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Nutrition and COPD


Nutrition and COPD All Things Considered – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nutrition and COPD

Nutrition and COPD
  • All Things Considered

Primary Goals of Medical Nutrition Therapy
  • Preserve lean body mass
  • Prevent involuntary weight loss
  • Maintain nutritional status
  • Improve quality of life

Role of Nutrition
  • Improves energy
  • Helps fight inflammation
  • Improves immune function
  • Helps retain muscle mass and strength
  • Helps retain bone mass
  • Helps slow progression of the disease

Nutrition Concerns
  • Malnutrition
  • Weight status
  • Nutrient dense - Quality counts!
  • Adequate fluids (helps thin mucus)
  • Coping with COPD symptoms

Unplanned Weight Loss
  • An individual without lung disease uses about 100
    calories per day expanding and contracting the
    muscles involved with breathing

Unplanned Weight Loss
  • An individual with COPD could use between 420
    730 (or more) calories per day for the work of
  • Unplanned weight loss affects as many as 40-70
    of COPD patients

  • Studies report that in individuals with COPD, the
    prevalence of lower BMI (under 20 kg/m2) may be
    as high as 30 and the risk of COPD-related death
    doubles with weight loss.

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Body Composition
  • In individuals with stable COPD, studies report
    that even for the 70 of patients with BMI
    greater that 20 kg/m2, body composition differs
    from healthy controls.
  • Fat-free (muscle) mass index and bone mineral
    density are lower in individuals with COPD.

COPD Symptoms Contribute to Weight Loss
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue (too tired to cook)
  • Loss of appetite
  • Feeling bloated after eating
  • Food tastes different

Shortness of Breath
  • CO2 retention associated with food comes from
    eating excess calories in general.
  • Most individuals with COPD need smaller
    nutrient-dense meals, more often
  • Digestion requires energy. Energy requires
    oxygen. Smaller meals use less oxygen.
  • Learn to graze throughout day
  • Strategic snacking no room for junk

Shortness of Breath
  • Often difficult to chew, swallow, and breathe at
    the same time
  • Try to rest for 30 minutes before meals
  • Good body posture at table
  • Easily prepared and easy to chew foods
  • Eat 6 small meals per day
  • If on continuous oxygen therapy, may need to
    increase oxygen flow rate during meals (Check
    with doctor first)

  • Eat larger meals earlier in the day
  • 6 small meals per day
  • Prepare greater amounts of food when feeling
    up. Freeze to eat later.
  • Prepare simple foods and recipes
  • Enlist family, friends or community agencies to
    help with meals

Feeling Bloated
  • Factors Swallowing air, not drinking enough
    fluids, and not enough exercise
  • Try not to rush meals
  • Eat several small meals throughout day
  • Drink fluids 1 hour before or after meals
  • Avoid foods that cause gas and bloating
  • Eat less fried, fatty foods
  • Avoid constipation gradually increase fiber and
    fluid in diet and remember to move

If Individual is Underweight
  • May be more likely to get an infection
  • May become weak and tired more often
  • May weaken the muscles that control breathing

Weight Gain or Maintenance
  • Small meals and snacks throughout day
  • Nutrient-dense, High calorie, High protein
  • Role of fat
  • Overall nutritional quality of foods
  • May use commercial nutrition supplements (Not a
    meal replacement)

If Individual is Overweight
  • Heart and lungs must work harder
  • Increased weight increases oxygen needs
  • Breathing may become more difficult, especially
    if weight is around middle
  • Weight may decrease ability to expand chest well
    for breathing
  • Increased risk of developing other health problems

Weight Loss Wizard
  • We wish we had a magic wand!

Guidelines to Lose Weight
  • Lose weight gradually and sensibly
  • Become more active
  • Eat fewer calories
  • Eat nutrient-dense, balanced diet
  • Follow healthy nutrition guidelines such as the
    DASH diet or Choose My Plate
  • Monitor or record food intake

DASH to Health
  • Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)
    eating plan is balanced, nutrient-dense, and
    fiber and mineral-rich.
  • DASH is consistently ranked tops in independent
    comparisons of nutrition and diet plans.

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Important Nutrition Guidelines for COPD
  • Protein
  • Fluids
  • Less Sodium
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Potassium

  • Most individuals with COPD have reduced body
    muscle mass compared to normal
  • Protein is key component of muscle and antibodies
    to help fight infection
  • Balanced diet is the real deal
  • Include protein source at every meal (fish,
    poultry, meat, eggs, dairy products, legumes,
    nuts, nut butters, soy products)

Tips to Increase Protein
  • Snack on peanut butter, bean dips, nuts, yogurt,
    boiled eggs, cheese or cottage cheese, instant
    breakfast, puddings
  • Add skim milk powder to milk, cereals, cream
    soups, casseroles, and sauces
  • Add cheese to sandwiches and vegetables
  • Add chopped meats, cheese, or legumes to soups
    and casseroles

  • Helps thin and clear lung secretions
  • Helps prevent bloating and constipation
  • Oxygen therapy is drying
  • Choose caffeine-free, non-carbonated beverages
  • Goal at least 8 cups liquids per day
  • To reduce fullness at meals, drink more between
    meals sip throughout day

Reduce Sodium
  • Fluid retention makes breathing difficult
  • Choose more fresh, unprocessed foods
  • Use less packaged, prepared foods
  • Read food labels for sodium values
  • Use more herbs, spices and salt-free seasonings
    to add flavor

  • Helps with lung function, muscle contraction, and
    blood clotting
  • Helps make bones strong
  • Important for healthy immune system
  • Helps transport nerve impulses
  • Corticosteroids may increase calcium loss

Calcium Food Sources
  • Dairy products are best source (milk, yogurt,
    cheese, ice cream)
  • Other foods sources tofu, almonds, broccoli,
    leafy greens, legumes
  • Calcium-fortified foods
  • Vitamin D is essential for calcium absorption

  • Normal muscle and nerve function
  • Healthy immune system
  • Bone health
  • Energy metabolism
  • Protein synthesis
  • Heart rhythm
  • Normal blood pressure
  • Blood sugar and insulin regulation

Magnesium Food Sources
  • Nuts
  • Dark green vegetables
  • Whole grains
  • Legumes (beans, peas, lentils, peanuts)
  • Soybeans and tofu
  • Some seafood
  • (Whole grains have about 80 more magnesium than
    refined grains)

  • Protective effect against hypertension (helps the
    body to excrete sodium)
  • Helps regulate water and mineral balance
    throughout the body
  • Required for muscle contractions
  • Very important for the heart muscle
  • Diuretics decrease potassium

Potassium Food Sources
  • Banana, kiwi, apricot, nectarine
  • Dried fruit (prunes, raisins, dates, figs)
  • Milk and yogurt
  • Potato (either white or sweet)
  • Tomato (raw or cooked)
  • Dried cooked beans (navy, black, lentil, limas,
    pinto, black-eyed peas, etc.)
  • Leafy greens (spinach, kale, Swiss chard)
  • 100 bran cereals
  • Fish halibut, tuna, cod, snapper

What is the Role of Fat?
  • Insulation, circulation, hormone balance
  • Helps meet increased energy needs (Fat has twice
    the calories of protein or carbohydrates)
  • Transports fat-soluble vitamins
  • Increases satiety

Unsaturated Fats are Healthy Fats
  • Olive oil, canola oil, and other vegetable oils
  • Nuts, seeds, nut butters
  • Fatty fish salmon, mackerel, tuna, sardines
  • Avocados
  • Olives

Good Carbs and Fiber
  • Fiber only found in plant foods
  • Nutrient dense
  • Best sources whole fruits and vegetables, dried
    beans, whole grains, nuts seeds
  • Eating for color Nutrient density
  • Whole grains Try something different

Choose Your Plate
  • 5 - 6 small meals per day
  • Balance between carbs, proteins, and fats
  • Simple and fresh
  • Nutrient dense
  • Variety of colors and textures
  • Drink plenty of fluids

Fill Your Plate With Color!