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Models/Theories review

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Title: Most important Geographers/Theories Author: admin Last modified by: ANN WURST Created Date: 12/10/2007 2:00:05 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Models/Theories review


1
Models/Theories review
  • Best advice
  • Review for this quiz in full screen mode (F5)
    so you can look at models without seeing answers.
  • Continue filling out your chart with info on the
    Geographers and their models/theories

2
Name the model or theory
  • Alonso Ricardo
  • got left out of models project. 0
  • Bid Rent theory

3
Name the model or theory
  • John Borchert
  • 1) Sail-Wagon Epoch (1790-1830) - associated
    with low technology 2) Iron Horse Epoch
    (1830-70) steam-powered locomotive spreading
    rails 3) Steel-Rail Epoch (1870-1920) full
    impact of Ind. Rev. (steel), hinterlands expand
    4) Auto-Air-Amenity Epoch (1920-70) gas-powered
    internal combustion engine High Technology
    Epoch (1970-today ) expansion of service
    information industries (not part of Borchert's
    model)
  • Transportation Urbanization model The American
    Epochs
  • Five distinct periods in the history of American
    urbanization. Each epoch is characterized by the
    impact of a particular transport technology on
    the creation and differential rates of growth of
    American cities.

4
Name the model or theory
  • Norman Borlaug
  • RIP, 2009 ?
  • Green Revolution

5
Name the model or theory
  • Esther Boserup
  • Population and economic growth theory

Not the worry wart regarding population
6
Name the model or theory
  • ERNST BURGESS
  • CONCENTRIC ZONE MODEL OF URBAN GROWTH

Burgess and Urban BURban
7
Name the model or theory
  • H. Carey
  • The Gravity Model

8
Name the model or theory
  • CHRISTALLER
  • CENTRAL PLACE THEORY OF URBAN/SERVICES DEVELOPMENT

9
Name the model or theory
  • SubSaharan City model
  • DeBlij

10
Jared Diamond (1937-) Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997) geographic luck(environmental determinism)
11
Name the model or theory
  • Ford/Griffin
  • Latin American city model

12
Name the model or theory
  • Edge Cities/ Urbanization
  • Joel Garreau

13
Name the model or theory
  • Gimbutas
  • Kurgan hypothesis
  • In 1956 Gimbutas introduced her Kurgan
    hypothesis, which combined archaeological study
    of the distinctive Kurgan burial mounds
    with linguistics to unravel some problems in the
    study of theProto-Indo-European (PIE) speaking
    peoples, whom she dubbed the "Kurgans" namely,
    to account for their origin and to trace their
    migrations into Europe.

14
Name the model or theory
  • HARRIS ULLMAN
  • MULTIPLE NUCLEI MODEL OF URBAN GROWTH

Multiple names multiple nuclei
15
Name the model or theory
  • Harold Hotelling
  • Industry
  • Locational interdependence
  • Ice cream/Starbucks theory

16
Name the model or theory
  • HOMER HOYT
  • SECTOR MODEL OF URBAN GROWTH

Homer / sector
17
Name the model or theory
  • Koppen
  • Climate classifications

18
Name the model or theory
  • August Losch
  • Industrialization
  • Profit maximization
  • make me happy guy

19
Name the model or theory
  • Thomas Malthus
  • Theory of overpopulation

20
Name the model or theory
  • HEARTLAND THEORY OF POLITICAL POWER
  • HALFORD MAKINDER

MaKINDer is kind HEARTed
21
Name the model or theory
  • Alfred Mahan
  • Sea power theory of political growth

22
Name the model or theory
  • McGee
  • SE Asian
  • city model

23
Name the model or theory
  • PETER MULLER
  • SUBURBANIZATION TRANSPORTATION ANALYSIS IN
    URBAN REGIONS

Muller Mules TRANSPORT
24
Name the model or theory
  • Omran
  •  epidemiological transition is a phase of
    development witnessed by a sudden and stark
    increase in population growth rates brought about
    by medical innovation in disease or sickness
    therapy and treatment, followed by a re-leveling
    of population growth from subsequent declines
    in fertility rates

25
Name the model or theory
  • FRIEDRICH RATZEL
  • ORGANIC THEORY OF STATE GROWTH
  • ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINISM - Natural
    surroundings rule human action

A RAT is ORGANIC/alive RATs live in the
environment
26
Name the model or theory
  • Ernst Ravenstein
  • Gravity model of migration Laws of Migration

RAVENS fly/ MIGRATE
27
Name the model or theory
  • Collin Renfrew
  • Language diffusion by agricultural means

CoLLin/Language..
28
Name the model or theory
  • Walter Rostow
  • Stages of
  • economic
  • growth/development
  • Be able to
  • name the
  • stages
  • w/country
  • examples

RostOW economic grOWth
29
Name the model or theory
  • Carl Sauer
  • Possiblism/Landscape Theory states that the
    cultural landscape is shaped by humans and
    various cultural aspects of their culture.
  • Examples- Humans have altered the physical
    environment in many ways including the
    architecture humans build, the toponyms placed on
    certain locations, burial practices, and sacred
    sites that are established.
  • Possibilism
  • Humans can alter their environment

Hoover Dam changing the landscape
30
Name the model or theory
  • Nicholas Spykman
  • He who controls the Rimland, controls the world
    political systems theory

SPYKE the RIM
31
Name the model or theory
  • Taylor and Lang
  • World Cities Model

tAyLor / LAng L.A. is a world city
32
Name the model or theory
  • Warren Thompson
  • Demographic Transition
  • Holds that slowing population growth is
    attributable to
  • improved economic production
  • and higher standards of living brought about by
    changes in medicine, education and
    sanitation. Overcrowding is a reflection of the
    Carrying Capacity and not the numbers per unit
    area.
  • (Carrying Capacity is the of people an area can
    support on a sustained basis given the prevailing
    technology.)

33
Name the model or theory
  • VON THUNEN
  • AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES IN AN ISOLATED STATE
    SURROUND A MARKET ZONE THAT IS CIRCULAR

Not Burgess, but look the same.
34
Name the model or theory
  • Immanuel Wallerstein
  • World Systems Theory / Core-Periphery model

Wallerstein World
35
Name the model or theory
  • Alfred Weber
  • Least Cost theory and Industrial location theory

Cheap guy/theory
36
Alfred Wegener Continental drift (1915) hypothesized that the continents were slowly drifting around the Earth. His hypothesis was not accepted until the 1950s, when numerous discoveries provided conclusive evidence (plate tectonics).
37
Name the model or theory
  • Wilber Zelinsky

38
Name the model or theory
  • G. Zipf
  • Rank-size rule for sizes of cities

39
Most important Geographers/Theories Be able to
match the person to their theory/model Be able to
recognize/classify the theory/model
  • Pop/Migration
  • Boserup
  • Malthus
  • Ravenstein
  • Omran
  • Carey
  • Zelinsky
  • Ratzel
  • THEORIES/CONCEPTS gt
  • Gravity model-migration push pull factors,
  • population food supply issues
  • rural to urban migration,
  • Ties b/t population growth economic growth,
  • Demographic Transition
  • Culture gt Language diffusion (military vs
    agriculture
  • M. Gimbutas, C. Renfrew, Sauer, Ratzel
  • Nature/Perspectives
  • Sauer
  • Ratzel
  • Koppen
  • Wegener
  • THEORIES/CONCEPTS gt
  • environmental determinism
  • Possiblism,
  • Climate classification system
  • DEV/RESOURCES
  • Rostow
  • Wallerstein
  • Thompson
  • Theories/CONCEPTS gt
  • Stages of eco growth,

40
Most important Geographers/Theories Be able to
match the person to their theory/model Be able to
recognize/classify the theory/model
  • INDUSTRIALIZATION/ECO DEVELOPMENT
  • Weber
  • Rostow
  • Wallerstein
  • Thompson
  • Borlaug (as related to development)
  • Taylor/Lang
  • Theories/CONCEPTS gt
  • Stages of eco growth,
  • world systems theory
  • Demographic Transition
  • Least cost theory
  • Green Revolution links to development
  • CITIES AND URBAN LAND USE
  • Borchert, Burgess, Harris/Ullman
  • Hotelling, Losch, Garreau, Christaller
  • Hoyt, Muller, Zipf, Muller/Hartshorn, DeBlij,
    Ford/Griffin, McGee
  • Political
  • Mahan
  • Spykman
  • Mackinder
  • Ratzel
  • Models/Theories/concepts
  • Sea power
  • Rimland theory
  • Heartland theory
  • Organic states
  • AGRICULTURE
  • Von Thunen
  • Borlaug
  • Boserup
  • Christaller
  • Renfrew

41
  • Anatolian Hearth theory
  • Correlation b/t source areas of 3 agricultural
    centers and 3 major languages

Turkey/agriculture/food/language
42
  • Central Place Theory
  • Spatial distribution of cities/service centers is
    a hexagon w/CP in the middle

Chrystals
43
  • Core-Periphery model
  • World systems
  • Places/regions cant develop equally, somebody
    has to be poor!

44
  • Demographic Transition Model
  • Birth and mortality rates are tied to stages of
    development

45
  • Demographic Transition
  • Holds that slowing population growth is
    attributable to
  • improved economic production
  • and higher standards of living brought about by
    changes in medicine, education and
    sanitation. Overcrowding is a reflection of the
    Carrying Capacity and not the numbers per unit
    area.
  • (Carrying Capacity is the of people an area can
    support on a sustained basis given the prevailing
    technology.)

46
  • Dependency Theory
  • Poor countrys economy is tied to a rich country,
    usually its former colonizer

Tied to Neo-colonialism
47
  • Gravity model of migration
  • Relationship b/t volume of migration and distance
    from source destination is inverse

Black Hole city
48
  • Heartland Theory
  • Mackinder's Heartland (also known as the Pivot
    Area) is the core area of Eurasia, and the
    World-Island is all of Eurasia (both Europe and
    Asia).
  • He who controls Europe, controls the world

Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland Who
rules the Heartland commands the World-Island Who
rules the World-Island commands the world
49
  • Least Cost/Location Theory
  • Minimizing transportation costs

Cheap theory
50
  • Migration Theory
  • Push-Pull Forces impact choices
  • FORCED
  • VOLUNTARY
  • IMPELLED
  • CHAIN

51
  • Concentric Zone Model
  • Burgess
  • Focus on CBD importance b/c CBD is at the center
    of the model

????
52
  • Multiple Nuclei model
  • CBD is not as important, urban areas develop
    several CBDs

53
  • Sector model
  • Based on urban transportation routes and bid rent
    prices

54
  • World Systems Theory
  • Development is applicable across scales local
    to regional to global

55
  • Five distinct periods in the history of American
    urbanization.
  • Each epoch is characterized by the impact of a
    particular transport technology on the creation
    and differential rates of growth of American
    cities.
  • Urbanization American Epochs

56
  • Edge Cities/ Urbanization

57
  • Where there is a Target, there is also a.
  • Industry
  • Locational interdependence
  • Ice cream/
  • starbucks theory

58
  • Industrialization
  • Profit maximization
  • make me happy guy

59
Connecting Agri/Ind/Medical revs to urbanization
60
  • Good review sites gt
  • https//sites.google.com/site/geographymajortheori
    es/
  • Models/Theories gt http//teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.
    edu/snyderd/mwh/ap/apgeographers.htm
  • Prezi for Models and Theories gt http//prezi.com/q
    uigwfyvfnoy/ap-human-geography-models-and-theories
    / Prezi 2 gt http//prezi.com/wkppdgvqnt1d/ap-huma
    n-geography-models/ Flash cards for
    models/theories gt http//quizlet.com/2260847/ap-hu
    man-geography-models-theories-flash-cards/

61
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