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Supporting Children with Challenging Behavior: A Positive Behavior Approach


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Title: Supporting Children with Challenging Behavior: A Positive Behavior Approach

Supporting Children with Challenging Behavior
A Positive Behavior Approach
  • Kiki Mc Gough
  • Positive Behavior Support Coordinator
  • Colorado Department of Education

  • PBS Leadership Team- Colorado Department of
  • PEAK Parent Center Colorado Springs, CO
  • George Sugai and Ann Todd- The OSEP Center on
    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports at
    the University of Oregon


Families Partnering with PBS
  • Understand the process of behavior change
  • Recognize how to support our children with
    emotional and behavior challenges which affect
    life at home, at school and in the community
  • Identify predictable routines and positive
    behavior support strategies to use at home
  • Identify ways to work proactively with schools to
    support our children


Meet My Children
  • Spend a few minutes completing
  • Meet My Child.
  • Identify 3-4 strengths for child.
  • List some interests and things your child likes
    and finds rewarding .
  • Share your child as you meet the people at your
  • Post these on your fridge at home as a reminder
    of your childs strengths!

Meet My Children
  • Kate
  • Passionate about everything she loves
  • World traveler
  • Special Education Teacher
  • Degree in Drama and Psychology
  • Patrick
  • Has been dancing since age 3
  • Is creating his own pathand Im sure he will
    get there in his own way
  • Independent thinker and questions everything
  • Donovan
  • Artistic, creative, deep thinker
  • Sensitive (but dont tell him!)
  • Firm in his convictions
  • Square peg in a round school system

What is Positive Behavior Support?
  • PBS is an application of a behaviorally- based
    systems approach to enhance the capacity of
    schools, families and communities to design
    effective environments that improve the fit or
    link between research based practices and the
    environments in which teaching and learning occur.

In other words
  • Positive Behavioral Support (PBS) is
  • Proactive and preventative
  • Instructionally focused
  • Empirically sound
  • Data-based
  • Systems change model that provides learning and
    social/behavioral support for ALL children in
    school, home or community.

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  • Systems (How things are done)
  • Team based problem solving
  • Data-based decision making
  • Long term sustainability
  • Data (How decisions are made)
  • On going data collection use of behavioral data
    to make decisions
  • Practices (How staff interact with
  • Direct teaching of behavioral expectations
  • On-going reinforcement of expected behaviors
  • Functional behavioral assessment

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Eight Practices of School-wide Positive Behavior
  1. Administrative Leadership
  2. Team Implementation
  3. Define Concrete Expectations
  4. Teach Behavior Expectations
  5. Acknowledge and Reward Positive Behavior
  6. Monitor and Correct Behavior
  7. Use Data for Decision Making
  8. Family and Community Engagement

What Will You See in a PBS School?
  • Small positively stated behaviorally
    exemplified expectations are taught encouraged.
  • Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed
  • Data- team-based action planning
    implementation are operating.
  • Administrators are active participants in all
    aspects of implementation
  • gt80 of students can tell you what is expected of
    them give behavioral example because they have
    been taught, actively supervised, practiced,

What does PBS look like?
  • Families and communities are actively involved
  • Time for instruction is more effective
  • Function based behavior support is foundation for
    addressing problem behavior.
  • Full continuum of behavior support is available
    to all students

Westgate Elementary
  • Respect
  • Responsibility
  • Safety

  • What does respect look like in the lunchroom?
  • How do we teach students to demonstrate respect
    in the cafeteria?
  • How we positively recognize students who are
    demonstrating respect in the classroom?
  • How will we support students who are having
    challenges with respectful behavior at recess?

  • What does responsibility look like when students
    are walking in the halls?
  • How will we teach responsibility for homework and
    student materials?
  • How are we engaging families in this process?

  • What does safety look like in an assembly?
  • How do we teach and reinforce safety in a variety
    of school settings?

Self-Responsibility Tips

  • March has been designated as Self-responsibility
    month at Kemp. Lets work together to focus on
    how to best teach our students to be responsible
    for themselves and their actions.
  • Give students choices
  • When they feel powerless they lose respect and
  • This loss of powerless may escalate a minor
    disruption into a major loss of instruction time
  • Put the students in charge
  • By giving students the responsibility to adapt,
    monitor and measure activities and behavior you
    will increase student achievement and lower
    resistance to learning
  • Model and encourage self-responsibility
  • Avoid complaining, blaming and excusing
  • Explain to the students why certain limits or
    rules exist

You may not be responsible for the circumstances
in which you find yourself, but you are always
responsible for your behavior in those
School PBS Rules

S.O.A.R. Matrix
Alsup Eagles S.O.A.R.

SOAR Slips
  • Staff to Students
  • Students to Students
  • Students to Staff
  • Parents to Students
  • Parents to Staff
  • Safety, Opportunity, Achievement, Respect
  • ______________________________________________
  • Students full name and grade
  • (Place this slip with your name on it, in the
    SOAR box in the media center.)
  • Adult Please circle the behavior
    demonstrated and write your name on the back .
  • SOAR Assemblyafter Winter break

Behavioral Manifestation of Depression in School
  • Agitation and emotional irritability
  • Negative or oppositional toward adults and peers
  • May not have friends, isolates self
  • Frequent visits to the clinic, may miss a lot of
  • May be anxious and worry about performance,
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • May be tired, sleeps poorly

Behavioral Manifestation of Anxiety in School
  • Unrealistic worries, agitation, irritability
  • Difficulty focusing or concentrating
  • School phobia or fear of separation
  • Difficulty anticipating what may happen next,
    reacts poorly to changes in routines
  • Poor frustration tolerance, irritability and
    anxiety over poor performance.
  • Poor social skills, lacks friendships
  • Students may also tire due to sleep disturbance

Behavioral Manifestation of ADHD in School
  • Inattentive, easily distracted
  • Often talks excessively and interrupts others
  • Difficulty paying attention, listening to a
    lecture and taking notes and organizing complex
    activities over time
  • Poor Initiative Due to inability to follow
    through or organize self to complete tasks
  • Impulsive, hyperactive
  • Poor social skills and friendships

Additional emotional and behavior concerns
  • Tantrums or aggressive incidents
  • Withdrawn, shy or uncommunicative behavior
  • Poor response to feedback or consequences for
    inappropriate behavior
  • Weak control of emotional reactions
  • Easily upset over trivial events
  • Extreme emotional reactions

Common Academic Issues for Students with Mental
Health Issues
  • Uneven acquisition of new academic skills
  • Inconsistent performance in class
  • Messy, incomplete and disorganized work
  • Incomplete assignments and work not turned in
  • Difficulty applying and generalizing information
    and skills
  • Students mentally tire as they need to put
    conscious effort into school activities
  • Failure to ask for help

Developmental Challenges which Impact Behavior
and Social Skills
  • Cognitive Development
  • Uneven or slower rate of development
  • Stops and starts when learning new skills
  • May respond better to concrete vs. abstract
  • May respond better to visual presentation
  • Possible memory delays
  • Language/Communication
  • Receptive skills may be better than expressive
  • Communication delays or difficulty with verbal
  • expression
  • May need extra time to respond

  • Physical and health conditions
  • Range of respiratory problems
  • Heart condition and physical limitations
  • Eating digestive problems
  • Sensory-Motor
  • Delays in fine and gross motor or low muscle tone
  • Sensitivity to heat, cold, pain
  • Vision/Hearing
  • May have hearing loss
  • May need glasses or hearing aid

  • Personality and Temperament
  • May inaccurately perceived as easy going or
    strong willed
  • May indeed be quite easy going or oppositional!
  • May respond more strongly to normal developmental
    changes and stages but at a delayed rate
  • Social Development
  • Peer friendships may be affected by
    communication, cognitive or developmental delays

Imagine for a moment. You are
  • A four year old at a new school and it is time to
    Go to Centers
  • A first grader who is going through the cafeteria
    lunch line for the first time
  • A third grader whose needs to complete a group
    project with a group of peers and there is a sub.
  • A seventh grader who has just been given his
    first semester schedule with 7 classes

And you are beginning a new school year as
a student with developmental or behavior
Individual Student Support in PBS
  • Focuses on the needs of students whose
    challenging behavior interferes with academic and
    social competence
  • Is most effective if when positive behavior
    support is in place in the school and classroom.
  • Interventions are developed and implemented
    through a flexible, but systemic process of
    functional behavioral assessment and behavioral
    intervention planning.

Billys S.O.A.R. Chart
  • Safety
  • 0pportunity
  • Achievement
  • Respect

Parent Engagement School-wide PBS Schools

Positive Behavior Support addresses the child in
all environments
  • Stronger accountability for results
  • Increased flexibility and local control
  • Expanded options for parents
  • An emphasis on teaching methods that have been
    proven to work

  • Require schools to develop ways to get parents
    more involved in their childs education and in
    improving schools.
  • Requires that states and local school districts
    provide information to help parents make informed
    educational choices for their child.
  • http//

IDEA 2004
The Individuals with Disabilities Education
Improvement Act of 2004 will help children learn
better by promoting accountability for results,
enhancing parent involvement, using proven
practices and materials, providing more
flexibility, and reducing paperwork burdens for
teachers, states and local school
districts. President George W. Bush
When parents are involved in schools, there
areDemonstrated benefits to kids
  • improved grades and test scores
  • improved attitudes, self-esteem, and behavior
  • better attendance, fewer dropouts and
    suspensions, more post-secondary education
  • greater motivation and more positive attitudes
    toward homework
  • Adapted from Christenson, 1996

When parents are involved in schools, there
areDemonstrated benefits to parents
  • greater understanding of how schools work
  • improved communication between parents and
    children about school work and other topics
  • increased involvement with learning activities at
  • Adapted from Christenson, 1996

When parents are involved in schools, there
areDemonstrated benefits to Teachers/Schools
  • greater job satisfaction
  • higher ratings of teaching skills from both
    parents and principals
  • higher ratings of school effectiveness
  • decreased feelings of isolation
  • increased willingness of communities to support
    schools through taxes
  • improved classroom behavior through increased
    knowledge of childrens family, cultural, and
    community contexts
  • Adapted from Christenson, 1996

The Importance of Family Involvement
  • The evidence is now beyond dispute. When schools
    and families work together to support learning,
    children tend to succeed not just in school, but
    also throughout life.
  • (Henderson and Berla, 1997)

(Henderson and Berla, 1997)
  • In fact the most accurate predictor of a
    students achievement in school is not income or
    social status, but the extent to which the
    students family is able to
  • Create a home environment that encourages
  • Express high (but not unrealistic) expectations
    for their childrens achievement and future
  • Become involved in their childrens education at
    school and in the community

Six Types of Parent Involvement
1 Parenting
2 Communicating
3 Volunteering
4 Learning at Home
5 School Decision Making and Advocacy
6 Collaborating with the Community
Real change can only come as a result of the
commitments of both the minds and hearts of the
total school community - teachers, parents,
students, administrators and school boards.
Sergiovanni, 1994
Behavior Change is a Family Affair
Sound Familiar
  • Why do my children want my attention every time
    the phone rings??
  • Its time to go. You are going to be late this
    morning. Where are the shoes? What permission
  • What are the stressful times of your day at
    home? How can I handle everyday challenges in a
    more proactive and consistent way?

I wish my child wouldnt do that!!!
  • Think of one or two behaviors that you would like
    to work on at home.
  • Record the behavior(s) on the left side of the
    sheet Behaviors That Make Life Challenging.

Please stop! Why are you behaving like that?
  • The telephone
  • Getting out the door in the morning
  • NO in the grocery store or at the mall
  • Driving down the highway
  • Time to clean that room
  • One more story.please!

The ABCs of BehaviorWhat would you do?
  • 14 items in the grocery store
  • A bad day at work and now.
  • A new dog in the neighborhood

Behavior Change is a Family Affair
  • Do mom and dad respond the same way?
  • Grandmas house
  • Back and forth (and up and down!)
  • Babysitter for the night out
  • What are the school rules? How can we provide a

Behavior Change is a Family Affair
  • Traditional Behavior Planning
  • Child is referred for problem behavior
  • School does an FBA (Functional Behavioral
    Assessment) and Behavior Intervention Plan
  • Outline the consequences of behavior
  • Parent is minimally involved
  • PBS Function-based planning
  • Child is referred for problem behavior
  • Family has knowledge of PBS planning process
  • Family is involved in FBA and Behavior
    Intervention Plan
  • Plan extends to home with ongoing communication
    with school

Meet Rosa
  • Middle school student without many friends
  • Anxious about new people and new situations
  • Poor note-taking skills
  • Afraid to ask her help
  • Socially isolated and not performing well
  • Schools Response
  • Referred to Child Study
  • Complete an FBA and Behavior Plan
  • Invite mom to review the plan
  • Send a copy home

Function-based Interventions
  • Implemented a check in-check out
  • Set up a positive relationship with an adult
  • Small group for friendship and self advocacy
  • Assistance with note taking

So why isnt it working!!!!!!
  • Refusing to talk to her friend from group
  • Had been doing well but recently does not want to
    go to school
  • No longer using her strategies to ask for help
  • Asked to be taken out of group
  • Increased trips to the clinic
  • The plan looks great. Mom is now concerned.
    What do we do next?????

What is Going on at Home?
  • Rosa is taking a Red Cross Babysitting Class.
  • She has weekly quizzes on the notes from class.
  • Her friend from school has invited her to go away
    for the weekend. She refuses her calls and
    doesnt want to go.
  • She is arguing with her mom to stay home from

If mom were involved in Function-based Support
  • Mom would understand she is afraid to go away
    with new friend.
  • Due to increased anxiety, she is avoiding
    uncomfortable situations.
  • Mom would have a plan for home to address anxiety
    and to communicate with school.
  • Mom would be aware that she needs to advocate for
    self for help taking notes in Red Cross
    Babysitting Class on Wednesday nights.

Meet Tyler
  • Preschool school student with communication and
    behavior challenges
  • Anxious about new people and new situations
  • Poor turn-taking skills
  • Becomes very agitated at transition times
  • Recent increase in behavior challenges at school
  • Schools Response
  • School team wants to include behavior plan as
    part of IEP
  • Complete an FBA and Behavior Plan
  • Invite mom and dad to review the plan
  • Send a copy home

Function-based Interventions Based on Results
of FBA
  • Implemented a daily picture schedule to review
    each morning
  • Provide activity choices to increase Tylers
    control throughout the day
  • Include in a small group to focus on turn-taking
  • Create a book of social stories to address
    changes in routine

So why isnt it working!!!!!!
  • Having melt-downs at home and doesnt want to
    go to school
  • Chooses activities which remove him from the
    group whenever possible
  • Uses the social stories and sharing skills in
    small group but not in the classroom
  • Increased trips to the clinic because he
    communicates sick with picture book
  • The plan looks great. Mom and Dad are
    concerned. What do we do next?????

What is Going on at Home?
  • Mom has recently had a baby so things are a
    little chaotic at home
  • The baby is fussy and requiring a lot of
  • A neighbor is helping out by driving Taylor to
    and from school with her children
  • Mom and Dad have talked a lot about moving to a
    bigger house and what school Tyler would need to
    go to

If mom were involved in Function-based Support
  • The school would understand that many of Tylers
    current behavior challenges are due to the
    changes in routine at home.
  • Due to increased anxiety, Tyler is less able to
    use previously demonstrated communication and
    social skills and wants to stay close to mom.
  • Tylers picture schedule would extend to home
    and include the ride with a neighbor and time
    with mom at home when baby sleeps.
  • The social stories and sharing group would
    address having to share moms time with baby .
    Mom would have these stories to use at home.

A New Way to See Behavior
  • Behavior is learned and serves a specific
  • We say that behavior has a Communicative
  • Serves a useful purpose (function) for the person
    of concern.

Behavior is Context Specific
  • Behavior is related to the context in which it
  • This is why a child may demonstrate different
    behaviors at home and school.

Competing Pathway Model
  • What situations set up behavior tired, change
    in routine, visitation, babysitter?
  • What situations set off this behavior asking
    him to turn off the TV or computer, time for bed,
    no friends over this weekend, cant have snacks
    and pop NOW?
  • How does our behavior reinforce this series of
    unfortunate events?
  • What is the payoff for this behavior?

The ABCs of Lifes Struggles at Home
  • SETTING EVENT Situations or characteristics that
    set up the problem?
  • ANTECEDENT what happens before the behavior to
    set it off?
  • BEHAVIOR what is the specific problem behavior?
  • CONSEQUENCE our response/the payoff?

The WHYs of Behavior
Pos Reinf
Neg Reinf
Instead I wish my child
Wants help with homework Whines Gets help/
Asks for Help
ONeil et al. (1997)
Identify Replacement Behavior
Getting shoes on Whines Gets help/
Asks for Help
ONeil et al. (1997)
Select Intervention Strategies
Wants help with homework Whines Gets
Asks for Help
Reinforce Efforts to Complete work Reinforce
Use of cup or timer
Do homework in Small chunks of Time Set aside
calm time When you can help
Teach child Ways to get help From
parent -green/red cup -10 minute check in with
ONeil et al. (1997)
Improving Decision-Making
Use Data
Use Data
Use Data
One Behavior at a Time
  • Start with one behavior.
  • Think about the Big 5
  • WHAT is the specific behavior? WHO is
    involved? WHEN does the behavior occur? WHERE
    does the behavior take place? WHY did the
    behavior occur?
  • How are you responding that may reinforce this
  • What is the new behavior you want your child to

Things to Consider Before a Plan
  • Is the child aware or has he been taught how,
    when and where to demonstrate the appropriate
  • Is the child meeting a need or getting a payoff
    for the behavior?
  • Is the child aware he is demonstrating the
    behavior? Has it become a habit?
  • Is this a necessary behavior to teach right now
    or is there a simple, practical solution for now?

Map out the plan
  • The behavior I wish to change
  • The behavior I wish to achieve.
  • The first steps to this behavior are
  • I know it is working by..
  • Remember.reinforce steps in the right direction!

Competing Pathway Process
5. Instead I wish he
6. And then he would get
3. I think hes doing it because He wants/needs
4. Something that sets up this
behavior (physical, health, sleep, routines)
2. Something that sets off this
behavior (happens right before)
1. I wish my child didnt
7. A first step might be
Setting EventsLook and Listen for
  • Broader issues that may be influencing behavior
  • Daily activity schedule
  • Predictability of routines
  • Variety of activities or materials
  • Social relationships
  • Preferences of the student
  • Medical and physical issues (nutrition, illness,
    medications, sleep patterns)
  • Challenging family situations

Antecedents or TriggersLook and Listen For
  • Under what circumstances is the behavior
    most/least likely
  • Changes in the environment
  • Time of day/activities
  • Clarity of expectations of activity/task
  • Reinforcement of expected behavior
  • Nature of interactions (tone, proximity, contact)
  • Amount type of attention (peer, group, adult)
  • Childs ability matched to the activity

Maintaining ConsequencesLook and Listen For
  • Social reaction/attention
  • Change in activity/routine
  • Increases assistance from adults or peers
  • Access to materials, activities, food/drink
  • Sensory stimulation or reduction
  • Change in the physical environment
  • Allowed space or movement
  • Delays activity/event
  • Avoids negative attention

New Skills Dont Just Appear..You Have To
Teach Them!
  1. Define it
  2. Teach it
  3. Practice it
  4. Acknowledge it
  5. Correct it
  6. Monitor it
  7. Revise it

This is the sequence for teaching anything and
1. Define
  • Be clear and operational
  • Can you see it? Can you hear it?
  • Define within the context of routines
  • Define the data needed for determining
  • if it is working
  • Evaluate whether it is working

The section on Teaching Routines is from Anne
Todd, January 2006
2. Teach
  • Life is not a test
  • Teach acquisition of the skill or routine first
  • Provide opportunities to respond
  • Practice skill or routine to fluency
  • Vary your proximity, verbal cues, timing of
  • Dont fade too fast
  • Use childs performance to shape your instruction
  • 75 success rate is a good thing!

3. Practice
  • Practice the whole thing
  • If teaching put clothes in hamper routine,
    teach child to close laundry door and go back to
    bedroom or other activity as part of the routine
  • If anticipating problems, practice first!

4. Acknowledge
  • Five positive comments to every corrective
  • Shift from tangible to social rewards
  • Shift from external to internal focus
  • Prompt self-acknowledgement
  • Teach child to generalize in a different
    environment or with different people

5. Correct
  • Manage minor behavior to prevent escalations
  • Be clear consistent
  • stop vs no
  • Match tone of voice to level of offense
  • Use natural consequences as much as possible
  • Follow through, do not make agreements that you
    can not follow through with
  • After correction, watch for correct performance
    acknowledge the students efforts
  • Avoid the criticism trap

Intervene at the lowest level possible
  • Level 1
  • Signal Control
  • Proximity
  • Ignoring
  • Conferencing
  • Level 2
  • Contracts
  • Ignore Target Behavior
  • Give praise for Appropriate
  • Behavior
  • Level 3
  • Extinction
  • Response Cost
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Time Out
  • Level 4 Aversive
  • Spanking
  • Yelling
  • Belittling
  • Placing in an embarrassing situation

6. Monitor
  • Active Supervision strategies work for monitoring
    student performance
  • Monitor
  • Scan
  • Provide clear concise feedback
  • Use problem solving steps as needed
  • Test/ Assess for learning
  • Adjust instruction as needed

7. Revise
  • Use your data to determine if the teaching has
    made a difference
  • Determine a regular cycle in which to review the
    data (each Friday)
  • Continue to do things that are working that are
    a good match for the family, revise the things
    that people dont like or that seem to not be

Classroom Home Routines
  • What are they?
  • Why are they necessary?
  • Who needs them?

Is there a routine that is defined?
  • Is there a clear beginning?
  • Is there a clear sequence to complete the
  • Does the child understand the transition to the
    next routine or activity?

Why teach Routines?
  • Routines
  • Build independence by
  • guiding self management steps
  • being practiced from start to finish
  • providing predictability
  • Guide instruction
  • Routine serves as step by step guide to
  • Can require verbal routines, motor routines, or
    both, simultaneously
  • Apply across different contexts
  • Cleaning up after playing or homework
  • Washing hands and face
  • Taking a bath/getting ready for bed
  • Initiating maintaining a conversation

School Routines
  • Entering school getting to class
  • Turn in homework, put personal things away
  • Transitions
  • Within classroom
  • Within school
  • Taking care of personal needs
  • Getting help
  • Lunch
  • Breaks/ recess

School Rule Be Safe Be Respectful Be Responsible
Expected Student Behaviors Walk facing forward Keep hands, feet objects to self Get adult help for accidents spills Use all equipment materials appropriately Use kind words actions Wait for your turn Clean up after self Follow adult directions Be silent with lights are turned off Follow school rules Remind others to follow school rules Take proper care of all personal belongings school equipment Be honest Follow game rules
Classroom Routines Classroom Routines Classroom Routines Classroom Routines

Starting the day put personal belongings in designated areas turn in homework put instructional materials in desks sharpen pencils gather necessary material for class be seated ready to start class by 830
Entering the classroom enter the room quietly use a conversational or inside voice keep hands, feet, objects to self walk move directly to desk or assigned area sit quietly be ready for class
Working independently select area to work have materials ready work without talking raise hand to ask for help keep working or wait quietly for assistance when the teacher is helping someone else move quietly around the room when necessary put materials away when finished begin next activity when finished
Asking for help always try by yourself first use the classroom signal for getting assistance keep working if you can or wait quietly remember the teacher has other students that may also need help
Taking care of personal needs follow the class signal for letting the teacher know you have a private concern let the teacher know if you need immediate help or if you can wait a while try to speak to the teacher privately quietly if you do not want other students involved
Completing returning homework collect your work to take home complete work, get parent signature when needed bring work back to school return work to homework basket
Home routines
  • Getting ready for school
  • Meal time
  • Helping with chores
  • Getting dressed/using bathroom
  • Getting ready for bed
  • Shopping
  • Car/ bus riding
  • Family outings
  • Out with Friends
  • Babysitter coming

Routine Steps for success
1. Getting ready for school Get dressed Brush teeth Eat breakfast Get pack Get in car
2. Home work Get snack Get pack Work on homework Take a break/ ask for help Finish homework Share homework with family member Put homework in pack Tidy up homework area
3. Meal time Wash hands Sit at table Ask for food to be passed Use napkin for face and hands Chew swallow food Participate in conversation Clean up area Wash hands
4. Helping with chores Do what is asked in timely manner Finish chore Put materials away Wash hands Tell someone when finished (self-recruit praise)
5. Getting ready for bed Bed clothes on Brush teeth Tell family members goodnight Read /listen to music Close eyes sleep
6. Car riding Seat belt on Hands to self Keep objects in lap Inform driver of personal needs
7. Shopping Enter quietly Stay with adult Ask for only one extra item Accept hearing not now, or not this time Help carry items Exit quietly
Anne Todd, 2006
Routine Analysis
Schedule (Times) Activity Likelihood of Problem Behavior Specific Problem Behavior
700 am Getting ready for school 1 2 3 4 5 6
745 am Get in car 1 2 3 4 5 6
830 am Enter school 1 2 3 4 5 6
300 pm Get in car 1 2 3 4 5 6
345 pm Free time and snack 1 2 3 4 5 6
430 pm Homework and chores 1 2 3 4 5 6
530 pm TV time 1 2 3 4 5 6
630 pm 715 pm Dinner time Bath and bedtime 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6
Routines Analysis
Schedule (Times) Activity Likelihood of Problem Behavior Specific Problem Behavior
7 am Getting ready for school Low High 1 2 3 4 5 6
745 Get in car 1 2 3 4 5 6
800 Enter school 1 2 3 4 5 6
240 Get in car 1 2 3 4 5 6
300 Enter home play 1 2 3 4 5 6
430 homework 1 2 3 4 5 6
530 TV time 1 2 3 4 5 6
630 Meal family time 1 2 3 4 5 6
800 Get ready for bed 1 2 3 4 5 6
Comments Comments Comments Comments
Routines Analysis
Schedule (Times) Activity Likelihood of Problem Behavior Specific Problem Behavior
7 am Getting ready for school Low High 1 2 3 4 5 6
745 Get in car 1 2 3 4 5 6
800 Enter school 1 2 3 4 5 6
240 Get in car 1 2 3 4 5 6
300 Enter home play 1 2 3 4 5 6
430 homework 1 2 3 4 5 6
530 TV time 1 2 3 4 5 6
630 Meal family time 1 2 3 4 5 6
800 Get ready for bed 1 2 3 4 5 6
Comments Comments Comments Comments
  • Positive Behavior Support is the redesign of
    environments, not the redesign of individuals.
  • Positive Behavior Support asks us to change
  • our behavior to help our child change theirs.
  • Most effective when ALL adults are working

PBS Tips for Positive Behavior
  • 1. Remember 51 with positives.
  • 2. Set the stage for success..reward the effort.
  • 3. Give clear, specific directions.
  • 4. Stay calm. Use a calm voice.
  • 5. Set reasonable limits.

PBS Tips for Positive Behavior
  • 6. Be consistent. YES means YES and NO means NO.
  • 7. Set the example. Actions speak
  • louder than words.
  • 8. Proactively anticipate the situation.
  • 9. Have patience. A little goes a long way!!
  • 10. Have fun and enjoy the ride!

Westgate Elementary
  • Respect
  • Responsibility
  • Safety

  • What does respect look like at the dinner table?
  • How do we positively recognize our children who
    are demonstrating respect at home?
  • How will we help our children who are having
    challenges with respectful behavior at home?

  • What does responsibility look like when our
    children are doing their chores?
  • How will we teach responsibility for homework and
    school materials?
  • What are the consequences for our children who
    are not using responsible behavior?
  • How are working as a family in this process?

  • What does safety look like in the community?
  • How do we teach and reinforce safety in a variety
    of community settings?
  • How do we know if there are safety concerns or
    issues for our children and their friends?

PBS Home Matrix
Getting up in the morning Getting to school Clean-up time Time to relax Homework time Mealtime Getting ready for bed
H HELP OUT Make Your bed Clothes in hamper Have your back pack, lunch, notes, keys Do your chores Clean up after yourself Play quietly Put your things in your backpack when finished Set the table Put dishes away Brush your teeth Dirty clothes away
O OWN YOUR BEHAVIOR Get up on time Get cleaned up and dressed on time Be ready to leave on time Clean up after yourself Ask before you borrow Ask to change stations Complete your homework on time Do your best! Use kind words and I statements Recognize mistakes and apologize Get to bed on time!
M MANNERS COUNT Try a morning SMILE! Thank your parents for helping. Thanks for the ride Have a nice day Ask politely for help Respect others things Offer to share Ask for help respectfully Thanks for the help Please and thank you Use your napkin End the day with nice words and thoughts
  • Look at your Home Matrix and your list of
    behaviors you want to address.
  • Identify 5 10 POSITIVELY stated behaviors.
  • Write each one on a stick in a bright color and
  • These will be your daily reminders for positive
    behavior change.

Reinforce Positive BehaviorSTICK WITH THE
  • Place them in a location where you will see them
    several times a day.
  • Move the sticks from the In to Out cup each
    time you reinforce positive behavior.
  • Check in at night and see how you did.
  • Have your child do the same for you!

Tips for Engaging Families and Outside Agencies
in the Behavior Planning Process
  • Create partnerships with the families and other
    agencies/professionals involved.
  • Set up 4 way communication between school, home
    and counselor/therapist.
  • Understand and respect cultural differences.
  • Encourage creativity and thinking outside the

Tips for Engaging Families and Outside Agencies
in the Behavior Planning Process
  • Approach behavioral planning as a needs based
    model while providing an understanding of the
    impacts of mental health disorders.
  • Help parents understand that most behavior is a
    function of need.
  • Help parents understand how to identify positive
    replacement behaviors.

Tips for Engaging Families and Outside Agencies
in the Behavior Planning Process
  • Provide parent education program to increase
    parents understanding of positive behavior
  • Provide tools, contracts, checklists and
    reinforcement ideas that parents can use at home.

Behavior Change is..hard work!
  • There are no magic magic wands.
  • It takes time and consistencyfrom everyone!
  • Rule of thumb one month of intervention for each
    year the child has demonstrated the behavior.

Taking Care of Ourselves
  • Decades of research indicate that true
  • happiness comes from cultivating 12 traits
  • that allow us to navigate lifes rough spots
  • with greater ease and feel content no matter
  • what the outcome.

  • Humor
  • Optimism
  • Sense of Choice
  • Proactivity (New experiences)

  • Courage
  • Purpose
  • Spirituality
  • Love

  • Security
  • Perspective
  • Good Health
  • Altruism

Thank you for spending the afternoon with
me.I wish you all the very best of luck.
  • Kiki McGough, PBS Coordinator
  • 303-866-6768
  • Colorado PBS
  • Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and