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Victorian times

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Victorian times Please enjoy A LIFE OF A POOR VICTORIAN As a child: They didn t go to school. Kids who didn t have parents could stay at workhouses. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Victorian times


1
Victorian times
  • Please enjoy

2
A LIFE OF A POOR VICTORIAN
  • As a child
  • They didnt go to school.
  • Kids who didnt have parents could stay at
    workhouses.
  • These are some of the differences
  • Poor had had few luxuries.
  • ate food they could afford to buy
  • worked long hours
  • lived in damp, filthy conditions.
  • Many children died of disease.
  • As a parent
  • they had to take there families to workhouses
    for shelter and food
  • These are some of the differences
  • Wealthy had usually well fed, clean and well
    clothed. didn't need to work children had
    expensive toys
  • children went to school
  • lived in big houses with servants
  • went on holidays

3
The life of poor Victorian P2
  • The poor were not too much different in those
    days, then from today. Back then, they begged on
    the streets for food or a bit of money. They
    worked doing odd jobs of lowly types for the
    richer people. The children, when old enough, did
    the same. They may have been sold to Rich
    families but I'm not sure that was very common.
    There was no "welfare" system by the governments
    of then. Sometimes people were forced to steal
    from merchants. They would steal bread and other
    food items.. If caught, they were severely
    punished.. The poor were always looked down upon
    by the aristocrats. They considered them dirty
    and ragged, and labelled them as gypsies beggars
    and thieves.. Education was only for the rich and
    wealthy. Therefore, most of the poor were
    uneducated and could not read or write. They
    lived in squalid conditions and were usually
    doomed to a life of misery.

4
Workhouses
  • Workhouses place for people who wanted to get
    shelter and food ,and to stay you had to do jobs
    in the workhouse .
  • If you were a orphan or homeless you still had to
    do work around the workhouse.


5
The important people queen Victoria
  • Victoria was born in 1819 in Kensington Palace in
    London. Her name was Alexandrina Victoria. When
    Princess Victoria was 18 years old her uncle King
    William died and she became queen. She was
    crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1838.  Victoria
    married her handsome cousin Albert a young prince
    from Germany. (She had proposed to him). Albert
    didn't speak English very well and lots of people
    didn't like him.

6
The important people
  • Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (1836-1917) The first
    woman to qualify as a doctor in Britain. She
    founded a hospital for poor women and children in
    London.

7
The important people
  • Mrs. Isabella Beeton 1836-1865 An english
    writer  whose "Book of Household Management" was
    a bestseller  for many years. 

8
The important people
  • Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) Inventor of
    the telephone.

9
The important people
  • Isambard Kingdom Brunel 1806-1859  Brunel was an
    engineer who specialised in railway
    traction,tunnels, steam ships and bridges. He
    designed the Clifton Suspension Bridge and was
    engineer to the Greta Western Railway. He built
    the SS Great eastern the largest 19th century
    ship.

10
The important people
  • William Booth (1829-1912) A Methodist minister
    who founded The Salvation Army in 1878 to preach
    and give help, shelter and food to poor people.

11
The important people
  • Charles Dickens 1812-1870 Great novelist of the
    victorian age. His novels were outstandingly
    popular in his time and are still popular now.
    His books include stories about thieves, convicts
    and schoolboys. He wrote about ordinary people
    and how they lived, about terrible prisons, bad
    schools and the workhouse. His famous characters
    include Oliver Twist, Scrooge and David
    Copperfield.

12
The important people
  • Lewis Carroll(1832-1898) Real name Charles L.
    Dodgson, he was the author of Alice in Wonderland
    (1865).

13
The important people
  • Charles Darwin 1809-1882 An english naturalist
    who was famous for his famous theory of "natural
    selection". As a young scientist he set sail on
    the voyage of the Beagle in 1831 and came back
    with observations on the varieties of fossils and
    living animals which made him question the
    Bible's story of creation. His findings were
    published in "The Origin of Species" in 1859.
    This theory caused a real stir and was sold out
    straight away.

14
The important people
  • Benjamin Disreali (1804-1881) Prime Minister. An
    author as well as a politician Disraeli wore
    fancy clothes and loved to make fun of 
    Gladstone.

15
The important people
  • Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) He created the
    character Sherlock Holmes.

16
The important people
  • Thomas Edison (1847-1931) Edison was the
    inventor of over a thousand ideas which
    transformed life in the late 19 th century. He
    invented his own phonograph, and developed with
    Swan the electirc carbon filament lamp, which
    eventually became the modern light bulb.

17
The important people
  • William Gladstone (1809-1898)  A liberal
    politician who was Prime Minister four times. He
    was a very religious man who turned down a career
    in the church to become a politician. He had a
    strong sense of right and wrong and believed
    people should be judged on their merits, not on
    their wealth.

18
The important people
  • Mary Ann Evans (1819-1880) She wrote a number of
    books under the pen name "George Eliot". Her well
    known books include Silas Marner and Middlemarch.

19
The important people
  • Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) An English novelist and
    poet, born in Dorset. He wrote many stories based
    in the fictitious county of Wessex. These
    included Tess of the Durbervilles and The Mayor
    of Casterbridge.

20
The important people
  • W.G. Grace (1848-1915) An all-round cricketer
    who broke many cricketing records and made the
    game widely popular.

21
The important people
  • Joseph Lister (1827-1912) A scottish surgeon who
    realised the importance of keeping wounds and
    equipment clean and germ free during operations.

22
The important people
  • Mary Kingsley (1862-1900) At the age of 30 she
    made two adventurous trips to West Africa where
    she collected information about African tribal
    customs.

23
The important people
  • David Livingstone (1813-1873) A missionary who
    made three long explorations of East Africa. He
    wrote the story of his amazing three year journey
    across the African continent from the Atlantic to
    the Indian Ocean. He wasthe first European to see
    the Victoria Falls.

24
The important people
  • Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891) An Irish
    political leader who became an MP in 1875 and
    argued passionately for Irish independence.

25
The important people
  • Robert Peel (1788-1850) Twice Prime Minister and
    responsible for the repeal of the Corn Laws.

26
The important people
  • Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) "The lady with
    the lamp". The founder of modern nursing. In 1854
    she took charge of nursing soldiers wounded in
    the Crimean War. She organised the cleaning of
    the filthy rat infested military hospital and
    organised proper nursing. The death rate fell
    dramatically.

27
The important people
  • Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) A scottish
    author who wrote Treasure Island  and Kidnapped
    which are two of the most popular children's
    stories ever written.

28
The important people
  • Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) The most famous
    Victorian poet who wrote many poems about major
    events such as The Charge of the Light Brigade
    during the Crimean War.

29
A life of a wealthy Victorian
  • The Rich Victorians usually were well fed, clean
    and well clothed, they didn't need to work, lived
    in big houses with servants, went on holidays,
    children had expensive toys and children went to
    school.just like it is for modern-day rich
    people.
  • For parents well they didnt have to look after
    there children that much because they had
    nannies. They didnt have to work or clean
    because they had servants. Had big expensive
    houses and nice clothes. Well fed and treated.
  • For kids this was like from a parents view It
    was rather pampered, with nice clothes and toys.
    They had a nanny or nurse of sorts to care for
    the children. The children may have had more
    contact with the nanny than the mother. They
    would have time outside, usually playing in the
    garden or taking walks. Would have an early
    dinner, in their rooms with the nanny and put to
    bed long before the parents had dinner. The
    nanny's room was adjoined to the children's rooms
    so she could get to the child in the night if
    needed. There is private teacher for lessons
    until the kids were old enough for boarding
    school, military or finishing schools as the case
    may be. Toys were brought out the imagination in
    the child. Girls were taught these hobbies like
    needle work, piano and Boys were taught things
    like horse back riding, archery, hunting and
    business! Girls were treated like ladies, and
    boys like gentlemens. They lived a gentle life.

30
Pictures of wealthy Victorian
31
Work
  • Poor
  • Childern had to work to earn money for their
    there family and this where there jobs textile
    mills , mines.
  • Here is some facts 
  • Due to mass unemployment and insubstantial living
    conditions during the 1800's in England, the
    Victorian children were sent to work in mines as
    diggers or moverswhich involved moving mass
    quantities of coal, dirt, stone on quite decrepit
    trolley's However, the majority of children were
    ostracised from their homes from their own
    parents as they could no longer afford to feed
    them. So it would seem out of an act of kindness
    that these families sent their children to
    Workhouses or factories (being the industrial
    age) where they would eat, sleep and work
    together. their work included mending machines
    (as children's arms are small enough to reach
    into them, often children lost arms and fingers),
    crafting, stitching.
  • Wealthy
  • They didnt have to work!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!they had
    servants

32
Pictures of kids working
33
servants
  • The Victorian domestic servant had a gruelling
    and exhausing life comprising of long hours
    filled with demanding physical labour and very
    little time off.
  • In the early nineteenth century, it was common
    for children to go into domestic service at a
    very early age, usually around ten years of age
    but sometimes as young as eight. The daughters of
    working men and women had to earn their living
    and domestic service was considered an ideal
    occupation for young girls and single women.
  • Working time could be up to 17 hours long each
    day, from 5.30 a.m. in the morning until 10.30
    p.m. The work was endless and physically
    demanding.
  • Servants were seen as dispensable creatures
    solely in existence for the comfort of the family
    and so health and safety issues for the servant
    were not considered the employer's
    responsibility. The issue of servants' injuries
    was finally included in the Workman's
    Compensation Act of 1907. Maids and cooks had to
    endure lack of fresh air, monotonous, long hours
    of work and accidents in the course of their work
    such as burns and falls. Poor children as young
    as five worked for a living. Children did various
    kinds of jobs. Many of the jobs they did were
    unpleasant and dangerous. Some children worked in
    coal mines pushing trucks coal to the surface.
    Others opened and shut doors to allow air to
    circulate through the tunnels. They worked in the
    dark with only the light of a candle to help them
    see. Other children worked in factories. They had
    jobs like piecers in cotton mills and would spend
    the repairing broken threads. Many fell ill or
    had bad accidents, which left them with injuries.
    Most factory and mine owners didnt think
    anything was wrong with giving nasty jobs to
    children. They were made to work long hours with
    very little pay and there was no laws to protect
    them. Children in the country also worked. They
    did jobs like picking up stones before the crops
    were sown or scaring birds away from the crops.
    The hours were long and often the weather was wet
    and cold. Children were cheap and couldnt
    complain. Some orphans and homeless children were
    sold to employers as chimney sweepers. The boys
    were made to climb up narrow chimneys in big
    houses to clean them and some lost a arm or a
    leg. These children would be very young and thin.
    It was a dirty and dangerous job.

34
Money and wages
  • Making a definitive statement about the cost of
    living in Victorian England is difficult,
    particularly in the last half of the century,
    because the economy went through a long period of
    growth, followed by slumps at the end of the
    nineteenth century. A worker in 1870 might make
    150 what a worker in 1850 made, but because
    different prices had increased at different
    rates, the actual buying power of the wages
    increased only moderately. At the end of the
    century, prices fell greatly, more rapidly than
    wages, so that despite a lower wage, the workers
    buying power actually increased.
  • The following tables provide a sampling of wage
    and cost of living information.

35
Picture of a coin and how much money you got pre
week.
  • The average wage in the 1850s was about 15
    shillings (75p) a week. Many children got just 5
    shillings (25p) a week, or less.

36
Money and wages p2
  • 1. According to Porter (176), in the mid-1860s
    workers in London received the following wages
    for a 10-hour day and six-day week
  • common laborers 3s. 9d.
  • excavators wearing their own "long water boots"
    4s. 6d.
  • bricklayers, carpenters, masons, smiths 6s. 6d.
  • engineers 7/6 ( 110 pounds/year)
  • 2. These wages reflect weekly pay in the mid- to
    late '60s (various sources listed below)
  • Mail Coach Guard ... 10/0 tips
  • Female telegraph clerk ... 8/0
  • London artisans ... 36/0
  • London laborers ... 20/0
  • Farm hands ... 14/0
  • Sailors ... 15/0
  • Seaman on steamers ... 16/4
  • 3. In better paid positions, particularly the
    professions, salaries were indicated in annual
    amounts. Two positions for which information is
    available are
  • Army Cornet ... 200/0/0
  • Indian Civil Service officer ... 300/0/0

37
Money and wages p3
  • Sugar
  • 6/14/2
  • Butter Eggs
  • 9/12/0
  • Meat
  • 18/6/0
  • Fish
  • 2/0/0
  • Vegetables
  • 5/0/0
  • Beer
  • 6/10/0
  • Washing womansoap and her meals
  • 6/13/0
  • Cost of Living for a senior clerk (1844)
  • 25/0/0
  • Taxes
  • 5/0/0
  • Maid
  • 7/0/0
  • Coal 5 tons
  • Rent
  • 6/5/0
  • Candles and Wood
  • 2/0/0
  • Tea

Ironing and mangling 1/0/0 Clothing 23/6/0 Church
and charity 3/10/0 Doctor 5/0/0 Misc. 1/8/0 Amusem
ents 1/19/4 Savings 6/0/0 Total150/0/0
38
Money and wages p4
  • Cost of Living for a typical, rising professional
    man with a 700 annual income (early 1900s)
  • Rent and Taxes
  • 100
  • Two maids
  • 42
  • Food Cleaning materials For 4 people
  • 104
  • Washing
  • 26
  • Coal 1 ton/month
  • 12
  • Electric Light
  • 18
  • Wine
  • 10
  • Office expensesTrainfair and lunches
  • 30
  • Insurance
  • 25
  • Dress x2
  • 80
  • Savings
  • 50
  • TOTAL
  • 487

39
The common diseases
  • Due to the poor environmental conditions, disease
    in the earlier part of the period ran rampant.

40
The common diseases
  • CHOLERA
  • One of the most dreaded of all diseases, acutely
    infectious caused by drinking water from
    contaminated sources. Cholera causes a slowing in
    the blood circulation causing the skin to turn
    blue and shrunken, with inevitable death.
    Superstitions have one catching cholera simply
    because one is afraid of it, and that the sun,
    comets or too much oxygen in the air caused the
    disease. Others stopped eating fruits and
    vegetables as a way to keep from getting the
    disease because they also were believed to be
    causes.

Or maybe this
41
The common diseases
  • poliomyelitis
  • Another disease affecting primarily children,
    Poliomyelitis, attacks the spinal cord and brain,
    often leaving a child to wake up and find his
    limbs paralysed. Only bed rest appeared to offer
    any help in lessening the affects of the disease.
    It wont be until the middle of the 20th century
    (1952) that an American doctor by the name of
    Jonas Salk will develop a vaccine for the
    prevention of the disease.

42
The common diseases
  • Consumption
  • Consumption or tuberculosis is another common
    cause of death throughout the century. The term
    consumption was applied as it described the
    action of the body tissue wasting away.
  • It is a highly contagious disease and the
    bacteria which causes it is found to be carried
    in milk and other foods and sometimes the saliva
    of a person who has the disease. It was found
    that only direct sunlight killed the bacteria.
  • In 1882, Robert Koch will discover that the
    bacteria that caused the disease begins as fine
    granules, barley visible to the human eye which
    would attach and grow in every organ of the body,
    including the lungs and brain, either damaging or
    destroying the organ.

43
Common disease
  • Smallpox
  • Another widely feared disease is smallpox.
    Affecting people of all ages is especially fatal
    to young children. Smallpox is caused by a virus
    which creates small blister-like bumps on the
    skin and instead the mouth and throat , sometimes
    swelling causing difficulty in breathing. After
    catching it, however, and surviving, one does not
    get it again. This information is used to find a
    vaccine to prevent the diseases

44
The common diseases
  • Diphtheria
  • Another common childhood disease, highly
    contagious, is Diphtheria, the formation of a
    thick gray membrane in a childs throat making it
    difficult to breathe. Fever and weakness also
    accompanied the growth and quite often resulted
    in death.
  • Robert Koch, a German scientist, studied the
    disease and determined the bacillus bacteria to
    be the cause. He also determined that as the
    bacteria flowed through the bloodstream, it
    damaged cells in the heart. Two medical students
    took the results of Kochs experiments and were
    successful in developing an antitoxin which
    would both prevent and cure the disease.



45
The common diseases
  • CHICKEN-POX
  • Chicken-pox is one of the most common of the
    diseases of children. It appears in the form of
    little spots all round your body. Not depressed
    in the centre like those of small-pox. The
    illness is preceded by symptoms of fever, chills,
    headache, weariness, itchiness and aching in the
    back and limbs. Often nothing particular is
    noticed in the child till the eruption appears as
    little, first over the trunk, and then over the
    face and limbs. They soon fill with a clear
    fluid which by fourth day begins to dry up, in
    some instances leaving only a slight redness
    where the pox once appeared.

46
School
  • All children go to school
  • Many children in early Victorian England never
    went to school at all and more than half of them
    grew up unable even to read or write. Although
    some did go to Sunday schools which were run by
    churches. Children from rich families were
    luckier than poor children. Nannies looked after
    them, and they had toys and books. A governess
    would  teach the children at home. Then, when the
    boys were old enough, they were sent away to a
    public school such as Eton or Rugby. The
    daughters were kept at home and taught singing,
    piano playing and sewing. Slowly, things changed
    for poorer children too. By the end of the
    Victorian age all children under 12 had to go to
    school. Now everybody could learn how to read and
    write, and how to count properly.

47
School p2
  • Schools There were several kinds of school for
    poorer children. The youngest might go to a
    "Dame" school, run by a local woman in a room of
    her house. The older ones went to a day school.
    Other schools were organised by churches and
    charities. Among these were the "ragged" schools
    which were for orphans and very poor children.

48
Schoolroom
  • School room The school could be quite a grim
    building. The rooms were warmed by a single stove
    or open fire. The walls of a Victorian schoolroom
    were quite bare, except perhaps for an
    embroidered text. Curtains were used to divide
    the schoolhouse into classrooms. The shouts of
    several classes competed as they were taught side
    by side. There was little fresh air  because the
    windows were built high in the walls, to stop
    pupils looking outside and being distracted from
    their work. Many schools were built in the
    Victorian era, between 1837 and 1901. In the
    country you would see barns being converted into
    schoolrooms. Increasing numbers of children began
    to attend, and they became more and more crowded.
    But because school managers didnt like to spend
    money on repairs, buildings were allowed to rot
    and broken equipment was not replaced.  

49
Teachers
  • Teachers Children were often scared of their
    teachers because they were very strict. Children
    as young as thirteen helped the teacher to
    control the class. These pupil teachers
    scribbled notes for their lessons in books .They
    received certificates which helped them qualify
    as teachers when they were older. In schools
    before 1850 you might see a single teacher
    instructing a class of over 100 children with
    help of pupils called monitors. The head
    teacher quickly taught these monitors, some of
    them as young as nine, who then tried to teach
    their schoolmates. Salaries were low, and there
    were more women teaching  than men. The pale,
    lined faces of older teachers told a story. Some
    taught only because they were too ill to do other
    jobs. The poor conditions in schools simply made
    their health even worse. Sometimes, teachers were
    attacked by angry parents. They shouted that
    their children should be at work earning money,
    not wasting time at school. Teachers in rough
    areas had to learn to box!

50
Pupils
  • Pupils After 1870, all children from five to
    thirteen had to attend school by law. In winter
    in the countryside, many children faced a teeth
    chattering walk to school of several miles. A
    large number didnt turn up. Lessons lasted from
    9am to 5pm, with a two hour lunch break. Because
    classes were so large, pupils all had to do the
    same thing at the same time. The teacher barked a
    command,  and  the children all opened their
    books. At the second command they began copying
    sentences from the blackboard. When pupils found
    their work boring, teachers found their pupils
    difficult to control.

51
Lesson
  • Lessons Victorian lessons concentrated on the
    three Rs-Reading, wRiting and arithmetic.
    Children learnt by reciting things like parrots,
    until they were word perfect. It was not an
    exciting form of learning! Science was taught by
    object lesson. Snails, models of trees,
    sunflowers , stuffed dogs, crystals, wheat or
    pictures of elephants and camels were placed on
    each pupils desk as the subject for the lesson.
    The object lesson was supposed to make children
    observe, then talk about what they had seen.
    Unfortunately, many teachers found it easier to
    chalk up lists describing the object, for the
    class to copy. Geography meant yet more copying
    and reciting - listing the countries on a globe,
    or chanting the names of  railway stations
    between London and Holyhead. If you look at a
    timetable from late in the 1800s and you will see
    a greater number of subjects, including
    needlework, cookery and woodwork. But the teacher
    still taught them by chalking and talking.

52
Equipment
  • Slates and copybooks Children learned to write
    on slates, they scratched letters on them with
    sharpened pieces of slate. Paper was expensive,
    but slates could be used again and again.
    Children were supposed to bring sponges to clean
    them. Most just spat on the slates, and rubbed
    them clean with their sleeves. Older children
    learned to use pen and ink by writing in
    copybooks. Each morning the ink monitor filled
    up little, clay ink wells and handed them round
    from a tray. Pens were fitted with scratchy,
    leaking nibs, and children were punished for
    spilling ink which blotted their copybooks.
    Teaches also gave dictation, reading out strange
    poems which the children had to spell out
    correctly.
  • Abacus The pupils used an abacus to help them
    with their maths. Calculations were made using
    imperial weights and measures instead of our
    simpler metric system. Children had to pass
    inspections in maths, reading and writing before
    they could move up to the next class or
    standard. Teachers were also tested by the
    dreaded inspector, to make sure that they
    deserved government funds.

53
Reader
  • Reader Slates showing pictures and names of
    different objects hang from the walls of the
    infants class. The children chant the name of
    each object in turn. When they can use these
    words in sentences they will move on to a
    reader. This would p probably be the Bible. For
    reading lessons, the pupils lined up with their
    toes touching a semi-circle chalked on the floor.
    They took it in turns to read aloud from the
    bible. The words didnt sound like everyday
    words, children stumbled over the long sentences.
    Quicker readers fidgeted as they waited for their
    turn to read. School inspectors slowly realised
    that the bibles language was too difficult.
    Bibles were gradually replaced by books of moral
    stories, with titles like Harriet and the
    Matches. A reader had to last for a whole year.
    If the class read it too quickly, they had to go
    back to the beginning and read it all over again!

54
Drill
  • Drill When its time for PE or drill, a pupil
    teacher starts playing an out-of-tune piano . The
    children jog, stretch and lift  weights in time
    to the awful music. It is like a Victorian
    aerobics class! Even when the teacher rings a
    heavy , brass bell to announce the end of school,
    the pupils march out to the playground in perfect
    time

55
Playtime
  • Playtime Outside the classroom is a small yard
    crowded with shrieking schoolmates. Games of
    blind mans buff, snakes and ladders,
    hide-and-seek and hopscotch are in full swing.
    Some boys would beg a pigs bladder from the
    butcher, which they would blow up to use as a
    football. Others drilled hob nails through cotton
    reels to make spinning tops.
  • By the second half of Queen Victoria's reign,
    most people earned more money and worked shorter
    hours than ever before. This meant that for the
    first time, ordinary people had enough spare time
    to enjoy sports and other pastimes, and to go to
    the seaside for holidays.

56
School punishments
  • Cane Teachers handed out regular canings. Look
    inside the punishment book that every school
    kept, and you will see many reasons for these
    beatings rude conduct, leaving the playground
    without permission, sulkiness, answering back,
    missing Sunday prayers, throwing ink pellets and
    being late. Boys were caned across their bottoms,
    and girls across their hands or bare legs. Some
    teachers broke canes with their fury, and kept
    birch rods in jars of water to make them more
    supple. Victims had to chose which cane they
    wished to be beaten with!
  • Dunce's Cap Punishment did not end with caning.
    Students had to stand on a stool at the back of
    the class, wearing an arm band with DUNCE written
    on it. The teacher then took a tall, cone-shaped
    hat decorated with a large D, and placed it on
    the boys head. Today we know that some children
    learn more slowly than others. Victorian teachers
    believed that all children could learn at the
    same speed, and if some fell behind then they
    should be punished for not trying hard enough.

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Crimes
Rogue
drunk
Wilful Damage
stealing
Neglect
Misbehaviour
Assault
Game Laws
trespassing
Larceny
riotous
Vagabond
Militia
Sureties
refusing to pay a fine
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Crime punishments
  • transportation and penal servitude
  • hanging
  • imprisonment
  • hard labour
  • physical punishment
  • sent to the arm forces
  • fines

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Nursery toys
  • Nursery Toys The younger children of well off
    families had lots of beautiful toys in their
    nurseries. The favourite was the rocking horse
    which was made from wood and painted brightly.
    Girls also enjoyed playing with their dolls'
    houses, furniture for these could be bought and
    changed with times and fashions. Victorian dolls
    were probably the most beautiful ones made. Their
    heads and shoulders were made of wax or china
    with bodies made of stuffed calico or wood. Most
    dolls were dressed as adults with beautiful
    clothes  made from satin, taffeta or lace. A poor
    girl would long for a doll like this which she
    would only see in shop windows, She would never
    be able to afford one but might have a rag doll
    instead. Boys would play with their tin or lead
    soldiers. Later in the century as the railways
    developed across the country clockwork trains
    became popular.

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Who helped the poor?
  • Dr Barnardo was a Christian man who wanted to
    provide homes for the homeless and abandoned
    children. He believed all children should be look
    after and receive some education. Many people
    were happy to keep things the way they were,
    making money from using child workers. However a
    group of Christian people, including Lord
    Shaftesbury, knew that it was worng to use
    children as cheap labour and wanted to bring in
    laws to stop this practises.

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How life changed after Victorian time
  • 1868 Agricultural gangs act
  • No child under the age of 8 to be employed in an
    agricultural gang.
  • 1874
    factory act
  • No child under 10 to be employed in a factory.
  • 1875 climbing boys act
  • Illegal to send boys up chimneys.
  • 1841 mines act
  • No child under the age of 10 to work
    underground.
  • By the end of the Victorian age all children
    under 12 had to go to school. Now everybody could
    learn how to read and write, and how to count
    properly.

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