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Rutherford B Hayes 1876-1881


Rutherford B Hayes 1876-1881 19th President VP: William Wheeler Republican elected in 1877 Born: Fremont, Ohio in 1822 Died: at Spiegel Grove, his home in – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rutherford B Hayes 1876-1881

Rutherford B Hayes 1876-1881
  • 19th President
  • VP William Wheeler
  • Republican elected in 1877
  • Born Fremont, Ohio in 1822
  • Died at Spiegel Grove,
  • his home in
  • Fremont, Ohio, in 1893.

I. Political Issues (1877-1881)
  • The Gilded Age
  • Election of 76/ Compromise of 1877
  • Stirrings of Reform
  • Labor Unrest

The Gilded Age
Samuel Clemens Mark Twain
Charles Dudley Warner
  • 1.Gilding coating a cheap substance in a thin
    layer of gold.
  • 2. The nickname The Gilded Age was coined by
    Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner in their
    fictional book The Gilded Age A Tale of Today
    (1873). It referred to the period of time in
    American history stretching from roughly 1870
  • WHY?!?!?!?

What made America Gilded?
  • (9)The Gilded Age- The American society, despite
    its appearance of promise and prosperity, was
    plagued with corruption and scandal.
  • b. Two themes caused dissention
  • i. (11) Laissez Faire hands off- the
    government didnt force companies to be fair
  • ii. Government gained new authority and power at
    all levels- especially local level.

After the Civil War, neither Republicans or
Democrats were in clear control
  • a. As city officials gained more power, they
    increased taxes to pay for city up-keep.
    Competition among groups for control of city
    government grew intense.
  • b. (10) Political machines unofficial city
    organizations (who want control of all that tax
    ) try to keep their political party or group
    in power (arose due to clashing interests among
    groups of politicians)

  • c. Most political machines were headed by a
    powerful boss who may or may not have actually
    held a public office.
  • d. Kickback promising a job contract to a
    company, hiking the price of the job, and then
    receiving a portion of the earnings, which would
    be known as graft funds illegally acquired
    through dishonorable behavior.

  • f. (10 cont)- William Boss Tweed - NYCs most
    notoriously corrupt political boss was
  • i. Led Tammany Hall in the
  • early 1870s (Democrats)
  • ii. Grew rich off kickbacks/graft from the citys
    construction jobs, which were padded with fake
    expenses (They kept the extra money for
  • iii. Tweed was arrested in 1873 and died in jail.

I don't care who does the electing, so long as I
get to do the nominating. -Boss Tweed
Analyze Nast vs Boss Tweed Cartoon
(No Transcript)
Political Machine Basics
  • WHAT???
  • Political parties that controlled local and state
    government in late 1800s
  • WHY??
  • Cities were growing fast!
  • City government disorganized with few reliable
    services (police, fire, welfare)
  • Immigrants wanted protection, help

The Dwarf and the Thief by Thomas Nast
Can The Law Reach Him ?
The Tweed Ring Cartoon
B. (1) Election of 1876
  • 1. Rutherford B. Hayes (OH)- Repub.
  • a. Promised home rule in the South and civil/
    political rights for all (contradictory).
  • 2. Samuel Tilden (NY)- Democrat
  • 3. Tilden won popular vote possibly 185
    electoral votes
  • 4. CHEATING from SC, FL, LA
  • 5. Each party thinks/claims they won the

Election of 1876
(2) The Compromise of 1877
  • 1. An electoral commission was set up to
    determine who would be awarded the disputed
    votes Congress must also approve their decision.
  • 2. Republicans and Democrats agreed that if
    Hayes (the R) won the election he would remove
    federal troops from the South (ending
    Reconstruction) and Democrats (aka
    southern-white-racists) would gain control of
    those Southern states back. (so much for fighting
    the Civil War)

What is Reconstruction?
  • At the end of the Civil War (1861-1865) the South
    was forced to free the slaves sooo,
  • Northern troops stayed in the South to make
    the South become part of the Union again-
  • (3) Hayes election meant the withdraw federal
    troops from the South, where the army had
    protected the right of blacks to vote. Now that
    Hayes won, Reconstruction officially ended. For
    nearly a century afterward, Southern whites used
    violence to keep blacks from participating in

  • (7) exodusters
  • the migrants were ex-slaves moving out of the
    South to Kansas to claim land hoping for freedom
    from the economic and social oppression that had
    always been a way of life in the south.
  • The Kansas fever was in full bloom and
    migrants sought every opportunity to claim all or
    part of the 160-acre plots as defined in the 1862
    Homestead Act.

The full-fledged exodus out of the southeast
began in March 1879 and continued into 1881,
transplanting 25,000 African-Americans to Kansas.

3. As a result of the compromise, Democrats
regained control of SC, LA, FL and
Reconstruction in the South officially
ended on May 1, 1877.
4. A political cartoon by Thomas
Nast of Harpers Weekly used a
football analogy for the Compromise of
1877. (Harvard, Princeton, and Columbia had just
established the Intercollegiate Football
Association. (Yale also participated in this
Analyze Election of 1877 Map
Which of the following most accurately
describes the time period in American History
referred to as The Gilded Age?
  • A time in history that reflected the growth of
    industry and the economic growth of all classes
    in America.
  • A time when days were filled with trips to
    baseball games, evenings of theatre, and even
    factory workers enjoyed family vacations.
  • A time in history when the American society,
    despite its appearance of promise and prosperity
    was riddled with corruption and scandal.
  • The shameful time in American history where
    minority races were forced into slavery
    conditions and oppressed for generations.

  • DAY 2

Why has the power of the federal government
steadily grown since the writing of the US
  1. Many politicians in local elections have required
    federal supervision.
  2. Many complex developments in society have
    prompted federal action
  3. The US Congress has passed legislation removing
    power from other branches.
  4. The US Supreme Court has made decisions adding
    power to executive directives.

A brief FYI
Nast created todays symbols of the Republican
(Elephant) and Democrat (Donkey) Parties (Dec.
27, 1879).
St. Nicholas
1863 Nast, along with Samuel Clemens created our
traditional image of Santa Claus. Santa first
appeared in the upper left-hand corner of a
drawing depicting a family separated from their
father (who was fighting in the Civil War) on
Christmas Eve.
Merry Old Santa Claus 1881
D. The Hayes White House
  • 1. Hayes main achievement in office was to
    restore respect to the presidency after previous
    years of scandal.
  • 2. Hayes was known for bringing dignity and
    decorum to the White House.
  • 3. The woman behind the man, Lucy Hayes (aka
    Lemonade Lucy), was an intelligent and moral
    woman who insisted her family participate in
    devotionals each night after dinner.

Stirrings of Reform (change)
  • 1. Hayes helped stir government reform. Hayes did
    not approve of the Spoils system.
  • 2. Those Political bosses are making Americans
    mad with (12) The illegal use of public offices
    to reward friends for political party work is
    known as the "Spoils System." An official would
    get elected then appoint friends to office,
    whether they were qualified or not.
  • 3. Hayess presidency marked the beginning of
    Civil Service Reform government jobs held by
    non-elected workers.

G. (13) BAD Labor Conditions
  • 1. People worked 10 to 14 hour days, seven days a
  • 2. Working conditions were dangerous and abusive.
  • a. Miners breathed coal dust all day.
  • b. Factory workers breathed sawdust, stone dust,
    cotton dust, or toxic fumes.
  • c. Heavy machinery caused high injury rates.

  • 3. Wages were low.
  • a. Most industrial workers earned between
    400-500 a year (600 was the minimum annual
    income needed to maintain a decent standard of
  • 4. Children were working.
  • a. Some as young as six!
  • b. 90,000 children were employed in the latter
    part of the nineteenth century.

Most children worked replacing bobbins in
textiles plants
Children in the Textile industries
Labor Unrest (unhappiness)
  • (14) Labor Unions
  • a. In retaliation of working conditions and for
    protection and reform, some workers joined and
    formed these labor unions.
  • b. Unions used strikes to improve conditions
    that they felt were demeaning to the working
    class. These strikes were often peaceful, but
    sometimes they turned violent.

  • c. Labor Unions had difficulty organizing
  • - workers moved from job to job.
  • - there was an influx of immigrants with
    differences in language, religion, and customs ?
    hard to unite!
  • - labor leaders had different goals.

  • - there was a lack of employer support
  • a. Employers used blacklists- records of
    troublemakers- and would fire workers involved in
    union activity
  • b. Lockouts- employers would shut down the
    factories, fire the workers, and replace them
    with scabs- replacement workers.
  • c. Yellow-dog contracts- workers were forced to
    agree not to take part in any labor action (i.e.

  • d. Two major unions of the time
  • i. Knights of Labor (formed in 1869)
  • ii. American Federation of Labor (1886)
    (discussed later)

(15) The Knights of Labor- (goes from private to
public in 1879)
  • Terrence Powderly becomes the head of the Labor
    Organization in 1869 and makes it public in 1877.
  • Men and women, skilled and non-skilled were
    allowed into this union
  • This labor union demands better treatment for
  • They fought to end Child Labor and promoted
    8-hour work day

Unions in the US Venn Diagram
(16) Railroad Strike of 1877
  • i. Ignited by a 10 wage reduction (they didnt
    cut the hours- just the pay!!! Some nerve)
  • ii. The strike spread to New York, Pittsburgh,
    St. Louis, Kansas City, Chicago, and San
  • iii. Pittsburgh Rioters torched Union Depot and
    Pennsylvania Railroad roundhouse
  • iv. It took two weeks for Hayes to call out
    troops to stop the strike.
  • v. By that point, 100 people had died, and
    two-thirds of the railroads were idle.

Railroad Strike of 1877
The following excerpt appeared in a Washington,
D.C. newspaper on July 24, 1877, a time when
railroad strikes were occurring across the
  • DAY 3

II. Economic Issues (1877-1881)
  • A. The Money Issue
  • B. Railroads
  • The Industrial Revolution
  • Development of the West

A. The Money Issue
  • 1. Formed in the 1870s, the Greenback Party
    pushed for measures to benefit farmers in the
    West and South.
  • 2. Although the party began to fade, the money
    debate did not.

  • 3. In 1878, farmers and silver miners found
    temporary victory through the (4) Bland-Allison
    Act that required the US treasury to buy 2- 4
    million in silver each month and print money
    (instead of backing with gold)
  • 4. It wont work very well
  • (17) This means the US has 2 forms of money-
    Known as Bimettalism Gold and Silver-
  • A complete disaster wouldnt you rather have the
    gold money? Who wants the cheap stuff?

B. The Industrial Revolution
  • The Rise of Industry
  • a. There were several causes of the rise of
    industry in the late 19th century
  • (1st) Abundant coal deposits (cheap, affordable

  • (2nd) Rapid spread of technological innovation
  • a. (6) Thomas Edisons invention of the Light
    bulb allowed for electricity ? , but also for a
    24 hour workday ? that big-business would force
    on workers
  • iii. Pressure to cut costs prices (eliminating
    competition building monopolies)
  • iv. Government Continued the attitude of
    Laissez Faire toward businesses.

C. Development of the West
  • (3rd) Railroads greatly opened the West to
    development/ settlement, offering
  • a. transportation to new home
  • b. new jobs (construction/maintenance of
  • RR)
  • c. improvements on old jobs (farming/
  • ranching)
  • (4th) Mining Many people rushed westward during
    the 2nd half of the 19th century, hoping to
    strike it rich! (Most were unsuccessful, as were
    many mining towns that had been established.)

  • (5th) Farming Many of the settlers moving West
    turned to farming to make a living.
  • (6th) Ranching A cattle boom occurred in
    America during the late 1800s, which drew many
    new cowboys westward.
  • - Sheep ranching
  • also gained
  • popularity.

D. Further issues with Railroads
  • 1. Railroads were the first monopoly in America.
    Just like the silver issue, this concerned
  • 2. States developed railroad commissions to look
    into complaints that RRs were
  • a. charging more for short hauls and less for
    long hauls
  • b. offering Rebates (partial funds) to favored

Difficulty building through the rocky mountains
3. ( 18) Munn v. Illinois (1877)
  • a. This was essentially a case of the farmers vs
    the RRs!
  • Courts ruled that states legislatures have the
    right to regulate RR rates. A maximum rate for
    the storage of grain was established.
  • ooohhh, controlling a monopoly! First time the
    government tries this!!!
  • (This decision was reversed in 1887 -more on that

  • DAY 4

III. Social Issues (1877-1881)
  • Minority Issues
  • Social Theories
  • Social Life

A. Minority Issues
  • Three groups of people faced minority
  • issues during the late 19th century
  • 1. Native Americans- racism
  • 2. African Americans-racism
  • 3. Women-sexism
  • 1. Native Americans U.S. govt interaction with
    the Native Americans mainly focused on getting
    them onto the reservations and (19) assimilating
    them into the American culture- forcing native
    americans to be more American (assimilation)
    This caused many clashes between the two groups
    (ex Nez Perce)

Native American Issues

Chief Joseph led his tribe on a long trek
toward Canada and away from the US army and
reservations The Nez Perce
Indian tribe was divided and the members of
the tribe that were captured were placed on
reservations. (5) Chief Joseph becomes one of
the most politically outspoken and respected of
all Native American Chiefs.
Ghost Dance
(8) A traditional religious movement where
Natives dance in a circle asking their gods to
return plains life to the traditional ways
Perhaps the best known facet of the Ghost Dance
movement is the role it reportedly played Scared
the US army to be more aggressive in placing
Natives on reservations because of the fear it
caused among settlers-they thought it was a war

2. African Americans-
  • a. States used segregation to ensure that African
    Americans were treated as second-class citizens.
  • i. The separation was a result of customs which
    means it was de facto (conditions that exist in
    fact, but not actually in law).

  • b. (21) Jim Crow Laws Segregation required by
    statutes in the South. (poll taxes, grandfather
    clause, literacy tests)
  • a. Name came from a minstrel show routine called
    Jump Jim Crow
  • c. De facto segregation was occurring in the
    North, too, with segregation and discrimination
    occurring in schools, housing, and employment.

  • Jim Crow Laws Reading

3. The Voice of Women-
  • a. The common belief among Americans was that
    careers and married life did not mix.
  • b. Most women who worked were single (This will
    change by the turn of the century, and many
    married women will be working).
  • c. Most single female workers were between the
    ages of 16 and 24.
  • d. Women were paid 3-5 less a week than men.

  • e. Many were nurses, teachers, clerical workers,
    or telephone operators.
  • f. Women also struggled to gain a voice in the
    democratic processes of America.
  • g. Susan B. Anthony spent most of
    40 years appearing before Congress
    pushing womens suffrage.
  • Organize, agitate, educate,
  • be our war cry.

I declare to you that woman must not depend upon
the protection of man, but must be taught to
protect herself, and there I take my stand.
- Susan B. Anthony
  • i. Suffrage the right to a voice in government
  • ii. 1878 Amendment proposal The right of
    citizens of the United States to vote shall not
    be denied or abridged by the United States or by
    any state on account of sex. (It stalled for the
    2nd time and did not reappear until 1913.)

B. Social Theories
  • 1. (20)Social Darwinism derived from Darwins
    Survival of the fittest in society suggests
    that society (government) should have little to
    do with business (again- laissez faire)
  • 2. Henry George
  • Progress
  • and
  • Poverty
  • (1879)-
  • describing the
  • paradox in society

C. Social Life
  • 1. Upper-class Americans lived lavishly and got
  • 2. Middle-class Americans moved to comfortable
    suburbs and commuted on trains to work.
  • 3. Lower-class Americans lived in city apartments
    and old neighborhoods that were dilapidated and

  • 4. Some urban workers moved into towns with
    housing built specifically for them (company
  • 5. Others found apartments and tenements
    (low-cost apartments that were overcrowded)

  • 6. A glance at life in the city
  • a. Hundreds of people were packed into places
    intended only for a few families.
  • b. Due to poverty, overcrowding, and neglect,
    city neighborhoods began to decline.
  • c. Trees and grass disappeared.
  • d. Soot filled the air creating dark and foul
    conditions in the light of day.