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Ancient Rome: The Founding of Rome and the Roman Republic


... of Rome: Etruscan Rule in Northern Italy. Etruscan Rule--unified city around ... Mare Nostrum 'Our Sea'--Rome controls all lands bordering the Mediterranean by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Rome: The Founding of Rome and the Roman Republic

Ancient Rome The Founding of Rome and the Roman
  • Mr. Oberholtzer
  • A-36

Influence of Geography
  • Rome located on western part of Italian Peninsula
  • Topography of Italian peninsula
  • Mountainous Alps in the north, Appenines
    running N-S along spine
  • Swampy coastal areas
  • Few natural harbors
  • open, fertile plains agriculture

Focal Point of Civilization Moves from East to
1500 AD
3000 BC
400 BC
14 AD
3000 BC
Rome The Eternal City
  • Geography
  • 15 mi inland from coast
  • situated on Tiber River
  • surrounded by 7 hills
  • natural trading center
  • Plain of Latium breadbasket of Rome
  • Proximity to water encourages sea trade
  • Geographic advantages make Rome powerful!!

Legend of the Founding of Rome
  • (753 BC) Romulus and Remus, princes of Troy are
    abandoned on Tiber by mother.
  • Raised by Wolves
  • Meaning
  • Romans believed they were s trong, intelligent,
    destined for greatness
  • Romans had a noble heritage

Foundation of Rome Etruscan Rule in Northern
  • Etruscan Rule--unified city around 700 BC
  • Trade metalworking, gold, silver
  • Language related to Greek, undecyphered known
    through artifacts
  • Ruled for over 200 years
  • Etruscan Culture
  • complex art, painting, sculpture, mosaics
  • cult of the dead like Egypt
  • worshipped 3 gods

End of Etruscan Rule (500 BC)
  • Etruscans ruled by nobility
  • upper classes have power poor do not
  • Romans (Latins) hated the Etruscans
  • Revolted in 500 BC and set up a republic (res
  • reaction to Etruscan rule
  • absorbed Etruscan culture
  • took over Etruscan power

The Roman Republic (500-70 BC)
  • Roman Society
  • Gentes all Roman families with a common ancestor
    joined in kinship (clan)
  • Patricians Equestrian Order (10 of pop.) upper
    class, wealthy landowners led revolt against
    Etruscans basis of power
  • Plebians (90 of pop.) poor, working class
    served in army, paid taxes, voted, protected
    under law.

Economic Turmoil
  • Slavery in Rome led to unemployment
  • Concentration of wealth into few hands created
  • Clientela system of social relations in which
    the poor received financial assistance from rich
    in return for loyalty bound society together.
  • Free grain, wine and entertainment provided
  • permanent unemployment

Roman Political Institutions
  • Consuls executive power 2 elected to 1 year
    terms--rule jointly---ensured no one could steal
  • The Senate assembly of 300 Patricians who served
    for life real rulers of Roman Republic.

Lesser Political Offices
  • Centuriate Assembly--all arms bearing citizens
    voted by groups--controlled by the Patricians and
    the Senate
  • Praetors-- 8 elected annually--served as judges
    and army commanders
  • Quaestors--financial officials
  • Aediles-- ran municipal services
  • Censors--compiled census and protected public
  • Tribune-- vetoed legislation harmful to Plebians
    it was a capital crime to harm a Tribune.

Roman Law
  • The Law of the Twelve Tables (450 BC)
  • codified, written down
  • featured equal treatment under the law for
  • no more arbitrary decisions or punishments!

History of the Roman Republic
  • Republic formed in 509 BC
  • Latin League formed to defend Rome and outlying
    Latin tribes
  • Gallic Invasion (390 BC)--sacked Rome
  • Latin Revolt (340 BC) Rome crushed revolt
    supreme power in Italy

Factors Leading to Roman Supremacy
  • Geography--mountains wall off Italy location
    good for trade commerce wealth
  • Family Values-- live simply, work hard, fight
    hard patriarchal society father rules Romans
    endure hardship and obey orders.
  • Military Strength--well trained military unit
    legion (6,000 men) professional soldiers
    organized into units (century 100 men) Roman
    Roads allowed for efficient movement of military
    force throughout the Republic (and later the
  • Leadership-- best in the Ancient World

The Punic Wars (264-146 BC)
  • Between 264 and 146 BC Carthage and Rome fought 3
  • Wars fueled by military, political and economic
  • Results in Roman victory and supremacy over the

Rome and Carthage The Punic Wars (264-146 BC)
The First Punic War
  • Fought over Carthaginian settlements on Sicily
    Rome feared invasion, Carthage feared loss of
    valuable colonies.
  • Carthage was militarily superior had the
    strongest navy
  • Rome built a large navy and defeated Carthage in
    241 BC
  • Roman determination wins the day

The Second Punic War(219-202 BC)
  • Cathaginian general Hannibal forced Rome to
    declare war attacked through Spain
  • Military genius equal to Alexander the Great
  • Used 40,000 infantry, elephants and cavalry to
    defeat Roman legions
  • travelled through Spain and Gaul to attack Rome

Defeat of Hannibal in 202 BC
  • Hannibal enlists the Gauls, attacks Italian
  • Hannibal defeated larger Roman armies
  • Could not break city walls of Rome
  • 15 years he terrorized the Italian peninsula
  • Defeated at Battle of Zama in 202 BC by general
    Africanus Scipio in a frontal assault on Carthage

Third Punic War (149-146 BC)
  • Rome demanded that Carthage relocate away from
    the coast afraid of growing Carthaginian power.
  • Carthage refused and Rome attacked laid seige to
    the city and starved the population
  • Rome entered the city in 146 BC and burned it to
    the ground Carthage never recovered and Rome
    was master of Mediterranean.

Changes in the Republic
  • Macedonia becomes a Roman province in 146 BC
  • Greek city-states become subjects of Rome
  • Mare Nostrum Our Sea--Rome controls all lands
    bordering the Mediterranean by 100 BC leads to

Economic Changes
  • Small farmers lost land destroyed by Hannibal or
    bought by Patricians
  • Imported grain put farmers out of work
  • Latifundia--large agricultural estates owned by
    Patricians permanently put plebians out of work.

The Moral Decline of the Rich
  • The Rich on the Latifundias grew cash crops like
    olives, grapes, sheep and cattle instead of food
  • Used slaves rather than paying unemployed
    plebians led to unrest clientela becomes way of
  • Discipline degenerated into love of greed and
    soft living destroyed Roman moral tradition.
  • Left Rome weaker!!

The Reforms of the Gracchi
  • Gracchus brothers tried to repair economic
  • Saw the future decline and attempted reforms
  • Tiberius Elected tribune of the people
  • Attempted to redistrubute land to the poor
  • Assassinated in 132 BC by Senators

Gaius Gracchus (153-121 BC)
  • Elected tribune in 123 BC
  • Tax reform(tax farming) instituted
  • Settled the poor in foreign provinces solves the
    land crisis
  • Tried to unify all Italy into a nation
  • Assassinated in 121 BC
  • results
  • no real reform
  • no solution to economic problems
  • long term economic decay

Transformation to Empire
  • Mr. Oberholtzer
  • A-36

Roman Life in the Republic and The Empire Apex
of Classical Civilization
  • Mr. Oberholtzer
  • A-36

Pompeii Window to Roman Life
Eruption of Vesuvius
Vesuvius is an active volcano located near the
Bay of Naples in S. Italy Vesuvius has erupted
hundreds of times since AD 79 Last major eruption
was in 1944 Still is a threat today!
Pompeii Herculaneum Frozen in Time August 24,
79 AD
  • Mount Vesuvius, near Naples in S. Italy erupted
    and buried Pompeii under volcanic ash
  • Heculaneum was buried under volcanic mud no
  • Both cities were preserved artifacts of daily
    life abound

  • Roman provincial city
  • Prosperous trading center and resort for wealthy
  • Excavations began in 1748 25 of the city is
    still buried
  • Only source for Roman artifacts of everyday life

Oldest Roman Ampitheatre, Pompeii
Roman Life
The Roman City
  • Forum was center of civic life (like Agora)
  • City laid out in a square (grid) with streets
    running north/south and east/west
  • Public baths for social and business purposes
  • Built with stone and concrete used the arch!
  • Art and architectural forms borrowed from Greece

The Roman City
  • Cities were walled
  • Aqueducts brought fresh water in
  • Sewage systems removed waste water
  • Plebians got water from public fountains
  • Loud, dusty, crowded most people lived in
    insulae apartment buildings.
  • Streets were paved, had sidewalks, crossing
    stones and speed bumps

The Romans Master Road Builders of the Ancient
  • Romans built 50,000 miles of paved roads
  • Appian Way connected all of Italy (N to S)
  • Many Roman roads are still in use today
  • Enabled trade commerce to move efficiently
    created wealth unified Empire
  • Allowed efficient movement of armies to defend
    the empire

Roman Entertainment
  • Ampitheatre-- gladiator bouts executions, mock
    battles, wild animals, religious rituals, blood
    sports--Colosseum was most famous structure.
  • Hippodrome--chariot races, horse races
  • Theater--plays, modeled after Greek drama

Chariot Racing at The Circus Maximus
Articles of Roman Life
  • Roman Food-- poor ate bread, beans, lentils,
    fish rich ate doormice, songbirds and seasoned
    with spices sweet wine water with meals
  • Ate in prone position on right side ate with
  • Rich enjoyed multi-course banquets used
    vomitoriums to regurgitate and eat more (up to 5X
    per sitting)

Roman Clothes
Roman Medicine
  • Medicine was primarily for military and the
    wealthy Patricians
  • Galen (130-200 AD) Greek born physician who
    studied anatomy used pulse to determine health
    of patient.
  • Many of his conclusions were wrong

Roman Art
  • Influenced by the Greeks
  • Sculpture, paintings and mosaics capture realism
    and emotion
  • Many actually done by Greek slaves
  • Most teachers were Greek slaves Romans grew
    less sophisticated
  • Literary styles mirrored Greeks