  • Lack of incentives for implementers.
  • etc

86
PROJECT MONITORING EVALUATION
87
Project Monitoring The Power of Measuring Results
  • If you do not measure results, you can not tell
    success from failure
  • If you can not see success, you can not reward
    it
  • If you can not reward success, you are probably
    rewarding failure
  • If you can not see success, you can not learn
    from it
  • If you can not recognize failure, you can not
    correct it
  • If you can demonstrate results, you can win
    public support
  • Adapted from Osborne Gaebler, 1992

88
What is Project Monitoring?
  • Monitoring is an on-going long term process in
    order to ensure activities are taking place
    according to standards and to find out weaknesses
    and gaps within the project
  • Monitoring involves the team that is implementing
    the project
  • Monitoring is activity based

89
What is Project Evaluation?
  • Evaluation This takes place at the end of the
    project (or at mid-term) to find out the
    weaknesses and the results of the project
    (positive outcomes).
  • Evaluation can be used as a point of reference
    for futur projects (measure outputs, outcomes and
    impacts)
  • Evaluation involves external people
  • Evaluation is a one time event (happens at the
    end of the project)

90
Comparing Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring Evaluation
Clarifies program objectives Analyzes why intended results were or were not achieved
Links activities and their resources to objectives Assesses specific causal contributions of activities to results
Translates objectives into performance indicators and set targets Examines implementation process
Routinely collects data on these indicators, compares actual results with targets Explores unintended results
Reports progress to managers and alerts them to problems Provides lessons, highlights significant accomplishment or program potential, and offers recommendations for improvement
91
Comparing Monitoring and Evaluation
Monitoring Evaluation
A continuous process A specific activity or moment
To provide information to day-to-day decision making (adjustments) To provide recommendations to strategic decision-making processes
It is carried out by the project team For the project team (to adapt and improve the impacts) and the donors (to follow the progress) It is carried out by an evaluation team (internal or external to the project team) For the project team and the donors (lesson learned)
The monitoring system should provide information for evaluations The monitoring system should provide information for evaluations
92
Reasons to Do Results-Based ME
  • Provides crucial information about project
    performance
  • Provides a view over time on the status of a
    project, program, or policy
  • Promotes credibility and public confidence by
    reporting on the results of programs
  • Helps formulate and justify budget requests
  • Identifies potentially promising programs or
    practices

93
Reasons to Do Results-Based ME
  • Focuses attention on achieving outcomes important
    to the organization and its stakeholders
  • Provides timely, frequent information to staff
  • Helps establish key goals and objectives
  • Permits managers to identify and take action to
    correct weaknesses
  • Supports a development agenda that is shifting
    towards greater accountability for aid lending

94
PROJECT MONITORING
95
Project Monitoring
  • This should be an ongoing activity during the
    implementation
  • Monitoring is carried out by the beneficiaries,
    the implementing staff, the supervisory staff and
    the management staff
  • The aim should be to ensure that the activities
    of the project are being undertaken on schedule
    to facilitate implementation as specified in
    project designed
  • Any constraint in operationalizing the design can
    be quickly detected and corrective action taken
  • This would enable the management to be proactive
    rather than being reactive in correcting mistakes
    during implementation

96
Project Monitoring
  • The channels of communication should also be
    clear and easy to allow transparency and
    accountability for all staff involved
  • Thus relevant actions, results and barriers to
    implementations should be monitored for smooth
    implementation of the project

97
Key elements of Monitoring
  • continuous examination of implementation progress
  • tracking compliance against planned objectives
  • generating data and information on performance to
    enable corrective measures to be taken

98
Traditional monitoring
  • This involves tracking inputs (finance,
    resources, strategies), activities (what actually
    took place) and outputs (the products or services
    produced)
  • This approach focuses on monitoring how well a
    project, program or policy is being implemented
  • Often used to assess compliance with work plans
    and budget

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Results-based monitoring
  • Results-based monitoring involves the regular
    collection of information on how effectively a
    project, program, government policy or any
    organization is performing against expected
    results
  • Results-based monitoring demonstrates whether a
    project, program, or policy is achieving its
    stated goals

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Reasons for Monitoring
  • What is monitored is more likely to get done.
  • If you dont monitor performance, you cant tell
    success from failure.
  • If you cant see success, you cant reward it.
  • If you cant recognise failure, you cant correct
    it.
  • If you cant demonstrate results, you cant
    sustain support for your actions.
  • It ensures the project is being efficiently
    implemented
  • Ensure project reaches the intended target groups
  • Ensures project achieves its intended objectives

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A good Monitoring system will
  • Monitor the use of project inputs
  • Monitor the effectiveness of the project
    implementation process
  • Monitor the production of project outputs
  • Assess project impacts on the target communities
  • Assess the effectiveness of project outputs in
    producing the intended short-term and long-term
    impacts.
  • Assess the extent to which these impacts can be
    attributed to the effects of the project.

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Major Activities Where Results Monitoring Is
Needed
  • Setting goals and objectives
  • Reporting to Parliament and other stakeholders
  • Managing projects, programs and policies
  • Reporting to donors
  • Allocating resources

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PROJECT EVALUATION
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Designing Good Evaluations
  • Better to have an approximate answer to the
    right question, than an exact answer to the wrong
    question. Paraphrased from statistician
    John W. Tukey
  • Better to be approximately correct than
    precisely wrong.
  • Paraphrased from Bertrand Russell

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Project Evaluation Phase
  • This phase regards evaluation of success or
    failure elements of a project with relevance to
    the future
  • usually takes place throughout the project, but
    sometimes only at the end
  • undertaken by sponsoring company, agency, etc.
  • some projects have separate internal units for
    this or use outsiders
  • Are or have objectives being/been met? If not,
    were the objectives realistic?

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Project Evaluation Phase
  • Was the technology proposed appropriate?
  • Were the institutional, management arrangements
    suited to the conditions?
  • Were the financial aspects carefully worked out?
  • Were the economic aspects carefully explored?
  • Did management quickly respond to changes?
  • Was its response carefully considered and
    appropriate?
  • How could the projects structure be changed to
    make it more flexible?

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Results-Based Evaluation
  • Results-Based Evaluation An assessment of a
    planned, ongoing, or completed intervention to
    determine its relevance, efficiency,
    effectiveness, impact and sustainability. The
    intent is to incorporate lessons learned into the
    decision-making process.

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Key elements of Evaluation
  • assessment conducted at a single point in time
    (before, during or after).
  • focuses on determining whether what was planned
    actually happened, and why it did or did not
    happen.
  • Assessing
  • relevance whether the intervention was
    appropriate
  • impact whether it made a difference in the
    lives of people
  • effective whether it achieved what it set out
    to
  • efficient whether it did so at the lowest cost
  • sustainable whether it will leading to lasting
    change.

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Questions for Evaluation
Why Questions What caused the changes we are monitoring
How Questions What was the sequence or processes that led to successful (or not) outcomes
Compliance/ Accountability Questions Process/ Implementation Questions Did the promised activities actually take place and as they were planned? Was the implementation process followed as anticipated, and with what consequences
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Project Evaluation
  • Ongoing evaluation
  • This stage involves a systematic review and/or
    examination of the elements of success and
    failure in the project experience, during the
    projects life to learn how better to plan for the
    future
  • This implies that evaluation is a continuous
    exercise during projects life and is very related
    to monitoring
  • Monitoring provides data on which evaluation is
    based, however, formalized evaluation is
    undertaken at specified periods
  • There is usually a MID TERM and TERMINAL
    EVALUATION, however, evaluation can also be
    undertaken when the project is in trouble as the
    first step in re-planning effort

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Project Evaluation
  • Careful evaluation is also undertaken before any
    follow up of a project is undertaken
  • Evaluation can be done internally or by external
    reviewers
  • Some organizations have monitoring and evaluation
    units
  • Such units can provide the management with useful
    information to ensure efficient implementation of
    projects especially if it operates independently
    and objectively

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Project Evaluation
  • This is because what the unit needs is to judge
    project on the basis of objectives that original
    project was designed and the reality on the
    ground, that is the operating fiscal environment
  • With no free hand, the feedback mechanism will be
    hindered and information will be held back
    instead of being feedback
  • Some projects may be subjected to external
    evaluation
  • The aim of the evaluation is largely to determine
    the extend to which the objectives are being
    realized

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Methods for conducting Evaluation
  • Desk review of relevant documents (project
    documents, annual reviews, donor-specific, etc)
  • Key informant interviews with key partners and
    information stakeholders both at central and
    field levels. Drawing on specific check-listed
    questions
  • Focus group discussions internally and external
    parties both at central and field levels. Gaining
    consensus on key issues.
  • Sample surveys of effects and impacts of
    initiatives as and where necessary

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Basic Monitoring and Evaluation Model
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Conclusion
  • To be an effective project manager, you must keep
    an eye on the projects intended objective and
    results as well as conduct periodic monitoring
    to ensure reasonable progress toward achieving
    those results.
  • Being a good project manager also means taking
    appropriate actions or making management
    decisions when you are not achieving intended
    results.
  • The report must be timely, having adequate
    content, comply with project contract and
    presented appropriately

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