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A Brief History of Computing

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A Brief History of Computing Pre-Automation Era ... (e.g. Access, MySQL) Communications Graphics (e.g. Adobe s Photoshop) ... Networked learning environments ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Brief History of Computing


1
A Brief History of Computing
  • Pre-Automation Era (mechanization)
  • Host Centric Period (1940s-1970s)
  • Network Centric Period (1970s-1990s)
  • User Centric Period (1990s to current)

2
Pre-Automation Era
  • 1880s - 1940s
  • Based on punched cards and tabulating machines
  • Herman Hollerith (U.S. Census)
  • Typically routines and procedures
  • Automated existing tasks(not new services)

3
Host Centric Period
  • 1940s Invention of tube-based computers
  • 1954 Mass production of transistorized computing
    systems
  • Internal memory (RAM) and programming languages
  • 1964 DEC and the minicomputer
  • Creation of large distributed networks based on
    single shared host

4
Network Centric Period
  • Also the beginning of the PC movement
  • 1969 beginnings of the Internet and TCP/IP
    (NSFnet)
  • 1974 MITS, the first crude mail order PC
  • 1977 Apple II ships to schools
  • 1982 IBM PC debuts
  • mid 1980s - beginnings of networked PCs (called
    LANs)

5
User Centric Period
  • 1992 WWW opens new doors for end users
  • mid 1990s GUIs come into fashion (first Lisa,
    then Mac, next Windows PC)
  • Internet connectivity comes to the home
  • Most content created as bits, not atoms
  • Distributed, personalized computing comes to the
    masses
  • The Web grows rapidly to fuel commercial
    interests

6
Spectrum of Change in Focus of Computing Systems
  • SYSTEMS ----gt
  • FUNCTIONALITY ---gt
  • END USERS ---gt ???

7
Simple Hardware Basics
  • System unit (CPU, RAM, ROM on a system board)
  • Peripherals (I/O devices such as magnetic drives,
    CD, DVD, printers, scanners, etc.)
  • Network connections (NICs and POTs)

8
Simple Software Basics
  • Systems Software
  • Applications software

9
Systems Software
  • Operating Systems (Mac/OS Windows UNIX/Linux)
  • ROM (Read Only Memory)
  • Programming languages
  • Procedural (BASIC, C)
  • Non-procedural (LISP Prolog)
  • Object-oriented (C)

10
Applications Software
  • General Purpose Applications
  • Editors (e.g. NotePad)
  • Word processing (e.g. Word)
  • Spreadsheet (e.g. Excel)
  • Database and DBMS (e.g. Access, MySQL)
  • Communications
  • Graphics (e.g. Adobes Photoshop)
  • Desktop publishing

11
Applications Software (contd)
  • Specific applications
  • HTML editors (FrontPage, Dreamweaver)
  • Web development tools (Java, PERL, PHP)
  • Web animation tools (e.g. Macromedias Director
    w/ShockWave client)
  • Shadow Network Space (a COE/SISLT/CTIE
    development)
  • Networked learning environments (e.g. WebCT,
    CourseInfo/BlackBoard)
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