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Conversion Technologies Coal to Liquids Technologies

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Title: Conversion Technologies Coal to Liquids Technologies


1
Conversion Technologies Coal to Liquids
Technologies
  • Anthony Cugini
  • Office of Research and Development

National Energy Technology Laboratory
www.netl.doe.gov
2
National Energy Technology Laboratory
  • DOEs only national lab dedicated to fossil
    energy RDD
  • Government owned and operated
  • Full operations office capabilities
  • One lab, three RD locations, five project
    management locations, one management structure
  • 1,100 Federal and support-contractor employees
  • Conducts research spanning basic science through
    technology demonstrations
  • Significance - fossil energy supplies 85 of
    Nations energy needs

Oregon
3
NETLs Mission
  • Implement a research, development, and
    demonstration program to resolve environmental,
    supply, and reliability constraints to producing
    and using fossil energy resources

4
How NETL Accomplishes Its Mission
  • Shape, fund, and manage national extramural RDD
  • Conduct hands-on intramural science and
    engineering research and development
  • Support energy policy development and
    implementation
  • Expand the nations options for utilizing fossil
    energy resources, thereby contributing to the
    Nations economic and national security

5
NETLs Office of Research and Development
(ORD)Engineering and Science Focus Areas
6
U.S. Oil
Situation Past, Present
and Projected Future
30
26.1M BPD
Consumption
20.7M BPD
60 by 2025
Total Imports
58.5
Production
10.4M BPD (5.0 Crude/ 0.6 CTL/ 4.8 Other)
8.6M BPD (5.4 Crude/ 3.2
Other)
2004
2025
Source EIA (AEO 2006), Reference Case Scenario
7
Abundant Supplies
U.S. Reserves / Production Ratio Years Supply at
Current Production
  • Provides over half Nations electricity
  • Abundant domestic reserves (250 years).
  • Low, relatively stable prices
  • Technology exists to mitigate environmental
    issues.

Western
Eastern
Coal data BP Statistical Review, June 2004 Oil
gas data EIA, Advance Summary U.S. Crude Oil,
Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves,
2003 Annual Report, September 22, 2004
8
U.S. Coal Production
Forecasts
Actual Production
Western Coal
Eastern Coal
U.S. Energy Information Agency, AEO 2006
9
CTL Technologiesand Current RD

10
Coal to Liquids Technologies
  • Direct Liquefaction
  • Has advantages of simple process good product
    for gasoline
  • Disadvantages are HTHP operation high aromatic
    content low cetane water and environmental
    concerns
  • Fuels generated by direct liquefaction are rich
    in high octane aromatics unfortunately a poor
    fit for fuels specifications for the U.S. market.
  • Although dormant in the U.S., direct liquefaction
    is being actively pursued in China.
  • The Shenhua project (under construction in Inner
    Mongolia) will bring a full scale single train,
    20,000 BPD commercial unit into production in
    2008 using predominantly, Headwaters (HTI)
    technology. Long term plans will add 4 more
    trains.

11
Coal to Liquids Technologies
  • Indirect Liquefaction
  • The liquid products from indirect liquefaction
    process are zero sulfur and near zero aromatic
    hydrocarbons. Minimal refining needed to produce
    ultra-clean diesel or jet fuel. The diesel cuts
    have very high cetane number.
  • Carbon dioxide produced during indirect
    liquefaction can be captured for subsequent
    storage.
  • Indirect liquefaction plants can co-produce
    electric power to improve process economics.
  • If hydrogen is the preferred fuel in the future,
    these plants may be easily reconfigured to
    produce fuel cell grade hydrogen
  • SASOL in South Africa has two large, indirect
    coal liquefaction facilities (SASOL II and III)
    that currently produce about 150,000 BPD of
    liquid fuels.
  • Disadvantage is more complex, requires up-front
    gasification train

12
Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Technology for Indirect CTL
  • CO(g) 2H2(g) (CH2)n(l) H2O(g)
    ?H0 -165kJ/mol
  • The water produced combines with CO in the
    water-gas shift reaction to form H2 and CO2
  • CO(g) H2O(g) (CO2)(g) H2(g)
    ?H0 - 41.2kJ/mol
  • The overall F-T reaction is therefore described
    as follows
  • 2CO(g) H2(g) (-CH2-)n(l) CO2(g)
    ?H0 -206 kJ/mol
  • Another approach to liquid fuels via synthesis
    gas is methanol production.
  • CO(g) 2H2(g) CH3OH(l)
  • Methanol can be used directly or converted
    into gasoline through a process such as the Mobil
    process using zeolite catalysts.

With Fe-based Catalysis
13
Process Flow Chart for CTL
Optional
Gasification
GasTreating
HydrogenRecovery
Coal
H2
Ash Disposal
Sulfur Recovery
LPG
Naphtha
F-T Synthesis
ProductRefining
Gasoline
Diesel
Adapted from Foster Wheeler Energy Ltd at Web
Site www.fwc.com/publications/tech_papers/oil_gas
/sclarke.cfm
14
CTL and NETL Historical Perspective
  • NETL has 60 years of Liquefaction Knowledge Base
  • Investigated reactors recovered from Nazi Germany
  • Directed Research on Direct Liquefaction at
  • DCL Lummus Fluid-Bed, Cresap, WV
  • H-Coal at Catlettsburg, KY
  • Solvent Refined Coal (SRC I and II) projects
  • Wilsonville, AL Liquefaction Facility
  • Two-Stage (Integrated Liquefaction)
  • Research conducted from the 1960s thru 1980s
  • Investigated and Directed RD of Indirect
    Liquefaction
  • For improved catalysts
  • Slurry-Bed Column reactor design
  • Research support continues under
    Hydrogen-from-Coal Program

15
NETL Alternative H2 Production PathwayCTL
Research Activities
  • Headwaters (4.2M) produce barrel quantities of
    coal-derived liquids using Iron-based FT
    synthesis in PDU-scale reactor. Also investigate
    primary and secondary wax/catalyst separation,
    hydrotreating and hydrocracking of neat FT liquid
    products, and hydrogen yield from product
    reforming.
  • ICRC/Syntroleum (5M) show Cobalt-based FT
    catalyst on coal-derived syngas liquids and the
    production of research quantities FT liquids from
    coal-derived syngas. Required to construct, and
    operation mobile lab.
  • Research quantities (6,000 gallons) of FT
    liquids will be further processed into a variety
    of products that include FT-based No. 2 diesel to
    be used for small-scale demonstration as
    ultra-clean transportation fuel in a coal-bearing
    state, evaluated as fuel for specialized vehicles
    for the military, and as a feed to reformer to
    produce hydrogen.

16
Clean Coal (Larger-Scale) Demonstration
  • The WMPI-Gilberton Project (Selected in Round One
    of the Clean Coal Power Initiative solicitation)
  • Integrated power generation with Fischer-Tropsch
    synthesis producing 5,000 BBL/Day

17
Challenges to Establishing a CTL Industry in the
U.S.

18
Competition for Coal and Syngas
Transportation Fuels (Hydrogen Fischer-Tropsch
Liquids)
19
  • Today, the only major CTL facilities in
    operation are in South Africa (SASOL). These
    plants were built with significant government
    support. Although self sufficient and
    profitable, it is difficult to assess whether
    such plants would operate successfully under U.S.
    economic conditions.

20
Challenges
  • Market -- World oil price volatility poses a
    significant market risk to the deployment of CTL
    facilities.
  • No recent CTL plants
  • Profits at 55-60/bbl (First Plant) and
    45-50/bbl (Nth plant)
  • Capital investments high 1.8 - 3.7 Billion
  • Technical -- Integration of advanced coal
    gasification technologies and advanced F-T
    synthesis technologies has never been attempted
  • Infrastructure -- Significant deployment of CTL
    would require use of large quantities of coal,
    meaning a significant expansion of coal mining
    industry

21
Challenges
  • Readiness If multiple CTL plants are built
    concurrently worldwide, competition for steel,
    critical process equipment and engineering and
    labor skills would emerge.
  • Environmental As a carbon-rich fossil fuel,
    coal releases large quantities of CO2 when
    converted into fuels and power. Additionally
    need to address criteria pollutants, water,
    permitting issues

22
DOE Development Path to Establish a CTL Industry
in the U.S.

23
  • Vision
  • Provide a pathway by which 10 of the nations
    liquid transportation fuel requirements (2
    million BPD) can be met with CTL fuels by 2025.
  • Government Role
  • Creation of financial incentives, Site
    specific design studies and analyses, Direct
    support in focused RD Cost-sharing of plant
    construction and operation CTL testing,
    verification, and certification.
  • Basis
  • DOE expertise and experience in liquids fuels.

24
Coal-to-Liquids Study
CTL Development Plan requested by Congress in
Dept of Defense FY06 appropriations law
  • Plan considerations
  • Technology needs barriers
  • Economics national security
  • Environment CO2
  • Financial incentives
  • Schedules / Milestones
  • Regional diversity
  • Coordinated with DOD Liquids Utilization Plan

25
DOE CTL Development Study
  • Three thrust plan
  • 1. Facilitate Limited Early Learning Commercial
    Experience
  • Support Treasury in Implementation of EPACT 2005
  • Co-Fund Site Specific Design Studies
  • Analyze Incentive Packages Directed at Promoting
    Early Commercial Experience
  • 2. Focused RD activities
  • IGCC integrated with F-T process
  • Cost reduction
  • Improve environmental performance
  • Integrative analyses/modeling
  • International coordination information exchange
  • 3. Fuels Formulation Testing

26
Impact of Biomass Addition to CTLBTL Technology
27
Co-production Technology Overview
CO2 Removal
  • Synthesis Gas
  • Production
  • Gasification
  • Reforming
  • - Steam
  • - POX
  • - ATR

Coal Biomass Natural Gas Pet Coke Waste
Liquids Synthesis Slurry / Fixed / Fluid Bed
Tail Gas
Product Recovery
Power Generation
Hydrogen Recovery
O2
Liquid Fuels
Wax
Oxygen Plant
Air
Wax Hydrocracking
Naphtha Diesel Fuel Chemicals
Liquids
Liquids
28
Biodiesel Production Basic Technology
Vegetable Oils e.g., soybean
Recycled Greases (e.g.,French Fry Oil)
Dilute Acid Esterification
Sulfuric Acid Methanol
Transesterification
Methanol KOH
Methanol Recovery
Crude Biodiesel
Crude Glycerin
Refining
Glycerin Refining
Biodiesel
Glycerin (by-product)
http//www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel/bio_made.h
tml
29
Plant Gate Production Costs (2004)
Biodiesel1/ and F-T
  • Biodiesel - soy oil derived (650 BPD Plant 10
    MM Gallons/Year)
  • 2.06/gallon (USDA model NREL model 5
    higher)
  • F-T Diesel coal-derived (50,000BPD 750MM
    Gallons/Year)
  • 1.30/gallon
  • EPA projects by 2012, biodiesel production of
    300 MM gallons per year (20,000 BPD)
  • With the current Biodiesel Blender Tax Credit
    Program (expires 2008), producers using virgin
    vegetable oil stocks (soybeans, e.g.) receive a
    one dollar per gallon tax subsidy, effectively
    reducing their production costs to about
    1.00/gallon
  • Mitretek, 2005

1/ 40 CFR Part 80, 9-22-06 Regulation of Fuels
and Fuel Additives Renewable Fuel Standard
Program Proposed Rule - EPA
30
Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass
(Switchgrass)An Alternate Approach to Making
Diesel Fuel from Biomass
  • MM BTUs/Ton
  • Bituminous coal (Pgh seam dry) 27
  • Switchgrass (over-dried) 14
  • Net Carbon Emissions
  • 1. All Coal plant 28.3 kg C
    per GJ of F-T liquids
  • 2. Coal Biomass Plant 25.0 kg C per GJ of
    F-T liquids
  • Therefore, by co-feeding 5 biomass on an energy
    input basis, carbon emissions are reduced by
    about 12

1 GJ Input
0.48 GJ Output
0.15 GJ Electricity 0.33 GJ F-T
Liquids
0.05 GJ Biomass 0.95 GJ Coal
F-T Liquids Production from Coal and Coal
Biomass with CO2 Capture and Alternative Storage
Options R.H. Williams, et al review draft 13
Jan 2006
31
Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA) Position
on BiodieselSome Comments 1/
  • Based on current understanding of biodiesel
    fuels and blending with petroleum-based
  • diesel fuel, EMA members expect that blends up
    to a maximum of B5 (5 blend) should not
  • cause engine or fuel system problems,
    provided the B100 used in the blend meets the
  • requirements of ASTM D 6751, DIN 51606, or EN
    14214
  • Note However, EPACT 2005 states. Fueling
    stations are eligible to claim a 30 credit
  • for the cost of installing clean-fuel vehicle
    refueling equipment, (e.g. E85 ethanol pumping
    stations). 
  • Under the provision, a clean fuel is any fuel
    that consists of at least 85 ethanol, natural
    gas,
  • compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas,
    liquefied petroleum gas, or hydrogen and any
    mixture
  • of diesel fuel and biodiesel containing at least
    20 biodiesel. This is effective through
  • December 31, 2010. 2/
  • Biodiesel fuels have shown poor oxidation
    stability, which can result in long-term storage
    problems.
  • Biodiesel fuel is an excellent medium for
    microbial growth..

1/ TECHNICAL STATEMENT ON THE USE OF BIODIESEL
FUEL IN COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES,Feb, 2003
2/ http//www.energy.gov/taxbreaks.htm
32
Conclusions
  • Development of a U.S. CTL industry could help
    mitigate the risks of an energy crisis.
  • Proactive development of a CTL industry can be
    accomplished by government lead and private
    sector actions due to high risks involved.
  • Convincing demonstrations and multi-agency joint
    national implementation plan could be a first
    step.
  • DOE-DOD well positioned to produce, test, and
    certify liquid fuels produced from coal.
  • Benefits are measured in the billions of dollars.
  • Addition of biomass to CTL process has the
    potential of expanding the domestic fuel
    available and reducing carbon dioxide emissions
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