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Urban Heat Island and Global Warming

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Patrick Kelly, EPA. Urban Heat Island and Global Warming. Urban Heat Island ... at the approaches taken each has its own merit in examining the story of UHI. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Urban Heat Island and Global Warming


1
Urban Heat Island and Global Warming
  • An Analysis of the Current State of Knowledge and
    Market Transformation Efforts in US Cities
  • Patrick Kelly, EPA

2
Urban Heat Island and Global Warming
3
Urban Heat Island Pilot Projects
  • Assist cities in efforts to adopt and evaluate
    heat island reduction strategies and programs
  • Encourage research, education, and communication
  • Demonstrate and document successful heat island
    reduction projects that may be adopted in other
    communities and
  • Build community support and understanding of heat
    island reduction measures.

4
Urban Heat Island State of Knowledge
  • EPA research on five cities under Urban Heat
    Island Pilot Project(UHIPP)
  • Baton Rouge
  • Chicago
  • Houston
  • Sacramento
  • Salt Lake City
  • Studies completed end of 2003

5
Other cities and UHI Projects
  • Atlanta
  • Baltimore
  • New York
  • Seattle

6
IR Image and Agenda
  • Baltimore
  • Ecosystem
  • Biodiversity
  • Public Health
  • Buildings
  • Pavement
  • Agenda Research on Ecosystem impacts of UHI on
    surrounding communities economics

7
IR Image and Agenda
  • Baton Rouge
  • Ecosystem
  • Forest Canopy
  • Paved Surfaces
  • Buildings
  • Agenda Urban Tree Planting and UHI

8
IR image and Agenda
  • Chicago
  • Ecosystem
  • Biodiversity
  • Green Roofs
  • Pavements
  • Buildings
  • Agenda Urban Heat Island Profiling and highlight
    singular approaches to reduce UHI.

9
IR Image and Agenda
  • Houston
  • Ecosystems and Trees
  • Paved surfaces and
  • Permeable pavements
  • Buildings
  • Profiling
  • Agenda Look at Profiling UHI Air Quality issues

10
IR Image and Agenda
  • New York
  • Paved surfaces
  • Buildings
  • ENERGY STAR(ES)
  • Vegetation
  • Agenda Look at electrical distribution,
    transmission generation impacts of UHI and ES

11
IR Image and Agenda
  • Sacramento
  • Paved surfaces
  • Trees
  • Vegetation
  • Buildings
  • Agenda Look at paved surfaces, building, tree
    options to reduce UHI.

12
IR Image and Agenda
  • Salt Lake City
  • Sources rooftops
  • At 160 degrees on
  • average day
  • Pavement
  • Buildings
  • Agenda Data Profiling and what works in Salt
    Lake City.

13
UHI and Global Warming
  • What these studies did is to lay the ground work
    for industry and local governmen to realize they
    had to take action.
  • Several cities began to implement laws to require
    UHI reduction tactics to be implemented.

14
Urban Heat Island and Global Warming
  • Looking at the approaches taken each has its own
    merit in examining the story of UHI. But two
    added economics and one added its effect on the
    electrical utility system besides UHI data
    profiling. The latter also chose to add DOE
    Market Allocation modeling to the mix to look 40
    years into the future for impact and scenarios.

15
NYC Study Area
16
NYC Energy/UHI Building Mix
Maps Source NYSERDA UHI Study
17
NYC MARKAL Modeling Framework
  • Builds on extensive plant level information from
    the Energy Information Administration and the
    Environmental Protection Agency
  • Time of the day peak-load was modeled on the
    basis of seasonal variability

18
MARKAL-EnergyPlus-MM5 Interactions
Centrifugal Chiller
Demand for AC in Buildings
Grid Exchange
Central Stations
Electric Heat Pumps
TEXLC
TEELC
Conventional AC
EnergyPlus
DER
Energy Star AC
Conservation Shell - DSM
MM5 Meso-scale Climate Model EnergyPlus
Building Energy Simulation Model DSM Demand Side
Management DER Distributed Energy
Resources TEELC High Voltage Electricity
Transmission TEXLC Low Voltage Electricity
Transmission
MM5
19
MARKAL Modeling System
RES Diagram
Data Management Scenario Development
Output w/ Excel Graph
20
EnergyPlus Building Energy Simulation
  • Builds on the most popular features and
    capabilities of BLAST and DOE-2
  • Calculates HVAC loads to maintain thermal
    control setpoints, based on the buildings
    physical make-up, mechanical systems,
    environmental conditions, etc.

Web www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus/
21
Building Inventory to Cooling Demand
  • Prototype buildings were selected from the
    building inventory of the area to measure
    benefits of various mitigation measures

22
EnergyPlus Load Schedule- time of day
Baseline
UHI
23
NYC results in Lower Manhattan if activity had
already occurred on September 8, 2002
24
Impacts of UHI Measures and Energy Star
Technologies
UHI Urban Heat Island effect
25
NYC Emission Reductions due to UHI Measures and
Energy Star Technologies
26
NYC Summary
  • Urban system responses of alternative strategies
    are complex and need a systematic integrated
    analysis
  • Adaptation to such a new concept can lead to
    cost-effective solutions to the long-term energy
    security and the environmental sustainability
  • BNLs longstanding research and experience brings
    a paradigm shift in local energy and
    environmental planning
  • Such a comprehensive framework will provide us
    with a robust tool to address an upcoming need to
    tackle pressing urban energy and environmental
    issues worldwide

27
Urban Heat Island and Global Warming
  • EPA Region 2 and it collaboration of modelers
    took the time out to 40 years and used
    projections on climate change to increase the
    temperature of the heat island while lowering the
    temperature and slowly engaging in ENERGY STAR at
    its current rate of expansion.
  • Intriguing thought the model will work to
    project with or without activity.

28
Urban Heat Island and Global Warming
  • The MARKAL model is such a powerful tool that the
    federal government uses it for all activities to
    model the economics and sense of activities.
  • To date UHI activities is ongoing in local cities
    who have adopted standards.
  • I wont mention cities locally too many to write
    down who are working on tree ordinances, roofing
    ordinances, above code building ordinances, etc.

29
Urban Heat Island and Global Warming
  • What is true about UHI is that the same MARKAL
    model alludes to something of greatest
    importance, the impact of heat island in the
    future to public health issues. The model runs
    projected a rise in temperature in cities that
    could lead to very unhealthy environments to live
    in.
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