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Pavement Distress and Maintenance

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Title: Pavement Distress and Maintenance


1
Pavement Distress and Maintenance
  • Fall Forum 2006
  • Tracy Schmidt, Mn/DOT
  • Ann Johnson, PE Services

2
Questions for you
  • Who are you?
  • Why are you here?
  • What do you want to get out of today?

3
Types of Maintenance
  • Preventive maintenance
  • Corrective maintenance
  • Emergency maintenance

4
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5
Preventive Maintenance
  • A program of activities
  • Preserving the investment in pavements
  • Extending pavement life
  • Enhancing pavement performance
  • Reducing user delays
  • Includes corrective and preventive maintenance
    and minor rehab
  • Often used to repair environmental damage
  • Narrows the focus to the application of one or
    more treatments
  • Applied to the surface of a structurally sound
    pavement

6
Preventive Maintenance
  • Preventive Maintenance is the right treatment on
    the right pavement at the right time
  • How to know when to act?
  • Pavement management
  • Condition surveys
  • Pavement condition index (PCI)
  • Non-destructive testing
  • FWD
  • Road rater

7
Todays Topics
  • Flexible Pavement Distresses and Maintenance
  • Rigid Pavement Distresses and Maintenance
  • Turf Issues
  • Pavement Evaluation

8
Pavement DistressesFlexible Pavement
9
Various Rating Manuals
  • Pavement Rehabilitation
  • A Guide for Minnesota Cities and Counties
  • MN LRRB
  • Distress Identification for the Long Term
    Pavement Performance Program
  • SHRP
  • PASER Guide in Fall Forum notebook

10
Identifying the Distress is the 1st Step in the
Process
11
Identifying Distresses Includes
  • Name
  • Severity
  • Amount
  • Rate what you see and not what you think.

12
Flexible Pavement Distresses
  • Three causes
  • Environmental
  • Construction/design deficiencies
  • Load-related

13
Cracking
  • Types
  • Fatigue
  • Thermal/Transverse
  • Block
  • Edge
  • Longitudinal
  • Reflection
  • Slippage

14
Fatigue Cracking
  • Causes
  • Insufficient strength
  • End of pavement life
  • Too heavy of loads
  • Cures
  • Remove and replace
  • Mill and overlay

15
Thermal Cracking (Transverse)
  • Causes
  • Contraction and Expansion of Pavement with
    Changing Temperatures
  • Cures
  • Crack Filling
  • Full-Depth Reclamation
  • Full Depth Repair
  • Thick Overlay

16
Block Cracking
  • Causes
  • High Void Content
  • Oxidative Hardening of the AC
  • Thermal Cracking
  • Cures
  • Crack Filling/Sealing
  • Seal Coat
  • Full-Depth Reclamation
  • Thick Overlay

17
Edge Cracking
  • Causes
  • Soil Movement Beneath Pavement
  • Cures
  • Crack Filling/Sealing
  • Full-Depth Reclamation

18
Longitudinal Cracks
  • Causes
  • Low Temperatures
  • Cures
  • Crack Sealing
  • Thick Overlay

19
Reflective Cracking
  • Causes
  • Existing cracks or joints in the underlying
    structure
  • Concrete slab movements
  • Cures
  • Crack Filling
  • Extensive Pre-Overlay Repair
  • Rubblizing
  • Crack Seat
  • Saw Seal
  • Interlayer

20
Slippage Cracking
  • Description
  • U-shaped cracks in areas of braking, turning,
    accelerating
  • Causes
  • Poor bond between asphalt surface and underlying
    layer
  • Cures
  • Crack Filling/Sealing
  • Full-Depth Reclamation

21
Surface Defects
  • Rutting
  • Shoving
  • Bleeding
  • Polished Aggregate
  • Raveling
  • Potholes
  • Patching

22
Rutting
  • Causes
  • Low Air Voids
  • Asphalt content too high
  • Smooth, Rounded Aggregate
  • Excessive amounts of natural sand
  • Excess Dust
  • Cures
  • Remove/Replace 100 mm (4 inches)
  • Micro-surfacing

23
Shoving
  • Causes
  • Unstable Mix
  • Braking, stopping or accelerating traffic
  • Slippage between layers
  • Cures
  • Remove and Replace
  • Mill and Overlay
  • Thick Overlay

24
Bleeding
  • Causes
  • Too high asphalt content
  • too rich a plant mix
  • improperly constructed seal coat
  • too heavy prime or tack coat
  • Cures
  • Sand blot
  • Micro-surfacing
  • Seal coat

25
Polished Aggregate
  • Causes
  • Soft aggregate
  • Heavy traffic
  • Cures
  • Seal coat
  • Micro-surfacing
  • Thin Overlay

26
Raveling
  • Causes
  • Asphalt binder unable to hold aggregate in place
  • dusty aggregates
  • segregation
  • low in-place density
  • aged asphalt binder
  • Stripping
  • Cures
  • Seal Coat
  • Micro-surfacing
  • Thin Overlay

27
Potholes
  • Causes
  • Raveling of cracks
  • Moisture damage
  • Freeze-thaw
  • Insufficient strength
  • Cures
  • Patch

28
Patch Deterioration
  • Causes
  • Poor bonding to existing pavement
  • Improper compaction
  • Poor materials
  • Propagation of original distress
  • Cures
  • Remove and replace
  • Re-patch
  • Assess original distress

29
Miscellaneous Distresses
  • Lane-to-shoulder Drop off
  • Water Bleeding and Pumping

30
Lane to Shoulder Drop off
  • Cause
  • Differences in materials used for lane and
    shoulder
  • Differential settlement
  • Insufficient compaction of base
  • Cures
  • Wedge/leveling overlay
  • Micro-surfacing

31
Water Bleeding and Pumping
  • Causes
  • Cracks
  • Inadequate drainage
  • Cures
  • Full-depth patch
  • Crack seal

32
Fatigue Cracking
Mini Quiz ???
  • Causes
  • Insufficient strength
  • End of pavement life
  • Too heavy of loads
  • Cures
  • Remove and replace
  • Mill and overlay

33
Thermal Cracking (Transverse)
  • Causes
  • Contraction and Expansion of Pavement with
    Changing Temperatures
  • Cures
  • Crack Filling
  • Full-Depth Reclamation
  • Thick Overlay

34
Rutting
  • Causes
  • Low Air Voids
  • Asphalt content too high
  • Smooth, Rounded Aggregate
  • Excessive amounts of natural sand
  • Excess Dust
  • Cures
  • Remove/Replace 100 mm (4 inches)
  • Micro-surfacing

35
Bleeding
  • Causes
  • Too high asphalt content
  • too rich a plant mix
  • improperly constructed seal coat
  • to heavy prime or tack coat
  • Cures
  • Sand blot
  • Micro-surfacing
  • Seal coat

36
Crack Sealing Video
  • One of many produced by the Minnesota Local Road
    Research Board

37
Crack Sealing
  • Saw and Seal
  • Rout and Seal
  • Clean and Seal (Blow and go)
  • Current Specifications
  • PM, Performance results
  • Recommended Applications

38
Current Specifications
  • Technical Memo 02-19-MRR-05
  • 3719 - Crumb Rubber
  • 3723 - Hot-Poured Elastic Type
  • 3725 - Extra Low Modulus
  • http//www.dot.state.mn.us/tecsup/

39
Sealants
  • 3725 is recommended for
  • saw seal, and rout seal(transverse cracks)
  • 3719 or 3723 for clean and seal
  • Recommended application temperature - any
    temperature between the recommended safe heating
    temperature and the recommended pouring
    temperature.

40
2331 Bituminous Pavement Crack Treatment
  • Rout and Seal at Transverse Cracks.
  • ¾ x ¾ rout.
  • 3725 sealant.
  • Clean and Seal at wide transverse cracks and all
    longitudinal cracks.
  • 3719 or 3723 sealant.

41
Edge Joint Sealing
42
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43
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44
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45
Saw and Seal
1/4
1/8
1/2
T/3 or 2.5in. min
5/8
1/8
  • 3725 now recommended
  • 3720

46
Rout and Seal
  • 3/4 by 3/4
  • 3725 now recommended
  • 3720

47
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48
Wide overband
49
Underfilling
50
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51
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52
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53
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54
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55
Clean and Seal
  • 3719 crumb rubber
  • 3723 rubberized asphalt
  • 3725 extra low modulus

56
Quality Control
  • Attention to details
  • Temperature of sealant
  • Router Bits
  • Heat lances
  • Dry Pavement
  • Workmanship!

57
Full-depth crack repair
58
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59
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60
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61
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62
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63
Spray injection patching or patching w/slurry
64
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65
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66
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67
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68
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69
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70
Micro Surfacing
71
Micro-surfacing
  • Treatment life of 7-9 years.
  • Surface treatment 3/8 to 1/2 thick.
  • Cures in one hour - chemical break.
  • Can be recycled.
  • Environmentally friendly.
  • Minimal traffic disruption.
  • Cold process saves money.

72
Micro-surfacing will -
  • Fill ruts
  • Restore skid resistance
  • Seal minor cracks
  • Correct raveling or flushed surfaces
  • Reduce aging and oxidation
  • Reestablish cross section
  • Provide wear course

73
Performance
  • Wheel rut resistance - 4 to 7 years
  • Skid resistance - Excellent
  • Raveling resistance - Good
  • Treatment for flushing - Good
  • Resistance to reflection cracks - Low

74
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75
Condition of existing pavement
Project Selection
  • Structurally sound
  • No excessive deformation
  • Moderate and high volume roads

76
Construction considerations
  • Repair / seal joints and cracks
  • Allow sealant to cure before placement.
  • Clean the surface of the road
  • Tack coat
  • dry or raveled surface
  • concrete

77
Weather conditions
  • Air temperature at least 50F
  • Pavement temperature at least 50F
  • No rain, damp is OK
  • No freezing within 24 hours

78
Paving
  • Continuous operation.
  • Mixing time, loading the spreader -
  • 15 seconds
  • Spreader box and strike off during breaking time
    of 60 to 120 seconds.
  • Rapid set.
  • Open to traffic in one hour, cross traffic in 20
    min.

79
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80
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81
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82
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83
Asphalt patching and overlays
84
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85
Rigid Pavement Distresses
  • Three causes
  • Environmental
  • Construction/design deficiencies
  • Load-related
  • Most rigid pavement distresses at airfields are
    caused by construction problems

86
Rigid Pavement Distresses
  • Environmental
  • Buckling/Shattering
  • Faulting

87
Buckling/Shattering
  • Identification
  • Usually occur in hot weather, at a transverse
    crack not wide enough to permit slab expansion
  • Repair
  • Partial or full-depth patch, depending on
    severity
  • Cause
  • Inadequate jointing and joint deterioration
  • Preventive measures, such as maintaining good
    joint sealers and placement of expansion joints,
    will control blow-ups.

88
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89
Faulting
  • Identification
  • Vertical movement of abutting slabs at joints or
    cracks
  • Repair
  • Low severity do nothing
  • Med and high severity grinding, slab jacking,
    or replacement

90
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91
Rigid Pavement Distresses
  • Construction/design deficiencies
  • Durability (D) cracking
  • Joint seal damage
  • Lane/Shoulder drop off
  • Polished aggregate
  • Popouts
  • Scaling/Map cracking
  • Shrinkage cracks
  • Spalling (joint and corner)

92
Spalling
  • Identification
  • Breaking or chipping of the slab at corner or
    joint
  • Disintegration of the slab edges
  • Do not extend vertically through slab
  • Repair
  • Partial or full depth patching, depending on
    severity

93
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94
Durability Cracking
  • Identification
  • Pattern of cracks running parallel and close to a
    joint or linear crack. A series of fine,
    hairline cracks usually cracking across the slab
    corners. This type of crack can eventually lead
    to disintegration of the entire slab.

95
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96
Durability Cracking
  • Repair
  • Low severity do nothing, joint sealing
  • Med severity partial or full depth patching
  • High severity full depth patching or total slab
    replacement

97
Joint Seal Damage
  • Identification
  • Any condition which enables incompressible
    materials to accumulate in the joints allows
    water infiltration
  • Repair
  • Low severity do nothing
  • Med and high severity join sealing

98
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99
Polished Aggregate
  • Identification
  • Aggregate in the surface becomes smooth to the
    touch. Low skid resistance.
  • Repair
  • Overlay, grooving or grinding

100
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101
Popouts
  • Identification
  • A small piece of pavement that breaks loose from
    the surface.
  • Repair
  • Generally occur early in the pavement life, and
    do not result in severe distress.

102
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103
Scaling/Map Cracking
  • Identification
  • A network of fine, shallow or hairline cracks
    which extend only through the upper surface of
    the concrete. Map cracking may lead to surface
    scaling, which is the progressive disintegration
    and loss of the wearing surface.

104
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105
Scaling/Map Cracking
  • Repair
  • Low severity do nothing
  • Med severity partial depth patching
  • High severity partial or full depth patching,
    bonded overlay

106
Shrinkage Cracks
  • Identification
  • Hairline cracks usually a few feet long and not
    extending across slab
  • Repair
  • Generally occur early in a pavements life, and
    do not lead to severe distress

107
Rigid Pavement Distresses
  • Load-related
  • Divided slab
  • Linear cracking
  • Pumping
  • Punchout

108
Turf Issues
  • Corrugations
  • Pest problems
  • Rolling and Grading
  • Turf Maintenance

109
Pavement Evaluation Management
110
FAA Requirements
  • FAA wants assurance that investment is protected
    and maintained
  • Terms and Conditions of Accepting Airport
    Improvement Grants
  • With respect to a project approved after January
    1, 1995, for the replacement or reconstruction of
    pavement at the airport, it assures or certifies
    that it has implemented an effective airport
    pavement maintenance-management program and it
    assures that it will use such program for the
    useful life of any pavement constructed,
    reconstructed or repaired with Federal financial
    assistance at the airport. It will provide such
    reports on pavement condition and pavement
    management programs as the Secretary determines
    may be useful.
  • Special Conditions in Federal Grants

111
FAA Requirements
  • Pavement Inventory
  • Inspection Schedule
  • Record Keeping/Retrieval
  • Maintenance Plan

112
Non-NPIAS Airports
  • MnDOT Grants require airport be maintained in a
    safe, serviceable manner

113
References
  • FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5380-6A
  • Guidelines and Procedures for Maintenance of
    Airport Pavements
  • FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5380-7 or 7A (Draft)
  • Pavement Management System
  • FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5320-17
  • Airfield Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating
    Manuals

114
Mn/DOTs Role
  • Perform PCI Surveys at public airports with paved
    runways every 3 years
  • Benefits both MnDOT Sponsor
  • Consistent ratings and record keeping
  • Track performance and condition of the Statewide
    airport system
  • Fulfills part of the Sponsors Obligation
  • The information can help in developing the CIP
    and scheduling projects

115
PCI Inspection Process
  • Use MicroPaver system and software
  • Prescribed number of sample areas base on total
    area identify them on a simple map
  • Measure amount and severity of all distresses
    within each sample unit
  • Enter distresses into the database, analyze and
    generate reports
  • Annually update database and airport maps to
    include new construction

116
PCI Reports
117
PCI Reports
  • Color-coded condition map

118
PCI Reports
  • Condition Summary Section Report

119
PCI Report
  • Condition Projection

120
PCI Report
  • Distress Report

121
PCI Reports
  • Future improvements
  • Include construction history
  • Improved deterioration curves
  • Possibly some recommendations for repairs, timing
    and costs
  • Information on the Aeronautics website

122
On-Site Evaluation
123
Field evaluation
  • Break into three teams
  • Evaluate pavement in groups and compare results
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