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Chapter 9: Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

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Chapter 9: Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA Biotechnology: The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell components to make a product ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 9: Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA


1
Chapter 9Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA
2
Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA
  • Biotechnology
  • The use of microorganisms, cells, or cell
    components to make a product
  • Foods, antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes
  • Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Also called genetic engineering
  • Insertion of genes into cells to produce desired
    proteins

3
Overview of rDNA Procedures
Figure 9.1.1
4
Overview of rDNA Procedures
Figure 9.1.2
5
Table 9.1.1
6
Tools of BiotechnologyRestriction Enzymes
  • Restriction enzymes cut specific sequences of
    DNA
  • Isolated from different species of bacteria
  • Typically, recognition sequences are 4-8 bp long

http//ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/
7
Tools of BiotechnologyRestriction Enzymes
cut
paste
Figure 9.2
8
Vectors
  • Examples plasmids and viruses
  • Carry new DNA to desired cell
  • Vehicles for gene replication
  • Must include self-replication instructions
  • Selectable marker gene(s) included

9
Vectors
Figure 9.3
10
DNA can be inserted into a cell by
  • Transformation
  • Viruses

http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageT4bacteriophage
.jpg
11
Genetic EngineeringSelecting a clone
Figure 9.11.1
12
Genetic EngineeringSelecting a clone
  • Screening for
  • presence of plasmid
  • (growth on ampicillin)
  • presence of gene (blue/white appearance)

Figure 9.11.2
13
Using E. coli to make a gene product
  • Advantages it is easily grown and its genomics
    are known
  • Disadvantage need to eliminate endotoxin from
    products

E. coli engineered to produce gamma-interferon
(orange)
Figure 9.13
14
Therapeutic Applications
  • Therapeutics
  • Protein products for disease treatment
  • Subunit vaccines
  • Nonpathogenic viruses carrying genes for
    pathogen's antigens as vaccines

15
  • Strain 1 Pathogenic virus
  • Strain 2 Nonpathogenic, grows well in eggs
  • Goal Produce recombinant virus with H N
    antigen genes from 1 with remaining genes from 2

www3.niaid.nih.gov
16
Therapeutic Applications
  • Therapeutics
  • Protein products for disease treatment
  • Subunit vaccines
  • Nonpathogenic viruses carrying genes for
    pathogen's antigens as vaccines
  • Gene therapy to replace defective or missing
    genes
  • Use of nonpathogenic viruses

17
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