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Literary Elements Notes

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Literary Elements Notes English I Plot The sequence of events of a story, usually related to the solution of a problem or conflict. What is it about the stories that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Literary Elements Notes


1
Literary Elements Notes
  • English I

2
Plot
  • The sequence of events of a story, usually
    related to the solution of a problem or conflict.
  • What is it about the stories that we crave?
    Millions of people everywhere love to see heroes
    struggle to overcome obstacles. Nobody wants to
    read a story where the hero achieves his goal in
    the first scene.

3
Terms associated with plot
  • Conflict A struggle between opposing forces,
    often in the form of complications/obstacles that
    stand between the hero (protagonist) and his/her
    goal
  • Types of Conflict Man vs. Man, Man vs. Nature,
    Man vs. Self, Man vs. Society, Man vs. Beliefs

4
  • Exposition The introduction of a story where the
    author gives any background information, a major
    character, and/or the setting.

5
Terms associated with plot (cont.)
  • Inciting moment The point at which the reader is
    first made aware of the central conflict (Rising
    Action begins here)
  • Climax The point at which the central conflict
    of a story is resolved
  • The hero either wins or loses.
  • Denouement (pronounced day-new-ma) when the
    author ties up the loose ends at the end of the
    story

6
Plot diagrams
  • A plot teepee is a good way to map the events
    of the story.

7
Plot Devices used by authors
  • Suspense a feeling of anxious uncertainty
    created by raising questions in the readers mind
  • Foreshadowing hints of whats to come
  • Flashback break from current action to past
    events
  • Surprise ending an unexpected outcome
  • cliffhanger

8
Theme
  • An idea or insight into life revealed within a
    story
  • Man without laws is an animal.
  • Coming of age is never easy.
  • Life is a journey toward self-discovery.

9
Symbol
  • An object, person, or event that represents
    something else that is usually abstract
  • The American flag

10
Types of Symbols
  • metaphor A comparison between two objects using
    is
  • The media center is an oasis of calm and quiet.
  • simile A comparison between two objects using
    like or as
  • My love is like a red, red rose.
  • Literary Symbols
  • The cat in The Black Cat may represent the
    narrators conscience, despair, or alcoholism.

11
Tone
  • The authors attitude toward the characters,
    situation, and the reader
  • respectful, sympathetic, challenging, sarcastic,
    formal, informal, etc.

12
Imagery
  • Mental pictures that the author creates with
    words by describing setting, characters actions,
    and other details from a text
  • Mood
  • The atmosphere of the story, usually stemming
    from the details of the setting
  • dark, depressing, uplifting, joyous, stark, etc.

13
Characterization
  • The process by which an author introduces and
    describes the characters in a story

14
Methods of Characterization
  • An author may develop a character by giving
  • physical description
  • relating the inner thoughts and feelings of a
    character
  • using dialogue
  • giving the opinions of other characters within
    the story

15
Types of Characters
  • Flat characters Characters we dont get to know
    very well.
  • minor characters
  • Round characters Characters we get to know well.
  • We know their fears, fantasies, history, etc.
  • Static characters Characters who do not change
    within the context of the story
  • Dynamic characters Characters who change, grow,
    or develop within the context of the story

16
Point of View
  • The perspective from which the story is told
  • First Person When a story is told from the
    perspective of one of the characters in the story
  • Uses the pronoun I.

17
Third Person
  • When a story is told from the perspective of
    someone outside the story looking in.
  • Third person limited perspective is limited to
    what one character does, observes, or thinks.
  • Third person omniscient the story is told from
    the perspective of someone who knows and sees all

18
Dramatic point of view
  • Objective
  • Story is not told by anyone other than the
    author.
  • Reader is responsible for interpreting what
    actions of characters and events of story mean.

19
Unreliable narrator
  • A narrator whose perspective may or may not be
    trustworthy for any reason (maybe the narrator is
    crazy).
  • Poes narrators are often insane. Can we trust
    them as witnesses?

20
Setting
  • Where and when a story takes place.
  • Sometimes, we must guess the location or time
    period of a story from contextual clues, because
    the author does not tell us.
  • anachronism a detail of a story that does not
    fit the setting
  • A computer in a Shakespearean tragedy would be
    out of place.

21
Irony
  • A general name given to literary techniques that
    involve surprising, interesting, or amusing
    contradictions
  • 3 Types of Irony
  • Verbal irony words are used to suggest the
    opposite of their usual meaning
  • Ex Sara gets a horrendous haircut and Jason
    tells her, Your hair looks GREAT!

22
Types of Irony (cont.)
  • Dramatic irony a contradiction between what a
    character thinks and what the audience knows to
    be true
  • Ex Readers know main characters die in Romeo
    Juliet.
  • Situational Irony when an event occurs that
    directly contradicts the expectations of the
    reader.
  • Ex Olympic swimmer drowns in bathtub.

23
What is Suspense?
  • The tension and nervous uncertainty that some
    stories generate
  • Keeps you guessing and turning pages wondering
    about the outcome
  • Writers create suspense by withholding key
    details or hinting at events to come
    (foreshadowing)
  • Can also create suspense by using vivid details
    to draw you into the tension of the moment
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