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Molar Volume

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Molar Volume Chem 11 Adv Gas Pressure: Pressure is defined as the force exerted on an object per unit of surface area (P = F/A) The pressure of a gas is determined by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Molar Volume


1
Molar Volume
  • Chem 11 Adv

2
Gas Pressure
  • Pressure is defined as the force exerted on an
    object per unit of surface area (P F/A)
  • The pressure of a gas is determined by the motion
    of its particles
  • Gases take the up the space of their container
  • Particles move randomly through out the space of
    the container colliding with each other and the
    sides of the container, give a net equal pressure
    through out

3
Gas Pressure
4
STP (review)
  • Scientists have designated standard conditions
    which allow them to compare different gas volumes
    meaningfully
  • Temperature 0 degrees Celsius or 273 Kelvin
    (freezing point of water)
  • Pressure 101.3 kPa (average atmospheric
    pressure at sea level) or 1 atm

5
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac
  • Measured the volume of gases before and after
    reactions

6
Law of Combining Volumes
  • When gases react, the volume of reactants and
    products, measure at equal temperature and
    pressure are always in whole number ratios

7
Along came Avogadro.
  • He realized that the number of molecules of gas
    present corresponded to the volume ratios
  • Hypothesis Equal volumes of gas at the same
    temp and press contain the same number of
    molecules

8
Avogadros Law
n1 n2 V1 V2
  • n number of moles
  • V volume
  • Molar volume (MV) V/n
  • (Units L/mol)

9
Standard Molar Volume
  • Molar volume of a gas is the space occupied by
    one mole of gas at STP
  • Molar volume at STP is 22.4L/mol (ideal gases)
  • Table examples of real gases, still very close!

Gas Molar Volume (L/mol)
Helium, He 22.398
Neon, Ne 22.401
Argon, Ar 22.410
Hydrogen, H2 22.430
Nitrogen, N2 22.413
Oxygen, O2 22.414
Carbon dioxide, CO2 22.414
Ammonia, NH3 22.350
10
Example
  • What is the volume of 3.0 mol of NO2 at STP?
  • We know that 1.0 mol occupies 22.4L !
  • n1 n2
  • V1 V2
  • 1.0 mol 3.0 mol
  • 22.4 L V2
  • V2 3.0 x 22.4
  • 1.0
  • V2 67 L NO2

11
Example
  • You have 44.8L of methane gas (CH4) at STP. How
    many moles are present? How many grams?
  • n1 n2
  • V1 V2
  • 1.0 mol n2____
  • 22.4 L 44.8L
  • V2 1.0 x 44.8
  • 22.4
  • n2 2.00 mol CH4
  • X g CH4 2.00 mol x 16.04 g 32.08 g CH4
  • 1 mol

12
Try it!
  • Pg 73 38-43
  • Extra Pg 74 1-6

13
Mole to Mole In class Assignment
  • The average human requires 120.0 grams of glucose
    per day. How many grams of CO2 (in the
    photosynthesis reaction) are required for this
    amount of glucose? The photosynthetic reaction
    is 6 CO2 6 H2O ---gt C6H12O6 6 O2
  • Given the following equation
  • 8 Fe S8 ---gt 8 FeS
  • What mass of iron is needed to react with 16.0
    grams of sulfur?
  • How many grams of FeS are produced?
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