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American History The Progressive Era (1890

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Title: American History The Progressive Era (1890


1
American HistoryThe Progressive Era
(18901920)All photographs courtesy of The
Library of Congress Lewis Hine
2
The Origins of Progressivism
  • Rapid industrialization, immigration, and
    urbanization in the late 1800s led to national
    growth and prosperity.

3
  • The rapid growth also caused poverty,
    unemployment, horrible working conditions and
    political corruption.
  • Many Progressives believed that political action
    and reform, not private charities, were the
    methods to bring about progress in society.

4
  • Historians call the period from about 18901920
    the Progressive Era.

5
Dakota Apartment House, ca. 1905-1915
6
A Monday Afternoon Washing, 107th Street, 1900
7
Family in Attic Home, Drying Their Laundry, ca.
1900-1910
8
The Progressives Their Goals and Beliefs
  • Progressives were not a single unified movement.
  • They fell into four categories
  • Social
  • Moral
  • Economic
  • Political

9
Some common basic beliefs were
10
Igniting Reform Writers and Their New Ideas
  • The ideas of many writers and journalists
    influenced public opinion about how to reform
    society.
  • Journalists investigated and publicized
    conditions in certain industries, slums, tenement
    houses, and sweat shops.

11
  • Theodore Roosevelt called the journalists
  • muckrakers.
  • Upton Sinclair,
  • Lincoln Steffens,
  • and Ida Tarbell
  • were respected
  • writers and
  • muckrakers.

12
Progressive Reform Organizations
13
An Expanded Role for Government
  • Progressives sought more social welfare programs
    to help ensure a minimum standard of living.
  • Many of the earliest Progressive reforms were
    made at the municipal, or city, level.
  • Some municipal reformers worked for home rule, a
    system that gives cities a limited degree of
    self-rule.

14
  • Municipal reformers opposed the influence of
    political bosses.
  • Reformers made efforts to take over city
    utilities such as water, gas, and electricity.
  • Some reform mayors led movements for
    city-supported welfare services such as public
    baths, parks, work-relief programs, playgrounds,
    kindergartens, and lodging houses for the
    homeless.

15
Tafts Presidency
  • Taft was endorsed by Roosevelt and pledged to
    carry on the progressive program.
  • However, he did not even appoint any Progressives
    to his Cabinet.
  • He campaigned on a platform to lower tariffs, but
    ended up signing a bill that added some highly
    protective tariff increases.

16
  • Taft also angered conservationists on the issue
    of public land management.
  • Taft chose Richard A. Ballinger for Secretary of
    the Interior.

17
  • Ballinger opposed conservation of public lands.
  • Instead, he sided with business interests who
    sought unrestricted development of public lands.
  • Taft angered
  • many people
  • and his
  • presidency
  • suffered.

18
Turmoil in the Republican Party
  • Angry Republican Progressives teamed up with
    Democrats against the opponents of reform in the
    Republican Party.
  • Roosevelt criticized Taft and campaigned for
    Progressive candidates in the 1910 midterm
    elections.

19
  • Roosevelt called for
  • business regulation
  • welfare laws
  • workplace protection for women
  • Child labor laws
  • Income minimums
  • inheritance taxes
  • voting reform.

20
  • He called this plan the New Nationalism.

21
  • Progressive Republicans left the Republican Party
    and formed the Progressive Party, nicknamed the
    Bull Moose Party.
  • The Bull Moose platform included tariff
    reduction, womans suffrage, more regulation of
  • business, a child
  • labor ban, an
  • eight-hour workday,
  • and direct election
  • of senators.

22
The Election of 1912
A Four-Way Election
23
Wilsons Policies as President
  • Wilsons first major victory was tariff reduction.

24
  • He attacked the trusts by helping Congress pass
    the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914.
  • This act strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act
    of 1890.
  • Wilson and Congress created the Federal Trade
    Commission to enforce the Clayton Antitrust Act.

25
  • In 1913 Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act
    and created the Federal Reserve System to
    overhaul the American banking system.
  • In 1916 Wilson tried to attract Progressive
    voters.
  • To this aim he nominated Progressive lawyer Louis
    D. Brandeis to the Supreme Court.
  • In 1916 Wilson won a second term.

26
The Limits of Progressivism
  • The changes made by Progressives were limited to
    certain groups in the United States.
  • Progressives championed municipal reforms, but
    did little for tenant or migrant farmers.
  • Progressive Presidents took little action to
    pursue social justice reforms.

27
  • Wilson continued the Jim Crow practice, begun
    under Taft, of separating the races in federal
    offices.
  • At the 1912 Progressive Party convention,
    Roosevelt declined to seat black delegates from
    the South for fear of alienating white Southern
    Progressives.
  • By 1916, the reform spirit had nearly died.
  • It was replaced by American concerns about World
    War I.

28
Suffrage at Last!
  • American women
  • activists first
  • demanded the right
  • to vote in 1848 at
  • the Seneca Falls
  • Convention in
  • New York.

29
  • The movement eventually split into two groups
  • The National Woman Suffrage Association fought
    for a constitutional amendment for suffrage.
  • The American Woman Suffrage Association worked to
    win voting rights on the state level.

30
Preparing the Way for Suffrage
  • In 1890, Wyoming entered the union and became the
    first state to grant women the right to vote.
  • In 1872, in an act of civil disobedience, a
    suffrage leader, Susan B. Anthony, insisted on
    voting in Rochester, New York.
  • She was arrested for this act.

31
Suffragist Strategies
  • Constitutional Amendment
  • Winning suffrage by a constitutional amendment
  • The first federal amendment was introduced in
    Congress in 1868 and stalled.
  • In 1878, suffragists introduced a new amendment.
  • Stalled again, the bill was not debated again
    until 1887.
  • It was defeated by the Senate.
  • The bill was not debated again until 1913.

32
Suffragist Strategies
  • Individual State Suffrage
  • Winning suffrage state by state.
  • State suffrage seemed more successful than a
    constitutional amendment.
  • Survival on the frontier required the combined
    efforts of men and women and encouraged a greater
    sense of equality.
  • Western states were more likely to allow women
    the right to vote.

33
A New Generation
  • Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton,
    leaders of the suffrage movement, died without
    seeing the victory of womens suffrage.
  • At the turn of the century, Carrie Chapman Catt
    became the leader of the National American Woman
    Suffrage Association (NAWSA).
  • She led the movement from 1900 to 1904 and again
    after 1915.

34
  • In March 1913 Alice Paul and Lucy Barns organized
    a parade of 5,000 women in Washington, D.C.
  • After the success of the rally, Paul transformed
    her committee into a new organization called the
    Congressional Union.

35
A Split in the Movement
  • The Congressional Union (CU)

36
A Split in the Movement
  • NAWSA

37
Victory for Suffrage
  • In 1918, Congress formally proposed the suffrage
    amendment.
  • After the amendment was proposed the ratification
    battle began.
  • In August 1920, Tennessee became the 36th state
    necessary to ratify the suffrage amendment.
  • The Nineteenth Amendment, granting women the
    right to vote, was the last major reform of the
    Progressive Era.

38
Why the Progressive Era Was So Important
  • Because Child Labor was banned!

Lewis Hine, the celebrated photographer
dedicated social reformer, captured the sad faces
of the children in the following photos.
Captions and quotes are from Hines published
works.
39
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40
Faces of Lost Youth
41
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43
A moments glimpse of the outer world. 11
year-old girl. Said she has been working for
over a year.
44
Some boys and girls were so small they had to
climb up on to the spinning frame to mend broken
threads and to put back the empty bobbins.
45
One of the spinners in Whitnel Cotton Mill. She
was 51 inches high. Has been in the mill one
year. Sometimes works at night. Runs 4 sides - 48
cents a day. When asked how old she was, she
hesitated, then said, "I don't remember," then
added confidentially, "I'm not old enough to
work, but do just the same."
46
Jo Bodeon, a back-roper in the mule room at Chace
Cotton Mill. Burlington, Vt.
47
Furman Owens, 12 years old. Cant read, doesnt
know his ABCs. Said, Yes, I want to learn, but
cant when I work all the time.
48
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52
The Newsies
53
Tony Casale, age 11, been selling 4 years. Sells
sometimes until 10 p.m. Saw the marks on his arm
where his father had bitten him for not selling
more papers. He (the boy) said, "Drunken men say
bad words to us." Hartford, Conn.
54
Out after midnight selling extras. There were
many young boys selling very late. Youngest boy
in the group is 9 years old. Harry, age 11,
Eugene and the rest were a little older.
55
The dust was so dense at times as to obscure the
view. This dust penetrated the utmost recesses of
the boys' lungs. A kind of slave-driver sometimes
stands over the boys, prodding or kicking them
into obedience.
56
Breaker Boys
57
Oyster shuckers working in a canning factory. All
but the very smallest babies work. Began work at
330 a.m. and expected to work until 5 p.m. The
little girl in the center was working. Her mother
said she is "a real help to me."
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