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The Expansion of American Industry

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Title: The Expansion of American Industry


1
Unit 5
  • The Expansion of American Industry
  • (1850-1900)

2
  • SSUSH11.a Explain the impact of the railroads on
    other industries such as steel and on the
    organization of big business.
  • SSUSH11.b Describe the impact of the railroads
    in the development of the West, including the
    transcontinental railroad, and the use of Chinese
    labor.

3
  • SSUSH11.c Identify John D. Rockefeller and the
    Standard Oil Company and the rise of trusts and
    monopolies.
  • SSUSH11.d Describe the inventions of Thomas
    Edison, including the electric light bulb, motion
    pictures, the phonograph, their impact on
    American life

4
A Technological Revolution - FYI
  • Indoor electric lighting did not exist in 1865.
    Instead, the rising and setting of the sun
    dictated the rhythm of a days work.
  • After dark, people lit candles or oil lamps if
    they could afford them. If they could not they
    simply went to sleep, to rise at the first light
    of dawn.

5
A Technological Revolution - FYI
  • Imagine summers without the benefits of
    refrigeration!
  • Ice was available in 1865, but only at great
    cost.
  • People sawed blocks of ice out of frozen ponds
    during the winter, packed them in sawdust, and
    stored them in icehouses for later use.

6
A Technological Revolution - FYI
  • Communication was also very slow in those days.
  • Most mail from the East Coast took ten days to
    reach the Midwest and three weeks to get to the
    West.
  • Think of email and texts today
  • An immigrant living on the frontier would wait
    months for news from relatives in Europe.

7
A Technological Revolution - FYI
  • By 1900, daily life had changed dramatically in
    the United States.
  • Between 1790 and 1860, the Patent and Trademark
    Office of the Federal Govt issued just 36,000
    patents (licenses to make, use, or sell an
    invention).
  • In contrast, b/w 1860 and 1890, 500,000 patents
    were issued for inventions.

8
  • Telegraph Samuel Morse
  • Telephone Alexander G. Bell
  • Phonograph Thomas Edison
  • Filament Light bulb Thomas Edison
  • Motion Pictures Thomas Edison
  • Central Power Station Thomas Edison
  • (direct current)
  • Transformer (alternating) George Westinghouse
  • Bessemer Process H. Bessemer
  • Brooklyn Bridge William Kelly

9
A technological revolution 11.d Electric
Power
  • Thomas A. Edison (There is always a better way
    to do something, find it!
  • He patented over 1,000 inventions!
  • Helped to make electricity widely available.
  • Improved stock ticker
  • Phonograph, electric light bulb, motion pictures
  • 1882, Central power station
  • Westinghouse
  • 1885 George Westinghouse and alternating current.
  • Use of transformer made use of electricity in
    homes practical.
  • General Electric and Westinghouse Electric.

10
The Railroad gets connected! 11.A
  • In 1850, steam powered ships still provided much
    of the nations transportation.
  • Before the Civil War, most of the railroad tracks
    were in short lines that connected neighboring
    cities, mainly in the East.
  • There was no standard track width, or gauge, so
    each train could only travel on certain tracks.
  • As a result, goods and passengers often had to be
    moved to different trains, which caused costly
    delays.
  • To make matters worse, they were dangerous b/c
    trains could not communicate and brakes were
    unreliable.eeekkkk ?

11
The Transcontinental RR (11.B)
  • In 1862, a huge project began in Sacramento, CA
    by the Central Pacific RR company and in Omaha,
    NB by the Union Pacific RR company to connect one
    line.
  • On May 10, 1869, the project was complete with
    the final Gold spike being driven in by Leland
    Stanford at Promontory Point, Utah.
  • Most of the workers on the railroad were
    immigrants. Irish for the Union Pacific and
    Asian, especially Chinese, for the Central
    Pacific.
  • This railroad officially connected the east to
    the west.

12
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13
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14
Problems with the RR - FYI
  • Rails were not standardized, this caused a lack
    of mobility.
  • Trains were often noisy, dirty, and
    uncomfortable.
  • People feared for their safety and distrusted
    most trains.
  • And scheduling for the train to be On Time was
    a nightmare, b/c of the time differences from
    town to town. Each town set its time according
    to solar time.

15
Solutions for the RR 11.A
  • Steel rails replaced iron rails (Bessemer Proc.)
    and signals and track gauges became standardized.
  • George Westinghouse developed more effective air
    brakes and Granville Woods patented a telegraph
    system for communicating with moving trains, thus
    reducing the risk of collisions.
  • In 1883, the railroads adopted a national system
    of time zones to improve scheduling. As a
    result, clocks in broad regions of the country
    showed the same time.
  • Four time zones were used Eastern, Central,
    Mountain, and Pacific (we still use these today)

16
Changes brought forth by the RR (draw please)
Govt reg. of private industry
Grow of towns and cities
Rapid Growth of Railroads
Creation of nationwide market
Consolidation of RR
Greed and Corruption
17
The Growth of Big Business 11.A
  • The period of invention after the Civil War set
    the stage for the great industrial growth.
  • Still, it would take more than technology to
    change the U.S., it would take entrepreneurial
    people to make the difference.
  • These individuals became known as Robber Barons!

18
Robber Barons (Captains of Industry) 11.A C
Andrew Carnegie Steel
  • Robber Baron implies that these individuals build
    their fortunes by stealing from the public, and
    in turn drained the natural resources.
  • Captains of Industry paints a more positive image
    of hard work and success in the building of the
    business world as we know it.

John D. Rockefeller Oil
Cornelius Vanderbilt Railroads
19
Big Business draw in your notes
20
Big Business Problems 11.A C
  • Monopoly complete control of a product or
    service.
  • Cartel a loose association of business that
    make the same product.
  • Trust managing companies as a single unit. Ex.
    Standard Oil (John D. Rockefeller)
  • Sherman Antitrust Act law that prevents any
    combination of companies that restrain
    interstate trade or commerce.
  • Social Darwinism Those who were more fit
    would survive in the business world. (Carnegie
    really believed in this idea)
  • Methods of Industrial Control
  • Horizontal consolidation (same type of business
    bought by one company, ex. Rockefeller w/oil)
  • Vertical consolidation(different type of business
    bought by one company, ex. Carnegie w/steel ex
    t-shirts)

21
Okay, thats pretty much All of
11.A-D Now on to SSUSH12 The student will
analyze important consequences of American
industrial growth.
22
  • SSUSH12.a
  • Describe Ellis Island, the change in immigrants
    origins to southern and eastern Europe, and the
    impact of this change on urban America.
  • SSUSH12.b
  • Identify the American Federation of Labor, Samuel
    Gompers.

23
  • SSUSH12.c
  • Describe the growth of the western population and
    its impact on Native Americans with reference to
    Sitting Bull and Wounded Knee.
  • SSUSH12.d
  • Describe the 1894 Pullman strike as an example of
    industrial unrest.

24
Industrialization and Workers
  • The Growing Work Force (12.a and b)
  • Immigration
  • 1860 1900 14 million immigrants to U.S.
  • Contract Labor Act 1864 law allowed employers
    to enter into contracts with immigrants.
  • Similar to Indentured Servants.
  • 8 9 million migrants entered the cities.

25
Immigration
  • Religious Persecution, Economic strife, and the
    promise of a better life in America brought
    millions of European immigrants to the country in
    the late 1800s.
  • B/t 1865-1920, over 30 million people came to
    USA.
  • The population doubled!!!

26
The Journey (12.a)
  • With new steamships, journey was one week.
  • Most stayed in STEERAGE.
  • Large open area beneath ships deck.
  • Limited toilets, no privacy, poor food.
  • Cheap fare.
  • From Europe?
  • Came to Ellis Island on East Coast, The Golden
    Door. (NY)
  • From Asia?
  • Came to Angel Island on West Coast.
  • Most used to be from Germ, GB (old Western
    Europe).
  • Now, they were from Southern and Eastern Europe
    (Russia, Italy, Greece new wave)

27
Immigrants from Europe (12.a)
  • 1892, US Govt opened Ellis Island, with Statue
    of Liberty, to immigrants.
  • Seen as a symbol of the US as a place of refuge
    and hope.
  • All immigrants had to have a physical.
  • If they had a contagious disease, went into
    quarantine.
  • Could be deported, like those with trachoma
    (eyes).
  • Criminals waited on ports to trick immigrants out
    of money with fake jobs/lodging.
  • Went and settled in areas where previous settlers
    of their homeland were (ghettos).
  • Mostly in port of entry, only 2 went south.
  • Found jobs with less than average wages.

28
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29
The Statue of Liberty
  • Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled
    masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched
    refuse your teaming shore. Send these, the
    homeless tempest tossed to me. I lift my lamp
    beside the golden shore.

30
  • "He doesn't like my name... Of course we couldn't
    all come over on the Mayflower... But I got here
    as soon as I could, and I never wanted to go
    back, because to me it is a great privilege to be
    an American citizen." - Anton Cermak, Czech-born
    Chicago mayoral candidate, 1931
  • "Observe immigrants not as they come travel-wan
    up the gang-plank, nor as they issue
    toil-begrimed from the pit's mouth or mill-gate,
    but in their gatherings, washed, combed, and in
    their Sunday best.... They are hirsute,
    low-browed, big-faced persons of obviously low
    mentality... They simply look out of place in
    black clothes and stiff collar, since clearly
    they belong in skins, in wattled huts at the
    close of the Great Ice Age. These ox-like men are
    descendants of those who always stayed
    behind." - Sociologist E. A. Ross, 1914

31
  • "These men of many nations must be taught
    American ways, the English language, and the
    right way to live." - Henry Ford, on immigrants
  • "Remember, remember always that all of us, and
    you and I especially, are descended from
    immigrants and revolutionists."
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt

32
Immigration
  • On the West Coast, Asian immigrants found America
    less tolerant than the east coast. Cultural
    differences made Asians the target of suspicion
    and hostility.
  • Held at Angel Island for longer
  • Discrimination caused Chinese immigrants to
    settle together (Chinatown, etc).
  • Labor Unions excluded the Chinese, as they drove
    wages down, and eventually, even the government
    discriminated, passing the Chinese Exclusion Act
    in 1882.

33
Example of Anti-Asian Sentiment
34
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35
  • Check this out http//www.nytimes.com/interactive
    /2009/03/10/us/20090310-immigration-explorer.html

36
The Growing Cities
  • Not only were immigrants moving to the cities,
    Americans were migrating to the cities to escape
    the economic problems facing farmers.

37
Growing Cities
  • The percentage of Americas population living on
    farms fell from 72 to 54.
  • Technological advances reduced the need for farm
    labor.
  • Racial discrimination drove many African
    Americans out of the South.
  • The influx of people forced new construction,
    especially subways and skyscrapers.

38
Increasing Efficiency (FYI, background knowledge)
  • In 1881, Frederick Winslow Taylor set out to
    improve worker efficiency in the steel plant
    where he was chief engineer.
  • He began to study the workers, trying to see how
    much time it took to do various jobs.
  • Then he broke down each task into a of steps
    and determined how long each step should take.
  • He wanted more productivity from less time.
  • The workers hated Taylors ideas, they feared
    that increased efficiency would result in layoffs
    or a lower rate of pay for each piece of work.

39
Section 4 The Great Strikes
(12.d)
  • Rich vs. Poor
  • 1890 9 of pop. held 75 of nations wealth.
  • Socialism economic and political philosophy
    that favors public (social) control of property
    and income.
  • Cooperate, not compete.
  • Karl Marx Communist Manifesto
  • Labor Unions
  • Trade Unions
  • The Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers
    (shoemakers)
  • 1806, Outlawed for engaging in strikes.
  • National Trades Union

40
Section 4 cont. 12.b
  • The American Federation of Labor (AFL)
  • Samuel Gompers
  • Only skilled workers.
  • Three main issues for unions
  • Higher Wages
  • Shorter Working Hours
  • Safer Working Conditions
  • Collective Bargaining group bargains with
    employer for changes

Samuel Gompers
41
Employers forbade union meetings and fired
union organizers. Yellow Dog contracts
workers promised not to join or strike Refused
collective bargaining if strikes
occurred. Refused to recognize unions as the
workers legitimate representatives.
42
Four Major Strikes 1877-1894
  1. Railroad Strike 1877
  2. Haymarket Strike 1886
  3. Homestead Strike 1892
  4. Pullman Strike - 1894

43
Pullman Strike 1894 12.d
  • This strike involving the RR marked a shift in
    the Federal Governments involvement with
    labor-employer relations.
  • Sleeping-car maker, George Pullman considered
    himself a caring industrialist.
  • He donated money to build schools, banks, and
    utilities in his hometown of Chicago.
  • But, when the economy took a nose dive in 1893,
    he had to lay off workers and cut wages.
  • A small group tried to protest to him and he
    fired them on the spot, causing the local union
    to go on strike.

44
Pullman Strike - 1894
  • Pullman refused to bargain and shut down the
    plant.
  • The American Railway Union, lead by popular labor
    organizer Eugene V. Debs, called for a boycott of
    Pullman cars throughout the country.
  • By June of 94 over 120,000 RR workers joined in
    the strike.
  • The strike got out of hand (people couldnt take
    trains for transport, shipment of goods was
    slowed, as was mail) the fed. Gov. was brought
    in to help.
  • The strike broke the Sherman Antitrust Act
  • On July 4, 1894 President Grover
    Cleveland(1885-89 1893-97) sent in 2,500
    federal troops to enforce the law.

45
Pullman Strike - 1894
  • The Pullman strike and its outcome set an
    important pattern.
  • In the years ahead, factory owners appealed
    frequently for court orders vs. unions.
  • The Fed. Gov. regularly approved these appeals
    and helped to limit the growth of unions for the
    next 30 years.

46
Moving West (FYI)
  • Why did they want to go west?
  • 1.) Explore!
  • The Great Plains, the Pacific Northwest, the
    Southwest.
  • 2.) New Beginnings!
  • In life, opportunity, etc.
  • 3.) Be own Boss!
  • Can own their own farm.
  • 4.) Overpopulated!
  • East is way too crowded.

47
Moving West FYI
  • Big Business owned land.
  • RR companies profited as settlers moved.
  • Land next to RR especially popular.
  • Morrill Land Grant Act
  • Created to support state colleges.
  • Fed Govt gave land to state govt, they sold it
    to fund agricultural land-grant colleges.
  • Homestead Act (signed by Pres. Lincoln)
  • Fed Govt gave land directly to settlers!

48
Its a hard knock life for settlers FYI
  • Water was scarce, used buckets to collect rain.
  • This carried Prairie fever or typhoid.
  • Working prairie sod was back-breaking labor.
  • Women made soap, clothing, candles, and preserved
    food.
  • Families cooperated in raising houses/barns,
    sewing quilts, husking corn, etc.

49
Conflict with Native Americans (12.c)
  • Remember
  • Clearing the East of Indians President Jackson
    Trail of Tears Reservations Assimilation War.
  • Clashes of Culture!
  • Indians and settlers looked at the world
    differently.
  • Settlers felt that the resources were there to be
    used.
  • Settlers used large scale hunting, mining, and
    farming.
  • Plains Indians used only the resources they
    needed for their actual needs.
  • They saw the white settlers as being greedy and
    destructive.

50
Fighting begins, with the Sioux
  • Little Bighorn
  • The Black Hills of South Dakota had been set
    aside for the Sioux and Northern Cheyenne
  • 1874 - U.S. Army exploring party found gold
  • Settlers went looking
  • Gov. tried to buy the Black Hills for gold (Sioux
    considered land sacred)
  • 1875 and 1876 - Sioux warrior left their
    reservations and united under the leadership of
    Sioux chief, Sitting Bull

51
Massacre at Wounded Knee
  • After Sitting Bull died, some American soldiers
    tried to arrest some Indians who left their
    reservation.
  • Shots were fired and more than 200 unarmed Sioux
    (women children) were killed.

52
Indians way of life destroyed FYI
  • Whites killed buffalo
  • Indians depended on buffalo to survive (how?)
  • As conditions grew worse and Indians were forced
    onto reservations, many whites wanted to help
    an Indian Rights Movement began.
  • Helen Jackson wrote, A Century of Dishonor and
    said, It makes little differencewhere one opens
    the record of the history of the Indians every
    page and every year has its dark stain.
  • Some felt Indians should be more civilized
  • What does this mean? How can this happen?

53
Assimilation FYI
  • Many white though that only solution was to make
    the Indians become more like the whites
  • - Assimilation - to adopt the culture of the
    people around you
  • Dawes Act (1887)
  • Intended to make Indians give up their traditions
    and accept White customs
  • Reservation lands were divided up in farm plots
    for families and individuals (40 to 160 acres)
  • Any remaining land was sold to white settlers
  • Profits used to pay for Indian schools
  • Indians who accepted the plots of land could
    become citizens for the 1st time
  • Dawes Act failed
  • Many western Indians didn't want to settle down
    as farmers
  • Lacked tools and training
  • Many sold their plots to white settlers cheap
  • End 1800's - situation of the American Indians
    was tragic
  • 20th century U.S. government finally realizes
    importance of Indian way of life

54
What happened with Indian Territory? FYI
  • 70 Indian Nations forced onto Reservations.
  • After the Civil War, many settlers began to enter
    their government-given land.
  • Due to large amount of settlers Govt opened up 2
    million acres of Indian Territory, that hadnt
    been assigned yet, to the settlers.
  • These settlers, Boomers, staked off hundreds of
    claims within a few hours.
  • Oklahoma City had 10,000 resident at the end of
    the 1st day.
  • Some settlers, Sooners, had already sneaked
    past the govt to stake a claim.

55
Cause and Effect Westward Expansion
  • Causes
  • Big Business put Western land up for sale.
  • Morrill Land Grant Act provides state govts with
    millions or acres to sell.
  • Homestead Act gives land to settlers willing to
    farm.
  • European immigrants, people seeking opportunity,
    and people fleeing racial prejudice in the East
    seek land in the West.
  • California Gold Rush draws thousands of fortune
    seekers.
  • Effects
  • Violence erupts between settlers and Native
    Americans.
  • Many Native American groups are destroyed or
    displaced.
  • Challenges of prairie farming lead to increased
    mechanization.
  • Bonanza farms and cattle ranching industries
    develop.
  • Frontier myths influence national identify.

56
Just to make sure youre aware
  • 13. MF
  • 14. FP
  • 15. JB
  • 16. AL 25. WM
  • 17. AJ
  • 18. USG
  • 19. RBH
  • 20. JG
  • 21. CA
  • 22. GC
  • 23. BH
  • 24. GC
  • 1. GW
  • 2. JA
  • 3. TJ
  • 4. JM 5. JM
  • 6. JQA
  • 7. AJ
  • 8. MVB
  • 9. WHH
  • 10. JT
  • 11. JP
  • 12. ZT

57
The Presidents Write it all )
  • 20.) James Garfield
  • Assassinated
  • 21.) Chester Arthur
  • Est. civil service exams
  • 22.) Grover Cleveland
  • Indiscretions.
  • Tried to lower tariffs
  • 23.) Benjamin Harrison
  • Created huge debt highest tariffs
  • 24.) Grover Cleveland
  • Used troops in Pullman strike

58
The Gilded Age
  • Coined by Mark Twain.
  • Gilded covered in a thin layer of gold.
  • Means a thin but glittering layer of prosperity
    covered the poverty and corruption of much of
    society.
  • Golden time for industrialists.
  • So much that it covered
  • The immigrants poverty
  • Abuse of power in business and govt.
  • So whats Gilded??????
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