Jean Watson The Philosophy and Science of Caring - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Jean Watson The Philosophy and Science of Caring PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 716d44-MGI0Z


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Jean Watson The Philosophy and Science of Caring


Title: PowerPoint Presentation Author: Donald Buisman Last modified by: Stephanie Kimbrel Created Date: 9/20/2010 5:02:25 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:728
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 24
Provided by: Donald195
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Jean Watson The Philosophy and Science of Caring

Jean Watson The Philosophy and Science of Caring
  • By Amanda Buisman and Stephanie Kimbrel

  • Jean Watson was born in West Virginia in 1940.
    She has a bachelors degree in nursing, a master
    of science degree in psychiatric-mental health
    nursing, and a doctorate in education psychology
    and counseling all of which were obtained from
    the University of Colorado.
  • Watson is the former Dean of the School of
    Nursing at the University of Colorado. She also
    founded and directed the Center for Human Caring
    at the Health Sciences Center in Denver.
  • She has 6 honorary Doctoral degrees.

  • Watson published multiple books on her theory-
  • Nursing The Philosophy and Science of Caring
  • Nursing Human Science and Human Care A Theory
    of Nursing (1996)
  • Watsons Theory of Transpersonal Caring (1996)
  • The Theory of Human Caring Retrospective and
    Prospective (1997)
  • Postmodern Nursing and Beyond (1999)
  • Jean Watson Theory of Human Caring (2001)
  • Caring Science as Sacred Science (2005)

Summary of Theory
  • The central idea of Watsons theory is
    Humans cannot be treated as objects, and that
    humans cannot be separated from self, other,
    nature, and the larger universe (Watson, 1997,
    p. 50)
  • Watson believes that while her theory
    encompasses the whole of nursing, the emphasis
    is on the interpersonal process between the
    caregiver and the care recipient.

Summary of Theory
  • The Science of Human Caring focuses on the
    relation between use of the 10 Carative Factors
    and the development of a transpersonal caring
    relationship within the context of the caring
    occasion, caring moment, and caring (healing)
  • Watsons theories are considered middle-range
    explanatory theories.

Summary of Theory
  • Watsons theory is based on a humanitarian,
    metaphysical, spiritual-existential, and
    phenomenological orientation which draws largely
    from Eastern philosophy.
  • In Watsons words, her theories are-
  • concerned with spirit rather than matter, flux
    rather then form, inner knowledge and power,
    rather then circumstance (Watson, 1996, p. 219)

Key Theory Terms
  • Transpersonal caring relationship-
  • General term for the connection made between
    self, the universe, the spirit/soul, and the
    current moment in time. Involves the nurse and
    the life space or phenomenal field of another
  • Caring moment/caring occasion-
  • Involves an action and choice by both the nurse
    and the other person in which they come together
    within the moment and in the relationship. Each
    feels a connection with the other at the spirit
    level. It transcends space and time.
  • Caring (Healing) Consciousness-
  • The whole caring-healing-loving consciousness is
    contained within a single caring moment. Both the
    one caring and the one being cared for are
    interconnected, the caring-healing process is
    connected with the other human, and everything is
    in connection with the higher energy of the
    universe. The process is intersubjective with
    transcendent possibilities that go beyond the
    given caring moment.

Key Theory Terms
  • Developed ten Carative Factors which form a
    framework for understanding the science of
  • The formation of a humanistic-altruistic system
    of values.
  • The instillation of faith-hope.
  • The cultivation of sensitivity to ones self and
    to others.
  • The development of a helping-trusting
  • The promotion and acceptance of the expression
    of positive and negative feelings.
  • The systematic use of the scientific
    problem-solving method for decision making.
  • The promotion of interpersonal teaching-learning.
  • The provision for a supportive, protective, and
    (or) corrective mental, physical, sociocultural,
    and spiritual environment.
  • Assistance with the gratification of human needs.
  • The allowance for existential-phenomenological
  • (Watson, 1985, p. 9-10)

Metaparadigm Concepts/Definitions
  • Human Being- A valued person to be cared for,
    respected, nurtured, and assisted.
  • Health- Unity and harmony within the mind, body,
    and soul health is associated with the degree of
    congruence between the self as perceived and the
    self as experienced.
  • Nursing- A human science of persons and human
    health- illness experiences that are mediated by
    professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and
    ethical human care transactions.
  • Actual Caring Occasion- Involves actions and
    choices by the nurse and the individual. The
    moment of coming together in a caring occasion
    presents the two persons with the opportunity to
    decide how to be in the relationship- what to do
    with the moment.
  • McEwen Wills, 2011, p. 176

Metaparadigm Concepts/Definitions
  • Transpersonal- An intersubjective human-to-human
    relationship on which the nurse affects and is
    affected by the person of the other. Both are
    fully present in the moment and feel a union with
    the other they share a phenomenal field that
    becomes part of the life history of both.
  • Phenomenal Field- The totality of human
    experience of ones being in the world. This
    refers to the individuals frame of reference
    that can only be known to that person.
  • Self- The organized conceptual gestalt composed
    of perceptions of the characteristics of the I
    or ME and the perceptions of the relationship
    of the I or ME to others and to various
    aspects of life.
  • Time- The present is more subjectively real, and
    the past is more objectively real. The past is
    prior to, or in a different mode of being than
    the present, but is not clearly distinguishable.
    Past, present, and future incidents merge and
  • McEwen Wills, 2011, p. 176

Fawcett Criteria
  • Significance-
  • Watson does meet the criteria for
    significance. Philosophical claims,
    metaparadigmatic origins, and conceptual
    orientation is all defined and explained.
    (Fawcett, 2005, p. 566)
  • Antecedent Knowledge-
  • Watson states her theory is the result of her
    own values and beliefs. She cites her experience
    in practice, education, as well as her
    philosophical, and intellectual background as
    antecedents. She also acknowledged Carl Rogers,
    Mumford, Peplau, Marcel, Sarte, Yalom, and
    Lazarus works as inspiration.
  • (Fawcett, 2005, p. 560)

Fawcett Criteria
  • Internal Consistency-
  • Watson only partially meets the criteria for
    internal consistency. There are dual meanings in
    Watsons distinctions between body, mind, and
    soul subjective and objective experience and
    health and illness. There are also several
    different views on what a human being is defined
    as. Semantic clarity is evident in the
    definitions and descriptions Watson provided.
    (Fawcett, 2005, p. 566-567)
  • Parsimony-
  • This theory does meet the criteria for
    parsimony. However, it is recommended by Fawcett
    that one must read Watsons older work in order
    to fully appreciate and understand the
    progression of her theory. (Fawcett, 2005, p.

Fawcett Criteria
  • Testability-
  • Watson only partially meets the criteria for
    testability of middle-range theories. While
    Watson cites several research/testing
    methodologies, none of them is directed toward
    measurement of the relation between the Clinical
    Caritas Processes and Transpersonal Caring
    Relationship, which is the central focus of her
  • Watson did publish a report in 2002 citing 21
    instruments designed to assess and measure
    caring. Some of the listed instruments were
    developed by Watson herself, and many of the
    listed instruments lack citation of theoretical
  • Fawcett recommends that empirical indicators
    must be developed to measure the complexity of
    the concepts of Transpersonal Caring
    Relationship, Caring Moment/Caring Occasion, and
    Caring/Healing Consciousness in the real world of
    nursing practice. In addition, data analysis
    techniques must be developed to measure the
    relation between the concepts of Clinical Caritas
    Processes and Transpersonal Caring Relationship.
    (Fawcett, 2005, p. 571)

Fawcett Criteria
  • Empirical Adequacy-
  • Watson partially meets the criteria for
    empirical adequacy for middle-range theories. A
    variety of methodologies, phenomenology's and
    grounded theories are used. Watson also employs
    the Theory of Human Caring-based
    Descriptive-Empirical Phenomenological Research
    Method and the Transcendental-Poetic Expression
    of Phenomenology Research Method.
  • Published reports are beginning to show evidence
    regarding the empirical adequacy of the Theory of
    Caring Science. Watson is lacking published
    reports showing full empirical evidence of the
    effects of the Clinical Caritas Processes and the
    outcomes of a Transpersonal Caring Relationship.
  • (Fawcett, 2005, p. 571)

Fawcett Criteria
  • Pragmatic Adequacy-
  • Watson does meet pragmatic adequacy. She
    clearly defines the special education
    requirements for the application of her theory.
    She also developed a complete outline on how
    nurses should be educated on how to apply her
  • Several studies have applied Watsons theory in
    real life situations, with positive outcomes. It
    may not be practical to apply this theory in all
    care settings however.
  • It is legal for the practitioner to apply and
    implement this theory for measurement of
    effectiveness. (Fawcett, 2005, p. 571)

  • Theory is very abstract and can be difficult
    to teach and implement. Involves a large
    emotional/spiritual investment on behalf of the
    nurse which may or may not always be possible for
    each individual nurse.
  • Evidence is lacking showing any actually
    outcomes from the Caritas Process or from a
    Transpersonal Caring Relationship.
  • No mention has been made to the possible
    negative effects this may have on the nurse as
    they must open up themselves on such a
    personal/spiritual level.

How well do you know Watson?
  • Watson defined 10 specific concepts in
    relation to the science of caring.... Were they
  • Watsons 10 Care Plans
  • Watsons 10 Care Bears
  • Watsons 10 Carative Factors
  • Watsons 10 Carative Concepts

  • The correct answer is item C, they are called
    Watsons 10 Carative Factors.

How well do you know Watson?
  • True or False
  • Watsons theories draw largely from Eastern

  • True!
  • Watsons theories are largely influenced by
    Eastern culture and spiritual beliefs.

How well do you know Watson?
  • Which of the following are key concepts in
    Watsons theory?
  • A Transpersonal Caring Relationship
  • An Actual Caring Moment/Occasion
  • Caring/Healing Consciousness
  • All of the above

  • The correct answer is D, or all of the above
    listed concepts.

  • Fawcett, J. (2005). Chapter 16 Watson's Theory of
    Human Caring. In Contemporary Nursing Knowledge
    Analysis and Evaluation of Nursing Models and
    Theories (2nd ed., pp. 553-583). Philadelphia
    F.A. Davis Company.
  • Watson, J. (2005). Caring Science as Sacred
    Science. Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.
  • McEwen, M., Wills, E. (2011). Chapter 8 Grand
    Nursing Theories Based on Interactive Process. In
    Theoretical Basis for Nursing (3rd ed., pp.
    174-179). Philadelphia Lippincott Williams