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Lighting 101 and Beyond A Short Course on Commercial

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Title: Lighting 101 and Beyond A Short Course on Commercial


1
Lighting 101 and Beyond A Short Course on
Commercial Industrial Lighting
  • Name of Trainer
  • Company Name
  • Date of Presentation

2
Course Objectives
  • Provide information about energy efficient
    lighting technologies and how BPA promotes them
  • Program information that encourages customers to
    install these technologies
  • Technical information about lighting and control
    technology eligible for incentives

3
Benefits of Energy Efficient Lighting Improvements
  • For the Customer
  • Lower energy bills
  • Reduced cooling requirements
  • Less frequent bulb replacements (resulting in OM
    cost savings)
  • Improved work environment (leading to increased
    employee productivity and morale)
  • Positive reactions from those visiting facilities
    where technologies are installed
  • For the Utility
  • Reduced energy use and related energy supply
    needs
  • Reduced environmental impact due to energy use

4
Course Overview
  • Lighting technologies discussion
  • Program information
  • Incentives available
  • Requirements
  • Customer eligibility
  • Equipment eligibility
  • Funding availability
  • Steps customers take to participate

5
Lighting Technologies Discussion
6
Lighting Technology Categories
  • Incandescent burns a thin tungsten filament
  • Fluorescent mercury ions excite phosphors
  • T12, T8, T5, CFLs, (1/8th inch)
  • High intensity discharge arc welding
  • Mercury Vapor old HID technology
  • High Pressure Sodium poor HID technology
  • Metal Halide best HID product
  • Light emitting diode (LED) silicon chip
  • Induction lamp radio frequency (RF)

7
Some Basic Lighting Terminology
8
Correlated Color Temperature (CCT)
  • Measures the "warmth" or "coolness" of a light
    sources appearance in degrees Kelvin (K) against
    reference light sources
  • Incandescent color temperatures are about 2,700o
    K
  • Daylight lamp color temperatures are 5,000o K
  • Indirectly relates to energy savings
  • Higher color temperature lamps appear brighter
  • A subjective index depending on personal
    preference

9
Color Rendering Index (CRI)
  • A measure of a light source's ability to render
    the color of objects "correctly," as compared to
    a reference light source of comparable color
    temperature
  • The scale is between 0 and 100
  • Generally, the higher the number, the better
  • Color swatches used to determine CRI are red,
    green, and blue
  • A subjective index depends on personal preference

10
Other Important Lighting Definitions
  • Lamp generic term for a light source
  • Ballast electronic device that drives the
    lamp(s)
  • Lumen total amount of light produced
  • Foot-candle one lumen/square foot
  • Light Level synonymous with foot-candle
  • Efficacy (lighting efficiency) - lumens/watt
  • HO high output fluorescent lamp
  • VHO very high output fluorescent lamp
  • HP High Performance T8 lighting system

11
Color Rendering of Various Lighting Technologies
12
Human Perception
  • Higher CRI lamps improve visual perception
  • For instance, 50 foot-candles of fluorescent
    light (CRI 86) will seem much brighter and better
    than 50 foot-candles of an HPS source (CRI 21)
  • Using this theory, it is possible to lower
    ambient light levels and save energy
  • Higher CCT lamps appear brighter
  • Higher CCT lamps improve reading

13
What is Meant by the Visible Spectrum?
  • The title gives this away
  • The visible spectrum of light includes all of the
    wavelengths of light that our eyes are capable of
    seeing
  • The human eye can see light only between about
    380 and 780 nanometers wavelength
  • Infrared goggles allow our eyes to see into the
    infrared region of light (above 780 nanometers)

14
The Primary Colors of Light
A combination of all three primary colors of
light (red, green and blue) appears white.
Combinations of two primaries produce the
secondary colors magenta, cyan and yellow.
The three primary colors can be mixed to create
almost any other color light.
Source Osram Sylvania
15

Source Osram Sylvania
16
Source Osram Sylvania
17
Source Osram Sylvania
18
Source Osram Sylvania
19
Source Osram Sylvania
20
Source Osram Sylvania
21
Source Osram Sylvania
22
Source Osram Sylvania
23
Information on Energy Efficient Lighting/Control
Technologies
24
Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs)
Source www.luxlite.com
25
Retrofit Incandescent Lamps with ENERGY
STAR-rated CFLs
  • Benefits
  • Lasts up to 10 times longer than incandescents
    reducing maintenance costs
  • Up to 75 percent energy savings
  • Less heat means reduced air conditioning load

26
Types of CFLs
  • Spiral or Twist
  • Capsule A-lamp, bullet, globe, torpedo
  • Bi-ax twin-tube, tri-tube, U-tube
  • Reflector not ready for prime time yet

27
Linear Fluorescent Lamps and Ballasts - T8s and
T5HOs
28
Types of Fluorescent Lamps
  • Normal light Output (NLO)
  • High light output (HO)
  • Very high light output (VHO)
  • An inefficient lamp targeted by Energy
    Efficiency for change-outs!
  • Energy saver reduced light output

Source Philips
29
Fluorescent Lamp Nomenclature
  • F32T8 / ADV841 / ALTO
  • F stands for fluorescent
  • 32 indicates a nominal 32-watt tube
  • T indicates a tube shaped lamp
  • 8 indicates a lamp 8/8th inch diameter
  • ADV indicates High Performance lamp
  • 8 indicates CRI
  • 41 indicates a CCT of 4,100 Kelvin
  • ALTO is Philips designation for low mercury

30
Retrofit Older T12 Ceiling Lights with T8
Fluorescent Lamps
  • Benefits
  • Lighting efficiency can range up to 80 lumens per
    watt (T12s range only to 56 lumens)
  • Produces more light than 34-watt T12, while using
    less energy
  • Provides better color rendering
  • Standard for new construction

31
Even Better, Retrofit Older T12 Lights With High
Performance T8 Lamps
  • Benefits
  • Lighting efficiency can range up to 100 lumens
    per watt (T12s range to 56 lumens)
  • Produces more light than 34-watt T12, while using
    less energy
  • Provides better color rendering
  • Latest generation
  • Higher light level from a 32-watt
  • Average life is 20 percent or more longer than
    standard T8

32
Examples of High Performance Fluorescent Lamps
  • Philips Advantage Lamp Series
  • F32T8/ADV841/ALTO
  • GE High Lumen Starcoat Lamp Series
  • F32T8/XL/SPX41/HLEC
  • Sylvania Extreme Lamp Series
  • FO32/841XPS/ECO

33
Replace Hi-Bay HID Fixtures with T5 High Output
Fluorescent Fixtures
  • Benefits
  • Up to 35 percent energy savings
  • Holds 95 percent of their light level, compared
    to
  • 65 percent for metal halides
  • Instant on
  • Offers reduced glare
  • No color shifting
  • On-off controls such as occupancy sensors or
    manual switching

34
T5HO Specifications
Ordering Code Initial Lumens Mean Lumens Life _at_ 3 hrs./start CRI
F54T5/830/HO 5,000 4,740 20,000 85
F54T5/835/HO 5,000 4,740 20,000 85
F54T5/841/HO 5,000 4,740 20,000 85
F54T5/850/HO 5,000 4,740 20,000 85
35
T5 T8 Lamps Considerations
  • T5s are designed for an enclosed fixture where
    temperature can be consistent. They are optimal
    at 95o F temperature.
  • T8s may become too hot when enclosed and lose
    some lumens. They are best at 75o F.

36
Retrofit Magnetic Ballast with Electronic
Ballast
  • Benefits
  • Quiet
  • Cooler, reducing air conditioning load
  • No lamp flicker

37
Types of Fluorescent Ballasts
  • Instant-start ballasts provide full voltage
    across the electrodes at start-up.
  • Rapid-start ballasts have a separate heater
    circuit that heats up the electrode during
    start-up and stays on during operation to keep
    electrodes warm.
  • Program-start ballasts directly heat up the
    electrodes before applying full voltage. Thus,
    they dramatically increase lamp life for
    frequently switched operation (occupancy sensors).

38
Examples of High Performance Fluorescent Ballasts
  • Advance Optanium Series
  • IOP-2P32-LW-SC
  • GE Ultramax Series
  • GE-232-Ultramax-L
  • Universal Ultim8 Series
  • Ultim8 B232I120EL
  • Sylvania Quicktronic High Efficiency
  • QHE/UNV ISL-SC

39
Technologies Suitable for Hi-Bay Applications
(Fixture more than 15 from surface)
40
Fluorescent Hi-Bay (T5s)
Source Philips
41
High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamp Types
  • Metal halide
  • High pressure sodium
  • Mercury vapor
  • Low pressure sodium
  • Probe-start (no incentive) vs. pulse-start
  • method (eligible for incentive)
  • Glass arc-tube (no incentive) vs. ceramic
    arc-tube (eligible for incentive)
  • Increasing trend of installing T5s in Hi-Bay
  • applications instead of metal halide

42
Examples of HID Ballasts
  • Constant wattage autotransformer standard
    ballast used on most HID
  • Linear reactor energy saving, 277-line voltage
    circuits only, low voltage swing tolerance
  • Regulated lag ballast very tough ballast,
    handles voltage swings well
  • Electronic relatively new product, first
    generation had problems with premature failures
    which have since been corrected

43
Other Choices - Induction
  • Up Side
  • Lots of wattage choices (55 to 165 watts)
  • Withstands temperature extremes
  • Vibration resistant
  • Long life (100,000 hr.) with low maintenance
  • Electrical wire connections not necessary for
    individual fixtures
  • Down Side
  • High initial cost
  • Lower lumen output
  • Often require more fixtures than metal halide or
    fluorescents

Source Philips
44
Additional Elements of a Lighting System
45
To Reflectorize or Not
  • Specular reflectors add very little value and can
    increase glare problems
  • White reflectors are the best choice
  • Polished (specular) reflectors are relatively
    useless in industrial applications due to dust,
    blackening, and the likelihood of incorrect
    cleaning using abrasives
  • Even in enclosed fixtures, the reflector needs to
    be cleaned every 18-24 months with non-abrasive
    solutions

46
Lenses Come in Various Types . . .
  • Acrylic typical plastic lens with little
    bumps on the exterior to diffuse the light
  • Prismatic an acrylic lens with prisms or
    honeycombs that attempt to polarize
  • Louvered small and large cell parabolic
  • Polarized small cell parabolic design
  • Indirect/direct pushes light up to the ceiling
    with some downward light

47
Fixtures are also Mounted in Different Ways . . .
  • Recessed troffers, cans
  • Surface boxes, ceiling, sconces
  • Pendant hanging from ceiling
  • Chain/cable/cord great flexibility, plug cord
    into ceiling outlet, a flexible cord can be used
    to reduce vibration
  • Hook cord Hi-Bay HID

48
Treat Lighting as a System with Specific Parts
Lamp, Reflector, Ballast, Housing
49
Fixture Efficiency
  • A measure of the percentage of total light
    exiting the fixture
  • For bare lamp applications, fixture efficiency is
    100
  • Rarely are lumens reflected out of a fixture
    typical efficiencies are in the 60-80 range
  • Efficiency increases with a point or thin linear
    light source

50
Common Lighting Opportunities
Replacing with in can reduce wattage by
Incandescent or mercury vapor lamp High output T8 or T5 fluorescent lamp Hi-Bay lighting 50-75
T12 fluorescent lamp T8 fluorescent lamp offices, retail space, schools 50
Incandescent lamp Compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) recessed lighting or table lamps 75
51
Common Lighting Opportunities (contd)
Replacing with in can reduce wattage by
Outdoor incandescent lamp Hard-wired fluorescent lamp perimeter outdoor applications 30-75
High pressure sodium lamp T8 or T5 fluorescent lamp indoor applications 50
52
Lighting Controls Save additional energy and
money
53
Infrared Occupancy/Motion
  • Passive infrared sensors detect changes in
    infrared patterns across segmented detection
    regions, tuned to the region of human body
    temperature

Source Leviton
54
Passive Infrared Coverage
Source wattstopper
55
Outdoor Sensor Example
Designed to work outdoors in bad weather or
temperature extremes
Source Leviton
56
Dual Technology Motion/Occupancy
  • Emits ultrasonic waves that reflect back to the
    sensor. Same system a bat uses to navigate its
    way, only less complex.
  • When a person moves in the room the frequency of
    the waves reflected off the person changes. The
    sensor detects these changes and fixtures are
    turned on/off.
  • Useful in conference rooms where people might sit
    and talk.

57
Dual Technology Coverage
Source wattstopper
58
Dual Technology Sensor Example
  • Wall or ceiling mount
  • Useful in large conference rooms, classrooms and
    restrooms

Source Leviton
59
Daylight Harvesting Sensor Example
  • Consider during design of building
  • Use with dimmable ballasts and lamps
  • Not recommended for retrofits

60
Case Studies of Some Recent Lighting Projects
61
Cal Air Metal and Pipe Fabrication Facility
400 Metal Halide (451 watts)
6-lamp T8 fixtures (228 watts)
After Lighting Retrofit
Before Lighting Retrofit
50 foot-candles
23 foot-candles
Uses half the wattage and provides twice as much
light!
Source Philips
62
Seattle University Benefits from Lighting Retrofit
Before Lighting Retrofit
After Lighting Retrofit
  • New T5s and T8s replaced Metal Halides and T12s,
    reduced energy usage by 46
  • Increased safety at the pool because reduced
    glare allows lifeguards to see under the surface
    of the water
  • Reduced maintenance costs because the pool no
    longer needs to be drained to service lights
    above the pool

Source Northwest Edison
63
Everett Naval Base Benefits from Lighting Retrofit
Before Lighting Retrofit
After Lighting Retrofit
  • New T8s replaced metal halides, reduced energy
    usage by 60
  • Improved visibility, especially of banners and
    logos on or near walls
  • Crisper, cleaner atmosphere
  • Reduced hot spots of concentrated light in
    favor of more uniform light distribution

Source Northwest Edison
64
Gunderson Inc. Benefits from Lighting Retrofit
Before Lighting Retrofit
After Lighting Retrofit
  • New T8s and reflectors replaced T12 VHO to reduce
    energy usage by 76
  • Light levels increased by 40
  • Saved close to 30,000 in annual electricity
    costs
  • Paid for itself in 5 months after incentives and
    tax credits

Source Christenson Electric
65
How to Decide?
66
Decision Process Key Questions
Economics Are incentives available? What is the simple payback period?
Lighting Levels Are the current light levels adequate? Is there an opportunity to lower ambient light levels and use task lighting?
Color Rendering Is color rendering important?
Recommended Technologies What does the lighting audit or software analysis recommend? Which technologies and products apply?
Other Opportunities Do occupancy levels provide opportunities for occupancy sensors? Is there an opportunity for harvesting daylight?
67
Important Note
  • There are many products on the market that meet
    the requirements of the utilitys program
  • Some products are superior to others
  • For their protection, participating customers
    should research the products for quality, price,
    and conformity with the utilitys requirements
    before making their decision to buy

68
Information about Commercial Industrial
Lighting Program
69
Commercial and Industrial Lighting Program
  • Has incentives to reduce up-front cost of
    efficiency improvements
  • Easy program administration
  • Lighting audits required
  • Promotes
  • The best light sources for the application
  • The highest quality light sources
  • Increased energy efficiency for participating
    businesses

70
Incentives Available through the Program
Existing Equipment Measure Description /unit
High Performance T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Electronic Ballast High Performance T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Electronic Ballast High Performance T8 Fluorescent Lamps and Electronic Ballast
T12 Fluorescent, T8 De-Lamp, Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 1 lamp and electronic ballast (15 to 44 input watts) 15.00
T12 Fluorescent, T8 De-Lamp, Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 2 to 4 lamps and electronic ballast (45 to 114 input watts) 30.00
T8 or T5 Fluorescent Lamps and Standard Electronic Ballast T8 or T5 Fluorescent Lamps and Standard Electronic Ballast T8 or T5 Fluorescent Lamps and Standard Electronic Ballast
T12 Fluorescent, T8 De-Lamp, Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 1 lamp and electronic ballast (15 to 44 input watts) 8.00
T12 Fluorescent, T8 De-Lamp, Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 2 to 4 lamps and electronic ballast (45 to 114 input watts) 15.00
Hardwired Compact Fluorescent (Hardwired ballast and replaceable lamp) Hardwired Compact Fluorescent (Hardwired ballast and replaceable lamp) Hardwired Compact Fluorescent (Hardwired ballast and replaceable lamp)
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 7 to 49 watts (nominal lamp watts) 30.00
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 50 to 99 watts 50.00
71
Incentives Available (contd)
Existing Equipment Measure Description /unit
Ceramic Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture) Ceramic Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture) Ceramic Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture)
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 20 to 100 watts 50.00
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 101 to 250 watts 80.00
Screw-in Compact Fluorescent Lamps (Lamp Only) Screw-in Compact Fluorescent Lamps (Lamp Only) Screw-in Compact Fluorescent Lamps (Lamp Only)
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 3 to 24 watts 3.00
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 25 to 45 watts 6.00
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor Over 45 watts 12.00
LED or Cold Cathode Signs LED or Cold Cathode Signs LED or Cold Cathode Signs
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor Retrofit kit or Replace existing incandescent sign 30.00
Induction Lamp Luminaire Induction Lamp Luminaire Induction Lamp Luminaire
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor 100 watts or less (nominal lamp watts) 60.00
Incandescent or Mercury Vapor Over 100 watts 120.00
72
Incentives Available (contd)
Existing Equipment Measure Description /unit
High Output Fluorescent Luminaire (New Fixture) High Output Fluorescent Luminaire (New Fixture) High Output Fluorescent Luminaire (New Fixture)
HV/VHO T12, or MV/HPS, or Probe Start Metal Halide, or Incandescent 85 to 129 watts (ballast input watts) 80.00
HV/VHO T12, or MV/HPS, or Probe Start Metal Halide, or Incandescent 130 to 189 watts 100.00
HV/VHO T12, or MV/HPS, or Probe Start Metal Halide, or Incandescent 190 to 249 watts 120.00
HV/VHO T12, or MV/HPS, or Probe Start Metal Halide, or Incandescent 250 to 600 watts 140.00
Pulse Start Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture) Pulse Start Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture) Pulse Start Metal Halide Luminaire (New Fixture)
HV/HO T12, or MV/HPS, or Probe Start Metal Halide, or Incandescent 300 to 399 watts (nominal lamp watts) 100.00
HV/HO T12, or MV/HPS, or Probe Start Metal Halide, or Incandescent 400 to 750 watts 150.00
73
Incentives Available (contd)
Existing Equipment Measure Description /unit
Occupancy Sensors and/or Timers Occupancy Sensors and/or Timers Occupancy Sensors and/or Timers
Manual Control 100 to 200 watts controlled 35.00
Manual Control Over 200 watts controlled 45.00
Retrofit High Output Fixtures with T8 Lamps Ballasts Retrofit High Output Fixtures with T8 Lamps Ballasts Retrofit High Output Fixtures with T8 Lamps Ballasts
8 T12 HO/VHO, or 4 HO De-Lamp 1 T8 8' lamp and standard electronic high output ballast 20.00
8 T12 HO/VHO, or 4 HO De-Lamp (2 to 6) 4' T8 lamps and standard electronic high output ballast 40.00
Retrofit Very High Output Fixtures with T5 Lamps Ballasts Retrofit Very High Output Fixtures with T5 Lamps Ballasts Retrofit Very High Output Fixtures with T5 Lamps Ballasts
8 T12 VHO 2 T5 lamps and high output ballast 25.00
8 T12 VHO 3-4 T5 lamps and high output ballast 50.00
74
Eligibility Requirements
  • Customer requirements
  • Must be a commercial or industrial customer of a
    participating BPA utility
  • Must first have a lighting audit performed
  • Must sign an agreement with their utility prior
    to purchasing and installing equipment
  • Project requirements
  • All equipment to be installed must meet
    specifications and requirements
    (http//www.test.bpa.gov/Energy/N/projects/Lightin
    g/doc/EEL2007-14_TechnicalSpecs.doc)
  • For retrofit projects, the affected lighting load
    must be reduced by at least 30 percent

75
Eligibility Requirements (contd)
  • Incentive Constraints
  • Funds are offered on first-come, first-served
    basis
  • The amount of the incentive cannot exceed 70
    percent of the total project cost (including
    labor)
  • Minimum recommended project size is 500
  • Disposal Requirements
  • All materials, including PCB ballasts, must be
    disposed of or recycled in accordance with
    current environmental laws

76
Steps for Participation
  • Customer completes sign-up form
  • Name of business/building and address
  • Owners and lessees names and telephone numbers
  • Building size, number of floors and use (retail,
    office, etc.)
  • Type of heating system
  • Additional information as needed

77
Steps for Participation (contd)
  • Utility explains requirements and assesses
    eligibility
  • Utility schedules a lighting audit
  • Audit findings are reported to the customer
  • If customer wishes to proceed with the project,
    they sign an agreement with utility

78
Steps for Participation (contd)
  1. When project is completed, customer notifies
    utility and submits invoices and supporting
    information
  2. After utility inspects project and provides final
    approval, customer incentive is paid

79
Questions?
  • Contact us
  • ___________ Utility
  • Energy Conservation Department
  • P.O. Box 1234
  • Anytown, WA 98765
  • 800-123-4567
  • www._______PUD.com
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