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Stonehenge

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Derived from words that mean hanging stones, circle of stones, or stone hinges ... Merlin, the magician in King Arthur's time moved the stones to honor soldiers ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Stonehenge


1
Stonehenge
  • Hort 4000
  • Mary Laine

2
(No Transcript)
3
What is Stonehenge?
  • Derived from words that mean hanging stones,
    circle of stones, or stone hinges
  • 162 stones originally and about half remain today
  • Southern England, eight miles north of Salisbury
    and 30 miles north of the English Channel
  • Nearby hillsides are covered with hundreds of
    burial pits known as barrows
  • 80 of the barrows face east towards where the
    sun rises on the horizon

4
  • There are at least 900 circles in Wales,
    Scotland, England, and Ireland.
  • Most are made of stone, but wood was also used.
  • Soil was also piled up to create banks, ditches,
    and circles.
  • Many of these structures are of archaeological
    interest and are found throughout the countries.

5
The builders
  • Prehistoric people
  • Carbon dating shows that it was built in five
    phases from 3500 1520 BC
  • Class Question
  • How old do you think the people were that built
    Stonehenge?

6
Answer
  • 40 of the people who lived then probably died
    before the age of 20
  • A 30 year old person was considered old
  • Therefore, it is most likely that Stonehenge was
    built by teenagers.

7
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8
Stone
  • Two types of stone
  • Neither is native to the area
  • Bluestone 8 ft. tall, 4 tons
  • Vertical sarsens, 7 ft wide, 3 4 ft thick, 18
    ft long, buried 5 ft into the soil
  • Lintels are the horizontal sarsens. 10.5 ft long,
    3.5 ft wide, 2.5 ft thick

9
Class Question
  • How much do you think the vertical sarsens
    weigh??

10
  • Answer
  • 26 45 tons each

11
Origin of the stones
  • Great debate. Were they moved to the area or
    left by a glacier??
  • Half of the stones were probably moved 200 miles
    by water and land from Wales
  • Half of the stones were probably from 24 miles
    away
  • A phenomenal feat to move them!!

12
How were the stones moved?
  • Great debate by historians and archeologists
  • Primitive tools made from deer antlers or stones
    were used to pry the stone out of the ground
  • Long poles were used as levers to lift the stone
    onto a sledge
  • Ropes of hide were used to drag the stones

13
Question
  • How many people do you think it took to move a
    sarsen?
  • How long do you think it took to move all of the
    sarsens?

14
Answer
  • 1000 men to haul one 45 ton sarsen
  • 10 years to move all of the sarsens

15
How were they shaped?
  • Stone axes
  • Stone and wood wedges, flames and cold water to
    crack the stone
  • Estimated that 50 stonemasons working 10 hour
    days, 7 days a week would have pounded away 2
    inches on all of the stones in 2 years and 9
    months
  • Persistence and determination!

16
How were they put in place? A simplistic view
  • Stones were sunk 3 to 5 feet into the ground.
  • One side of the hole was a wooden ramp. Wooden
    stakes were used to reinforce the other sides of
    the hole.
  • 140 200 workers would pull the stone upright
    perhaps using a pulley.
  • The hole was filled with rocks and boulders
    packed tightly together.
  • Mortise, tenons, and toggle joints were used to
    hold the lintels and sarsens together.

17
Why??
18
Theories-why was it built?
  • Predict astronomical events.
  • 30 sarsens in the circle could symbolize the days
    of the month
  • 19 bluestones in the horseshoe could be the 19
    year cycle of the moon
  • Aligned with the midsummer sunrise and midwinter
    sunset
  • Sacred site

19
Who built it??
  • Merlin, the magician in King Arthurs time moved
    the stones to honor soldiers
  • Built by Roman invaders
  • Druids
  • No one really knows the answer.

20
Vandalism through the ages
  • Romans ruined part of it when they were
    destroying pagan sites
  • Stones were removed for bridges, houses, other
    building
  • Continual touching has altered the faces of the
    stone
  • Visitors chiseled away samples for souvenirs

21
Today it is a tourist trap
  • A large parking lot
  • 1 million visitors per year
  • Visitors center with a cafeteria, gift shop
  • Area is roped off so you cannot walk among the
    stones
  • Class Question
  • What of the visitors are Americans?

22
  • Answer
  • 50

23
References
  • Burl, Aubrey. Great Stone Circles. New Haven
    Yale University Press, 1998.
  • Mass, Wendy. Stonehenge. San Diego Lucent Books,
    Inc. 1998.
  • http//www.alaska.net/acc/tour2001/920Stonehenge
    201.JPG
  • www.theicemage.com/maps/ stonehenge.jpg
  • www.pandore.net/magies/ legende/Stonehenge.jpg
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