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Introduction to Transcultural Nursing

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Introduction to Transcultural Nursing Why should we study it?? WELCOME to Cultural and Spiritual Dimensions in Healthcare N237! Bienvenu a tout le monde!! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Transcultural Nursing


1
Introduction to Transcultural Nursing
  • Why should we study it??

2
WELCOME to Cultural and Spiritual Dimensions in
Healthcare N237!
Bienvenu a tout le monde!! Willkommen!! Ben Venuti a tutti!!
BIenvenidos a todos! BIenvenidos a todos!
3
Basic Concepts
  • Transcultural Nursingthe study of the lifeways
    and patterns of persons of various cultures
    including their healthcare practices and
    nursings role in that culture.
  • Cross Cultural Nursingthe study of the lifeways
    and patterns of persons of various cultures from
    an anthropological perspective that is being
    applied to nursing.

4
Concepts (Contd)
  • International Nursingthe exchange of nurses
    between 2 or more nations/cultures.
  • Culturethe patterns and lifeways that guide a
    group of peoples worldview and decision-making.
  • Cultural Impositiona situation where one culture
    forces their values and beliefs on another
    culture or subculture.

5
Concepts (Contd)
  • Acculturationthe process of adapting or
    modifying the patterns and lifeways of an adopted
    culture as a result of contact with another group
    or individual.
  • Assimilationthe process of accepting some of the
    cultural practices or traits of the prevailing
    culture into ones own daily activities.
  • Refugeea person who flees from persecution,
    invasion, or political danger.

6
Concepts (contd)
  • Valuessomething regarded as desirable, worthy,
    or right, as a belief, standard, or moral
    precept.
  • Beliefsa tenet or body of tenets doctrine
    creed.
  • Ethnocentrismthe universal tendency of human
    beings to think that their ways of thinking,
    acting, and believing are the only right, proper,
    and natural ways. It can be a major barrier to
    providing culturally conscious care.

7
Concepts (Contd)
  • Generalizationusually an oversimplification made
    about behaviors of an individual or large group.
  • Stereotypingto make a person possess or believe
    to possess characteristics or qualities that
    typify a particular group.

8
Cultural Competence in Nursing
  • Developing an awareness of ones own existence,
    sensations, thoughts, and environment without
    letting it have an undue influence on those from
    other backgrounds.
  • Demonstrating knowledge and understanding of the
    clients culture.
  • Accepting and respecting cultural differences.
  • Adapting care to be congruent with the clients
    culture.

9
4 Levels of Cultural Competence
  • Unconscious incompetencenot being aware that one
    is lacking knowledge about another culture.
  • Conscious incompetencebeing aware that one is
    lacking knowledge about another culture.
  • Conscious competencelearning about the clients
    culture, verifying generalizations about the
    clients culture, and providing culturally
    specific interventions.
  • Unconscious competenceautomatically providing
    culturally congruent care to clients of a diverse
    culture.

10
What is YOUR goal re Cultural Competence??
  • Through this course we hope that you will desire
    to strive for CONSCIOUS COMPETENCE regarding your
    clients culture when you practice.

11
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12
Nursing Theorists in Transcultural Nursing
  • Madeleine Leiningerthe founder of Transcultural
    Nursing.Dr. Leininger studied anthropology in
    the 1950s and early 60s. She earned her PhD in
    Cultural Anthropology. She then decided that
    nursing was constantly dealing with the lifeways
    and patterns of peoples of many backgrounds and
    that in caring for these persons, nurses needed
    to be sensitive to the unique needs of all
    peoples. She felt strongly that we should NOT
    impose our views on others whenever possible.

13
Contributions of Madeleine Leininger (July 13,
1925-August 10, 2012) to the Development of
Transcultural Nursing from the TCNS website
www.tcns.org
Date Contribution
1954 Leininger noticed and studied the cultural differences in the perception of care
1965 Leininger earned a doctorate in cultural anthropology Univ. of Washington
1965-1969 Leininger offered first courses and telelectures offered in Transcultural Nursing Univ. of Colorado School of NsgEst. 1st PhD nurse-scientist program combining anthro-pology and nursingUniv. of Colorado School of Nsg
1973 !st Academic Dept. in Transcultural Nursing estd Univ. of Washington, School of Nsg
1974 Transcultural Nursing Society(TNS) estd as the official organization of transcultural nursing.
1978 First advanced degree programs Masters Doctoral estd Univ. of Utah School of Nursing
14
1988 Transcultural Nursing Society(TNS)initiated certification examinations Certified Transcultural Nurse
1989 Journal of Transcultural Nursing (JTN)1st published as official publication of the TNS Leininger is founding editor. The goal of the JTN is to disseminate transcultural ideas, theories, research findings, and/or practice experiences.
1991 Dr. Leininger published Culture Care Diversity and Universality A theory of Nursing in which she outlines her theory Culture Care Diversity and Universality and the Sunrise Model and its research implications.
1995 Dr. Leininger published Transcultural NursingConcepts, Theories, Research Practices as a text for undergraduate and graduate nursing students.
2001 Dr. Leininger continued to teach a graduate level Transcultural Course at the Univ. of Northern Colorado. She guest lectured internationally at age 77!!
15
Leiningers Theory
  • She developed the SUNRISE MODEL as a basis for
    assessment and research in nursing.
  • This model remains as a standard in
    Transcultural Nursing Theory.
  • Dr. Leininger also developed the ETHNONURSING
    Method for conducting Transcultural Research.
    While it is considered by Dr. Leininger to be
    Qualitative, it has certain attributes that make
    it somewhat Quantitative as well.

16
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17
Leiningers Theory (contd)
  • Note that the model looks like a Sunrise and the
    Worldview encompasses everything that makes
    people who they are.
  • The 7 Cultural and Social Structure Dimensions
    are the large areas that nurses need to learn
    about through interview and living among the
    people of different cultures.
  • Below the Individuals, Families, Groups,
    Communities, Institutions are the Diverse
    Health Systems that all persons deal with in
    various ways.

18
Leiningers Theory (contd)
  • Generic or Folk Systems are the everyday
    remedies an individual, family or group may use
    to promote wellness and healing. Some examples
    might include
  • Chicken Soup
  • Chamomile Tea or other Herbal teas
  • Voodoo
  • Sacrifices of birds or animals to the spirits
  • Prayer
  • Curandero
  • Nurses need to assess in all these areas to plan
    safe, effective care.

19
Leiningers Theory (contd)
  • Professional Systems are different depending upon
    the Health Care Delivery System of that culture.
    Whether there is socialized medicine, private
    insurance, communal healthcare, poor economic
    support vs. great wealth, all contribute to the
    influence of the utilization of Professionals to
    prevent illness, heal illness, and promote health
    and wellness.
  • Nursing must collaborate within the healthcare
    delivery system to plan and implement safe,
    effective, culturally competent care.

20
How to Provide Culturally Congruent Care
  • Leininger suggests 3 approaches to plan and
    implement Culturally Congruent Care.
  • The first is Cultural Care Preservation/Maintenanc
    e where we look at what we as nurses can do to
    preserve and maintain the cultural practices of
    an individual or family while receiving safe,
    holistic care somewhere in the Healthcare
    Delivery System.

21
How to Provide Culturally Congruent Care
(contd)
  • The second approach is Cultural Care
    Accommodation/Negotiation where we look at what
    we as nurses can do to accommodate the patient
    and negotiate with the patient within the
    healthcare environment in order to provide
    culturally congruent care while he/she is in the
    Healthcare Delivery System.

22
How to Provide Culturally Congruent Care
(Contd)
  • The third approach is Cultural Care
    Repatterning/Restructuring where we look at what
    we as nurses need to do with the patient and
    family to repattern or restructure their lifeways
    in order to promote healing and wellness, always
    being cognizant of the cultural influences that
    affect why they do what they do in their life
    experience.

23
Josepha Campinha-Bacote
  • In 1991, Campinha-Bacote developed her own
    Transcultural Theory entitled Culturally
    Competent Model of Care.
  • She did much research in the African-American
    population.
  • Her model looks like this

24
Culturally Competent Model of Carehttp//www.tr
ansculturalcare.net/
Updated 8/2005
There is a new model available on her website
25
Geiger and Davidhizer Model
  • Joyce Newman Geiger and Ruth Davidhizer were
    inspired to develop a culturally competent
    assessment tool by their nursing students at
    Bethel College in Mishawaka, IN. Dr. Davidhizer
    just passed away in 2007.
  • The Transcultural Assessment Model was developed
    and researched in 1990.

26
Geiger and Davidhizer Model
Communication
Culturally Unique Individual
Space
Social Organization
Biological Variations
Time
Environmental Control
27
In Summary
  • You have been introduced to several theorists in
    Transcultural Nursing other than the author of
    your text. Next, we will explore the Purnell and
    Paulanka Model in greater depth as it will be the
    basis for your Cultural Presentations.
  • I hope you have been inspired to learn more about
    cultures in order to be a CULTURALLY CONSCIOUS
    COMPETENT NURSE ?
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