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The Gilded Age in American History 1865-1896

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The Gilded Age in American History 1865-1896 Laissez-faire A policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering. Social Darwinism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Gilded Age in American History 1865-1896


1
The Gilded Age in American History 1865-1896
2
What impact did the Gilded Age have upon the
History of the United States?
3
Gild
  • Pronunciation gild
  • Function Transition verb
  • Etymology Middle English, from Old English
    gyldan akin to Old English gold gold
  • 1 to overlay with or as if with a thin covering
    of gold
  • 2a to give money to b to given an attractive
    but often deceptive appearance to c archaic to
    make bloody
  • Gild-ed adjective

4
Why would an era be referred to as Gilded?
5
The Gilded Age A Tale of Today
  • Book gave name to the era
  • Time of gaudy excess and a new class of wealth,
    political corruption and conquest of the West
  • By Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner

6
Washington Square North, New York City by Fernand
Lungren
7
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The Gilded Age
  • Railroad building
  • Reconstruction of the South
  • Industrialization of the United States
  • Settling of Western Frontier
  • Immigration (the New Immigrants)
  • Rise of large urban centers (big cities)
  • Political Corruption

9
Era of the Railroads
  • Transcontinental Railroad completed on May 10,
    1869.
  • Railroad building triggered the industrial
    revolution
  • Railroad building required steel, oil and other
    resources provided by industry.
  • Railroads connected the entire nation and eased
    travel
  • Aided the economic growth of the West
  • Railroad building provided employment for new
    immigrants

10
Railroads
  • Railroads were built by using cheap immigrant
    labor
  • Irish
  • Chinese
  • Railroads were built across Native American
    ancestral lands

11
The Industrialization of America
  • United States becomes a world industrial power
  • Rise of dominant railroad, steel and oil
    industries.
  • Rise of Titans of Industry
  • Andrew Carnegie
  • Leland Stanford
  • John D. Rockefeller
  • Cornelius Vanderbilt
  • Dynamic era of new inventions and commercial
    products
  • Light bulb, Kodak camera, typewriter etc.
  • Thomas Edison

12
The Standard Oil Octopus
John D. Rockefellers company becomes a monopoly
by destroying all competition and gaining
favorable government policies.
13
Industrialization
  • Corrupt business practices
  • Monopolies destroy competition
  • Workers wages low
  • Dangerous working conditions.
  • Child labor, no restrictions.
  • Labor Unions emerging, but lacked strength and
    viewed as radical
  • Knights of Labor
  • American Federation of Labor

14
Activity
  • Primary Source Analysis
  • Within your group, analyze the documents.
  • Fill out the corresponding sheets.

15
Review of Primary Sources
  • Mullin

16
New Immigration
  • Millions of Europeans and Asians immigrate from
    1860s to early 1920s.
  • Immigrants come to escape poverty, old social
    orders and religious persecution and to find
    freedom and opportunity in America.
  • New immigrants come from regions that had not
    supplied past immigrants, new cultural traditions
    added.
  • America becomes the Great Melting Pot

17
The New Immigrants
  • Settled in ethnic Ghettos and slums in American
    cities.
  • Lived in overpopulated tenement houses.
  • New immigrants worked jobs that paid the lowest
    wages and did the toughest work.
  • Nativism reemerged in greater force in America

18
Nativism
  • The belief that NATIVE born Americans are
    superior to foreigners.
  • Racist and xenophobic.
  • Does this still exist today?

19
The Growth of the Cities
  • Cities became centers of American industry
  • New York
  • Boston
  • Detroit
  • Chicago
  • St. Louis
  • Kansas City
  • America boasted some of the largest cities in the
    world
  • Cities became cultural centers.

20
Urbanization
  • Cities were overcrowded
  • People lived in slums
  • Tenement houses were overcrowded
  • Unsanitary living conditions
  • Disease rampant
  • Crime rampant
  • Political bosses controlled city politics
  • City governments were corrupt and mismanaged
  • Cities were dirty, filthy and trash-infested

Photographs by Jacob Riis, a Danish immigrant who
became a reformer through journalism
photojournalism
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Thesis Statement
  • What was the Industrial Revolutions impact on
    society and their working conditions?
  • GIVE THREE EXAMPLES OF YOUR IDENTIFIED IMPACT.
  • Due in file by end of class.
  • Graded.

30
The Rise of Industry
  • Mullin

31
Vocabulary
  • Key Content Terms Bessemer process, horizontal
    integration, vertical integration, laissez-faire,
    social Darwinism, Sherman Antitrust Act
  • Social Studies Terms capitalism, capital,
    corporation, patents monopoly, trust,
    entrepreneur, philanthropist

32
Bessemer Process
  • The first inexpensive industrial process for the
    mass-production of steel.
  • Named after its inventor.

33
Horizontal Integration vs. Vertical Integration
  • Horizontal Integration The combining of many
    firms engaged in the same type of business into
    one large corporation
  • Vertical Integration A single company owns and
    controls the entire process from raw materials to
    the manufacture and sale of the finished product

34
Laissez-faire
  • A policy or attitude of letting things take their
    own course, without interfering.

35
Social Darwinism
  • Philosophy stated that only the strongest and the
    fittest would survive and flourish in society,
    while the weak and unfit should be allowed to
    die. 

36
Sherman Antitrust Act
  • First federal action against monopolies, it was
    signed into law and was extensively used by
    Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting
  • A Trust is an entity created to hold assets for
    the benefit of certain persons or entities, with
    a trustee managing the trust (and often holding
    title on behalf of the trust).

37
Capitalism vs. Capital
  • Capitalism an economic system in which
    individuals and corporations, not the government,
    own production and profit.
  • Strict noninterference of the government in
    business affairs.
  •  
  • Capital buildings, machinery, tools, and other
    goods that create products or services for the
    people.

38
Patents vs. Monopolies
  • Patent set of exclusive rights granted by the
    gov to an inventor for a limited period of time
    in exchange for a the production of that good.
  • Monopolies the exclusive possession or control
    of the supply or trade in a commodity or service

39
Entrepreneur vs. Philanthropist
  • Entrepreneur a person who organizes and operates
    a business or businesses, taking on greater than
    normal financial risks in order to do so.
  • Philanthropist a person who seeks to promote the
    welfare of others, especially by the generous
    donation of money to good causes.

40
Graph Analysis
  • Working with a partner, graph all the data on
    your worksheet.
  • Answer the corresponding questions.
  • Due at the end of class.
  • PUT IN BINDERS!

41
New Growth
  • Mullin

42
Settlement of the West
  • Railroad building connects farmers in West with
    Eastern markets
  • Land availability on the Great Plains for farming
  • Cattle ranching and mining industries thrive in
    the West
  • Growth of Western cities.
  • Golden Age of the Cowboy

43
Homestead Act
  • A special act of Congress (1862) that made public
    lands in the West available to settlers without
    payment, usually in lots of 160 acres, to be used
    as farms.

44
Dawes Act
  • adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the
    President of the United States to survey American
    Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments
    for individual Indians.
  • Those who accepted allotments and lived
    separately from the tribe would be granted United
    States citizenship.

45
Move On!
Has the native American no rights that the
naturalized American is bound to respect?
46
Conquering the Western Frontier
  • Seizing lands from Native Americans
  • Forcing Indians onto reservations Indian Wars
  • Railroad scheme to possess the best available
    lands
  • Railroads take advantage of farmers set high
    shipping rates.

47
Conquering the Western Frontier.
  • Farmers took large acreages of land to produce
    enough crop to make a profit Lands of Great
    Plains difficult to farm farmers interests not
    addressed by the government.
  • Conflict between farmers and ranchers over land
    use.
  • Lawlessness throughout.
  • Cattle Mining boom towns

48
Introductory Paragraph
  • How did Western Expansion destroy Indian tribal
    life?
  • Due at the end of class.
  • MAKE THESIS STATEMENT SPECIFIC
  • INCLUDE SPECIFIC FACTS/REFERENCES.

49
Conclusion of the Gilded Age
  • Mullin

50
Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Age of Republican presidents
  • One Democrat, twice removed. Grover Cleveland.
  • Political promise for African Americans
  • Civil Service Reform
  • Pendleton Act
  • Farmers seeking a voice in the political system
  • National Grange Populists
  • Government aid to railroad and industrial growth
  • Key issues were monetary system, the tariff and
    civil service reform.

51
The forgettable presidents political
corruption
  • Ineffective presidential leadership
  • Political corruption and scandals
  • Era of Good Stealings
  • Government ties to big business
  • No regulation of business practices
  • Kickbacks to political officials
  • Failure to secure goals of reconstruction
  • Treatment of Native Americans
  • Farm protest from South and West fail to unite
  • Emergence and end of Populism

52
Impact of the Gilded Age on United States History
53
Prepared the United States for its future as an
imperial power.
54
Settlement of the West and the closing of the
frontier, turned the attention of the nation to
newer frontiers- overseas territories.
55
Influx of new immigrants added new ingredients
into American culture.
56
The descendants of these new immigrants would be
future leaders and major personalities in the
United States.
57
The growth of American industry would help make
the United States a global industrial power and
further the engine of economic progress of the
20th century.
58
The corrupt business and political practices of
the era called for reform.
59
The discrimination against African Americans,
Native Americans, new immigrants, and women lead
to a greater call for civil rights protections.
60
The Gilded Age set the stage for the Emergence of
Modern America.
61

The Gilded Age laid the foundation for the United
States of the 20th Century, a SUPERPOWER!
62
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Activity and Essay
  • List the pros and cons of the Gilded Age.
  • Essay Was the development of the Gilded Age good
    for the United States? Explain why/why not.
  • 4 PARAGRAPHS.
  • GIVE SPECIFIC EVIDENCE
  • Use your notes.
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