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The History Of Aboriginal Peoples In Canada


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Title: The History Of Aboriginal Peoples In Canada

The History Of Aboriginal Peoples In Canada
  • 40
  • Aboriginal people They are the first people to
    live in any nation. In Canada, Aboriginal people
    refers to Inuit, Métis and First Nations

(No Transcript)
  • Inuit Replaces Eskimo
  • Métis A Métis is a mixed Native and European
    ancestry who self identifies as Métis, and is of
    Métis Nation Ancestry

  • Status Indians Those who have legal rights
    under the Indian Act. They have rights under
    treaties, or where no treaties have been signed,
    Rights as registered

  • Non Status Indians- Those that have given up
    legal status as Indians, while still retaining
    their cultural identity

Age Gender Distribution for the Métis,
Non-Status Indian Populations in 2007 and
Non-Aboriginal Population in 2006, Canada
  • Indian Only used when referring to Legislation
    (such as the Indian Act)
  • When used in a historical sense (The National
    Indian Brotherhood)
  • Legal Status (Example Status Indian)

(No Transcript)
  • First Nation Come to be used in place of Indian
    Band or Indian Nation

The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was Important
Because . . .
  • - It prevented any further settlement across
    North America until treaties had been negotiated
    With Aboriginal peoples.
  • - Recognized That the Aboriginal peoples lived as
    nations on their own lands
  • - This law is the basis for many modern
    Aboriginal land Claims because in Several
    provinces such as BC, treaties were never signed.

Canadian Government Gathered Aboriginal peoples
on Reserves Because41
  • - In 1830 Aboriginal peoples were seen as
    blocking the settlement of the British North
    America Act
  • -The Federal Government passed legalization which
    granted it Control and management of the lands
    and property of the Indians in Canada

Percentage attended residential school,
Aboriginal population 15 years and over, off
reserve, Canada, 2001
(No Transcript)
Negative Impacts on the living Conditions Of
Aboriginal peoples On Reserves 42
  • Reserves limit Aboriginal peoples ability to
  • Participate fully in Canadian Economy.
  • Only 0.4 of Canadian land is for Indian
    Reservation. Therefore the Enclosures are
    reduced, and there are smaller reserves
  • Power Given to the Chief and Council to control
    community members is not used Wisely, so there
    are some who can be wealthy while the rest still
    live in poverty.

  • As a result, Living conditions are lower than in
    the rest of Canada, and the Life expectancy is
    lower by 6 years and the suicide rates are over 8
    times higher

Why did the Canadian Government want to
Assimilate Canadian Aboriginal nations ? 43
  • The Canadian Government wanted to assimilate
    Canadian Aboriginal nations because they wanted
    Aboriginal peoples to adopt the Same culture and
    essentially become the same as European

Assimilate To become similar to ones Environment
The Indian Act 1876 44
  • It was an Official way of Encouraging Aboriginal
    Peoples to Give up their own culture and
    Traditions. And thereby assimilating them into
    the mainstream culture of Canada

of The Indian Act To the
Aboriginal Peoples Of Canada
  • Are there any? I dont think so

Of The Indian Act
  • Denied the Right to take up land as others could
  • Denied the Right to Vote in Provincial Elections
  • Being Aboriginal was thought to incompatible with
    being a Canadian Citizen
  • If an Aboriginal person wanted to vote, They had
    to trade Indian Status for Voting Rights

  • Aboriginal peoples or Indians lost their status
    and benefits if they lived off Reserves, joined
    the military, obtained higher education, or
    married a non-Indian.
  • Potlatch was outlawed and Aboriginal Art and
    memorabilia were shipped to Museums across
  • Reserves have been made smaller and offer fewer
    economic opportunities than original Aboriginal

  • Potlach usually involving ceremony, includes
    celebration of births, rites of passages,
    weddings, funerals, puberty, and honoring of the
    deceased. Through political, economic and social
    exchange, it is a vital part of Aboriginal
    peoples culture.

Tlingit Chiefs, dressed in full regalia, are
gathered at a Potlatch ceremony in Sitka in 1904.
(No Transcript)
(No Transcript)
Negative Aspects of Residential Schools
  • Children Taken from their homes and family
  • Forced to abandon language and culture
  • Criminally abused in some cases
  • By 1930, only 3 of the students progressed
    beyond grade 6
  • By 1950, only one third of Native pupils
    progressed beyond grade 3
  • Only after the 1990s were the Aboriginal
    Children allowed to attend schools within the
    public School system

(No Transcript)
  • The Residential schools should be located in
    Centres of white settlement. Not only would this
    sever familial connections but it would surround
    the children with the wonders of white
    civilization. And it would have further advantage
    that Indians would less likely to cause trouble
    if their children were under direct control of
    the state J. Macrae, Inspector of protestant
    Schools, 188
  • Discusses the way the White people wanted the
    residential schools to work for the benefit of
    themselves. They also address the fact that
    Indians would not cause trouble if their children
    were under control of the state. This implies
    that white people thought Indians as troublesome
    and against the Government

Before the Gospel was preached by the
Missionary, the Natives were ignorant,
Superstitious, degrade, wild and cruel Reverend
W.Pierce, 1896
  • This quote addresses the way Aboriginals were
    thought of by others. They were seen as
    uncivilized, wild and wanted to change them to do
    as the White people want.

The prime purpose of Indian Education is to
assist in solving what may be called the Indian
problem, to elevate the Indian from his state of
Savagery F.Pedley, Deputy superintendent of
Indian Affairs, 1906
  • This Quote states that there is an Indian
    Problem according to white people. This says
    that white people want to fix that problem by
    educating Natives within white culture.

The purpose of the Indian Act is to Continue
until there is not a single Indian in Canada that
has not been absorbed into the body politic and
there is no Indian question and no Indian
Department Duncan Campbell Scott,
Superintendent of Indian Affairs 1902
  • This quote suggests that the point of the Indian
    Act is to Eliminate the Culture by Which
    Aboriginals stand out from the rest of the
    civilization. It also shows that people wanted
    the Aboriginals to be mixed with the rest of the
    society eliminating the differences between the
    peoples in Canada.

  • Canada was becoming a bilingual/multicultural
    society, but it was more diverse if one takes
    into account the First Nations who were the
    original residents of this land.
  • 45) The right to vote in 1960 did little to
    improve living conditions on reservespoverty,
    poor health, and inadequate housing and
  • Some who tried their luck in the city often
    lacked education, job skills, and ability to
    adapt to urban life, faced hostility and
  • 1968 ?National Indian Brotherhood was formed to
    lobby on behalf of the Aboriginal people living
    on reserves.
  • In response Pierre Trudeaus Liberal government
    proposed a policy outlined in the White Paper of
  • White Papera document that a government puts
    forth for discussion.

  • 46) Trudeau and his Indian Affairs Minister, Jean
    Chrétien, felt that Aboriginal peoples should be
    treated exactly like other citizens and any
    special rights they had on the reserves, such as
    not having to pay income tax, would be
    abolished?more done to encourage Aboriginals to
    leave the reserves and seek jobs in the
    mainstream of Canadian society.
  • Aboriginal peoples were furious?White
    Paperattack on maintaining their unique
  • 47) National Indian Brotherhood argued that
    instead of assimilation into white society they
    wanted self-government and control over their own
  • 47) They present the Citizens Plus, or the Red
    Paper?a surprised Jean Chrétien shelved the
    White Paper but didnt offer a new policy.

Educational Concerns  
  • Residential schools abandoned in 1969.
  • Aboriginal peoples took over education in band
    schools?could study own language and culture.
  • Secondary education was not available many
    students had to take part in a government-run
    boarding home program and attend schools in
    Vancouver and New Westminster
  • In 1990 Phil Fontaine, a prominent Aboriginal
    chief and lawyer, fought to get some compensation
    for the abuses the Native children suffered in
    residential schools?In 1998 350 million healing
    fund was created

Environmental Concerns  
  • Aboriginal groups were concerned that
    hydroelectric and natural gas projects would
    endanger their traditional activities of hunting,
    fishing, and trapping.
  • In the 1970s Inuit, Métis, and Indian
    Brotherhood of the Yukon and Northwest
    Territories struggled to halt the construction of
    oil and natural gas pipelines that were to run
    through their lands
  • Berger Commission?In 1977 the commission
    recommended the construction of the Mackenzie
    Valley pipeline should be suspended for ten years
    pending an in-depth environmental study and
    negotiations with the Aboriginal peoples about
    financial compensation, self-government, and
    other issues.
  • By 2000, Aboriginal peoples were open to the idea
    of building a pipeline and stressed control and
    some ownership of the project.
  • In 1980s1990s Cree residents of Northern Quebec
    halted a Hydro Project which threatened to flood
    some of their ancestral territories.

The Path to Self-Government  
  • 1980s Assembly of First Nations to represent
    themselves in their dealing with the federal
  • 50) Pressured government during constitutional
    negotiations?Aboriginals entrenched in the
    Charter of Rights and Freedom?In 1985 Bill C-31
    gave Aboriginal band councils the power to decide
    who had the right to live on Aboriginal reserves
  • 49) Brought about question of self-governmentAbor
    iginal peoples claimed that control over their
    resources would allow them to tackle social and
    health concerns in their communities.
  • Aboriginal land claims
  • 51) Specific claimsFirst Nations claims to land
    based on the belief that the government did not
    fulfill its obligations under treaty or other
  • Comprehensive claimsAssertion of right of
    Aboriginal nations to large tracts of land
    because their ancestors were the original

(No Transcript)
Oka Confrontation  
  • 52
  • Disputed land in Oka, Quebec?Oka town council
    wanted to expand a golf course into the land that
    Mohawks at the nearby Kanesatake reserve
    considered sacred.
  • Mohawk warrior society blockaded the land
  • July 11th, police advanced on Mohawk lines,
    gunfire broke out, and an officer was killed.
  • Police blockaded KanesatakeMohawks
  • Montreal?violent confrontations between
    Quebeckers, police and Mohawks.
  • Across Canada, other Aboriginal groups blockaded
    highways and railway tracks in support.
  • Robert Bourassa (Premier) called in the Canadian
  • Disputed land was purchased by the federal
    government and given to Kanesatake 

(No Transcript)
Land Claims in British Columbia  
  • 53
  • Land claims in B.C.Comprehensive
  • The Royal Proclamation of 1763 declared that any
    lands whatever, which, not having been ceded to
    or purchased by us, are reserved to the
  • Opponentsdeny the 1763 proclamation is valid
  • Assert that Canada exercise traditional rights of
    discoverers and conquerors.
  • The land ceased long ago to belong to the First
    Nations?without written records its difficult for
    First Nations to prove continuous occupation.
  •          History of land claims go as far back
    as a century
  • o 1887Nisgaa, original occupants of the Nass
    Valley, began asserting their land rights
  • o 1992-made a land claim (first group) even when
    the Indian Act made it illegal to raise funds for
    land claims     

Nisgaa Territory
1993? won partial victory when Supreme Court of
Canada acknowledged the concept of Aboriginal
title (right to land) did indeed exist oThen, two
neighbouring nations, the Gitksan and
Wetsuweten took land claim to
courtDelgamuluukw case o In 1996Nisgaa offered
a settlement entitling them to 8 of their
original claimed land, ownership of forests, and
partial profits from salmon fisheries and hydro
development?right to develop own municipal
government and policing?190 million over fifteen
years in compensation for lost land. o In
1998Supreme Court defined Aboriginal title in
ruling on the Delgamullukw caseAboriginal groups
could claim ownership of land if they can prove
that they occupied the land before the Canadian
government claimed sovereignty, and that they
occupied it continuously and exclusively. o Oppone
ntsfeared more expensive land disputes would
come about and business feared that future court
causes would hurt their investments on the
land. o BC Government decided no vote would be
held over the issue because the majority cannot
fairly decide on the rights of the minority.  
Gitksan territory
  • But then Gordon Campbell came into power
  • 2002 New Liberal govt holds mail in
    referendum in effort to challenge supreme courts
    approval of the Nisgaa treaty
  • Outrage amongst many groups in BC Highly
    controversial critics challenge questions,
    format, legality, implications and purpose.
  • Many groups call on people to spoil ballots or
    send them to First Nations for burning ceremonies
  • Only 36 of ballots returned to govt, 90 of
    those ballots that were not spoiled predictably
    voted yes

The Nisgaa Referendum Stats
  • April 2 to May 15, 2002
  • Elections BC mailed 2,127,829 referendums to
    registered Prov voters.
  • Additional 16,930 packages mailed to unregistered
    voters or to voters who had moved and did not
    receive their original referendum package.
  • 26,702 individuals returned voting materials by
    the deadline that were not considered during the
    ballot count because they did not meet the
    requirements of the Treaty Negotiations
    Referendum Regulation.
  • 763,480 ballots were considered during the count,
    representing 35.83 of total registered voters.
    90 voted in favour of the 8 questions posed in
    the referendum

Referendum Questions
  1. Private property should not be expropriated for
    treaty settlements.
  2. The terms and conditions of leases and licences
    should be respected fair compensation for
    unavoidable disruption of commercial interests
    should be ensured.
  3. Hunting, fishing and recreational opportunities
    on Crown land should be ensured for allBritish
  4. Parks and protected areas should be maintained
    for the use and benefit of all British
  5. Province-wide standards of resource management
    and environmental protection should continue to
  6. Aboriginal self-government should have the
    characteristics of local government, with powers
    delegated from Canada and British Columbia.
  7. Treaties should include mechanisms for
    harmonizing land use planning between Aboriginal
    governments and neighbouring local governments.
  8. The existing tax exemptions for Aboriginal people
    should be phased out

A Powerful Force for Change  55) Ø The creation
of the territory of Nunavut in 1999 resulted from
the Largest treaty ever negotiated in
Canada o Inuit ?gained political control of some
1.6 million square kilometers on the Eastern
Arctic. o ImportanceAboriginal claims and
self-government will continue to be a powerful
force for change in shaping the nation into the
21st century.
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