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Daily Life in the Gilded Age 1877-1900 Chapter 16

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Title: Daily Life in the Gilded Age 1877-1900 Chapter 16


1
Daily Life in the Gilded Age 1877-1900 Chapter 16
  • What political, social, and economic issues did
    the nation face during the late 1800s?

2
Segregation and Social Tensions Section 1
  • How were the civil rights of certain groups in
    America undermined during the years after
    Reconstruction?
  • Vocabulary
  • Jim Crow laws poll tax
  • Booker T. Washington literacy test
  • W.E.B. Du Bois Ida B. Wells
  • grandfather clause
  • Las Gorras Blancas

3
Segregation and Social Tensions
African Americans Lose Freedoms   Main Idea
After the election of 1876, southern governments
enacted various measures aimed at
disenfranchising, or taking away the voting
rights of, African Americans. These governments
enacted Jim Crow laws that kept blacks and whites
segregated, or apart. African Americans Oppose
Injustices Main Idea African Americans refused
to accept their status as second-class citizens.
Although they did not always agree on strategies,
they were united in their determination to never
turn back until they had equality. Chinese
Immigrants Face Discrimination Main Idea During
the same time that Jim Crow arose in the South,
Chinese immigrants faced racial prejudice on the
West Coast. Yet the Court upheld the Chinese
Exclusion Act and several other discriminatory
measures. Mexican Americans Struggle in the
West Main Idea Like African Americans and Asian
Americans, Mexican Americans struggled against
discrimination in the latter decades of the
nineteenth century.

4
Standards
  • c. Describe the rise of Jim Crow, Plessy v.
    Ferguson, and the emergence of the NAACP.

5
Transparency Tuskegee Institute
Tuskegee Institute
TRANSPARENCY
6
The World of Jim Crow Post-Reconstruction
Discrimination
  • Voting restrictions
  • -poll tax (24th Amendment)
  • -grandfather clauses
  • Segregation system of legal segregation (Jim
    Crow Laws)
  • Plessy v. Ferguson ruled that segregation was
    legal as long s the separate facilities provided
    for blacks were equal to those for whites
  • Violence
  • -lynching-mobs illegal seizure and execution
    of a person
  • Conditions in the North decline
  • -de facto discrimination
  • -riots in the North

7
Booker T. Washington
  • Born into slavery
  • Founded Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881
  • Taught to put aside equality and concentrate on
    economic security (vocational skills)
  • Hoped to win white acceptance later
  • Wrote Up From Slavery

8
W.E.B. Du Bois
  • First African American to earn a Ph.D. fro
    Harvard
  • Helped found the Niagara Movement
  • Rejected Washingtons message
  • Wanted political and social equality and civil
    rights now
  • Associated with the NAACP
  • Wrote The Souls of Black Folk

9
Ida B. Wells
  • School teacher in TN who spoke out against
    lynching
  • Whites ran her out of town
  • She wrote describing the southern horrors of
    legalized murder

10
African Americans Resist Discrimination
  • NAACP National Association for the Advancement
    of Colored People
  • African American achievement
  • -National Urban League, 1911
  • -National Negro Business League
  • -Madam C.J. Walker

11
African American Influence
  • The Negro Spiritual
  • Minstrel Shows
  • Ragtime
  • Jazz

12
Chart Voter Turnout in South Carolina 1876-1896
Voter Turnout in South Carolina, 1876-1896
CHART
13
Discrimination against Chinese
  • Racial prejudice in on the West Coast
  • San Francisco established Asian school
  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
  • Yick Wo v. Hopkins 1886 ruling sided with
    Chinese immigrant, allowing him to operate a
    laundry

14
Discrimination against Mexicans
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo guarantee
    Mexican-American property rights
  • Many lost their land
  • Santa Fe Ring
  • Las Gorras Blancas group that targeted property
    of large ranch owners

15
Women in the Late 1800s
  • Debate over womens equality
  • Women wanted to vote, control their property and
    income, and have access to higher education and
    professional jobs
  • Some believed that public roles would destroy
    womens femininity

16
New Women, New Ideas
  • How should women dress and behave? Shorter hair
    raised hemlines
  • Courting and marriage customs changed dating
  • Right to vote
  • National Women Suffrage
  • Association
  • Susan B. Anthony arrested for
  • trying to vote in NY

17
Womens work in the Home
  • Technology freed many women to pursue work
  • Department stores
  • Rural free delivery (RFD)
  • Mail-order catalogs

18
Womens Work Outside the Home
  • Few women had supervisory jobs
  • Most were single
  • Domestic work servants
  • Volunteering gave women experience in speaking,
    writing, and financial skills

19
Transparency Political Cartoon Women Seek
Equality
Political Cartoons Women Seek Equality
TRANSPARENCY
20
Higher Education Expands
  • Many new colleges opened
  • Leland Stanford-Stanford University
  • Women and higher education-coeducation increased
  • African Americans- most attended black colleges

21
New Forms of Entertainment
  • Popular Amusements in the Late 1800s
  • -Vaudeville
  • -Sports
  • -Newspapers
  • -Magazines and popular fiction

22
Note Taking Reading Skill Summarize
Reading Skill Summarize
NOTE TAKING
23
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 1
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
24
Political and Economic Challenges Section 2
  • Why did the political structure change during the
    Gilded Age?
  • Vocabulary
  • spoils system
  • civil service
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act
  • gold standard

25
Political and Economic Challenges
Balance of Power Creates Stalemate Main Idea
Between 1877 and 1897, party loyalties were so
evenly divided that no faction or group gained
control for any period of time. This made it very
difficult to pass new laws. Corruption Plagues
National Politics Main Idea Grover Clevelands
reputation for honesty was an exception. Many
government officials routinely accepted bribes
and offered jobs to loyal party workers with
little regard for their qualifications. Economic
Issues Challenge the Nation Main Idea The
tariff and monetary policy were critical economic
issues during the Gilded Age that sharply divided
the Democrats and Republicans
26
Opposing Political Parties
  • Republicans
  • Tight money supply backed by Gold (Gold Standard)
  • High tariffs
  • Pensions for US Soldiers
  • Government aid to Railroads
  • Strict limits on immigration
  • Enforcement of Blue Laws
  • Republicans appealed to Bankers, Industrialists
    and Farmers
  • Democrats
  • Increased money supply backed by silver
  • Lower tariffs
  • Higher farm prices
  • Less government aid to big business
  • Fewer blue laws
  • Democrats appealed to less privileged of
    society
  • (Immigrants, laborers, southern planters, western
    farmers)

27
Grover Cleveland and the Mugwumps
  • Election of 1884
  • Republican Candidate James Blaine
  • Still crooked
  • Democrat - Grover Cleveland (baby?)
  • Independents (Mugwumps important chief)
    believed Blaine too corrupt added their support
    to Cleveland
  • Supported govt regulation of Railroads

28
The Cartoons of Thomas Nast
How One Man Brought Down a Political Regime
29
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30
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31
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32
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33
(No Transcript)
34
Other Nast Images
35
Reforming the Spoils System
  • Rutherford B. Hayes
  • Refused to use patronage
  • Began to reform the Civil Service
  • Angered his own party
  • He helped strengthen the govt, but weakened the
    Republican Party
  • James A. Garfield
  • Vice-President Chester Arthur
  • Garfield Assassinated by disappointed office
    seeker
  • Assassination caused public to want end of Spoils
    System
  • Chester Arthur
  • Arthur was a part of spoils system in NY
  • He became a very popular Chief Executive
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883
  • Created Civil Service Commission
  • Classified govt jobs
  • Tested applicants
  • Could not be required to give campaign funds
  • Could not be fired for political reasons

36
Business of Politics
  • Laissez-faire Policies
  • Hands Off
  • Without government regulations government has
    limited role in the economy
  • Strongest businesses will succeed and bring
    wealth to the entire nation
  • Big businesses favored tariffs, land-grants,
    subsidies
  • Payoffs from big businesses
  • Spoils System
  • Elected officials appointed friends and
    supporters to govt jobs
  • Govt jobs loaded with unqualified, dishonest
    employees
  • Ensured loyal supporters while running for office

37
Regulating Railroads
  • Practices
  • Charging more for short distance than long
  • Kept rates a secret charging different rates to
    different people for same service
  • These practices kept farmers and businesses from
    predicting shipping costs
  • Munn v. Illinois
  • Allowed states to regulate railroads (1st
    Attempt)
  • Wabash Case
  • Overturned Munn v. Illinois Federal Govt is
    only one that can regulate trade, not states
  • Interstate Commerce Act 1887
  • Regulated Railroads rates be set, no special
    rates for powerful customers, set up 1st
    regulatory board (Interstate Commerce Commission)
  • Failed because the ICC had to take them to court
    (won 1/16 cases)

38
Depression to Prosperity
  • Election of 1888
  • Cleveland vs. Benjamin Harrison
  • Harrison won because of business support of
    tariffs
  • Passed Sherman Anti-Trust Act 1890
  • Financial actions led to panic in 1893
  • Clevelands Second Term (1892)
  • Panic of 1893 -
  • Coxeys Army
  • Became unpopular unemployment, repealed Sherman
    Silver Purchase Act, sent Federal troops to stop
    Pullman Strike
  • McKinley Wins in 1896
  • Supported urban workers and the middle class
  • Helped heal depression by lowering tariff and
    strengthening the Gold Standard
  • Assassinated

39
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
40
Farmers and Populism Section 3
  • What led to the rise of the Populist movement,
    and what effect did it have?
  • Vocabulary
  • Oliver H. Kelley Grange
  • William McKinley Populist Party
  • William Jennings Bryan

41
Sec 3 Farmers and Populism
Farmers and Populism
Farmers Face Many Problems   Main Idea The
farmers of the West and the South were willing to
accept the difficulties of farm life. Yet,
farmers discovered that other enormous obstacles
stood in the way of realizing their dreams.
Farmers Organize and Seek Change Main Idea
Farmers refused to accept their circumstances and
created a network of organizations to address
their problems, starting with the Granger
movement. The Populist Party Demands
Reforms Main Idea The spread of the Farmers
Alliances culminated with the formation of the
Populist Party, or Peoples Party, in 1892. The
Populist Party spread rapidly, putting pressure
on the two major political parties to consider
their demands. Economic Crisis and Populisms
Decline Main Idea In 1893, a four-year-long
depression began that not only worsened
conditions for already-suffering farmers, but for
other Americans as well. The major parties failed
to satisfactorily respond to the nations
distress.
42
Farmers Complaints
  • Decline in crop prices
  • Competition from farmers in other countries
  • Complaints about the power of big business
  • The refusal of the government to help farmers

43
Tariffs and Money Issue
  • Tariffs protected farmers against farm imports,
    but hurt farmers because of raised prices of
    manufactured goods
  • Kept foreigners from earning American currency to
    buy American crops.
  • Inflation helps people in debt.
  • Deflation helps people who lend money.
  • 1873 went on the gold standard called gold
    bugs reduced the amount of money in circulation.
    Farmers wanted to increase the money supply.
  • Free silver farmers wanted silver coined to
    increase the supply of money. Called silverites

44
Farmer Protests
  • The Grange
  • Patrons of Husbandry, organized by Oliver H.
    Kelley
  • Helped farmers form cooperatives and pressured
    states to regulate businesses that farmers
    depended on like grain elevators and railroads
  • Farmers Alliances
  • A network of alliances attacked monopolies such
    as the railroads
  • Wanted regulation of the railroads, more money in
    circulation, creation of state departments of
    agriculture, antitrust laws, and farm credit

45
Inactive Government
  • Presidents lacked power to take action.
  • Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 regulated the
    prices that railroads charged to move freight
    between states
  • Interstate Commerce Commission to enforce the laws

46
The Populists (Peoples Party)
  • 1. Increased circulation of money
  • 2. Unlimited minting of silver
  • 3. Progressive income tax
  • 4. Government ownership of the countrys
    communication and transportation systems
  • 5. Called for an eight-hour work day
  • Legacy and Goals
  • Returned to the gold standard
  • Crop prices rose and populism died the goals
    lived on, launching a new wave of reform

47
William Jennings Bryan and the Cross of Gold
  • Election of 1896
  • Republicans ran William McKinley
  • Democrats ran William Jennings Bryan after he
    gave an emotional speech, asking for free silver
  • McKinley won the election.

48
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Causes and
Effects
Reading Skill Identify Causes and Effects
NOTE TAKING
49
Transparency Free Coinage of Silver
Free Coinage of Silver
TRANSPARENCY
50
Analyze Political Cartoons The Bosses of the
Senate
Political Cartoons The Bosses of the Senate
ANALYZE
51
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 2
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
52
Transparency The Populist Movement
The Populist Movement
TRANSPARENCY
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