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More Than Twenty Languages in the Medieval Silk Road Oasis of Turfan' What Made It So Special

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Approximate Points of Origin of Languages Found in Turfan. Arabic. Hebrew. Syriac. Sanskrit ... They brought languages, scripts, religions and the karez. Watermelons ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: More Than Twenty Languages in the Medieval Silk Road Oasis of Turfan' What Made It So Special


1
More Than Twenty Languages in the Medieval Silk
Road Oasis of Turfan. What Made It So Special?
July 2009 Doug Hitch Whitehorse, Canada
Europoid and Asiatic Buddhist Monks in a fresco
from the Bezeklik Caves in the Turfan
Oasis. (Wikimedia Commons, Central_Asian_Buddhist_
Monks.jpeg)
2
Where Is Turfan?
Turfan
Iran
China
India
3
Tarim Basin
NASA Landsat, Wikimedia Commons,
Wfm_tarim_basin.jpg
4
Area of Discussion
Tarim Basin
5
Desert Landscape near Bezeklik Caves, Turfan
Wikimedia Commons, Turpan-bezeklik-desierto-d02.jp
g
6
Silk Roads, 1st C
Wikipedia, GNU Free Documentation License
7
Philological BountyLanguages by Family
8
Approximate Points of Origin of Languages Found
in Turfan
Greek
Mongolian
Old Turkic
Hebrew
Khitan
Tumshuqese
Tangut
Tocharian B
Syriac
Parthian
Tocharian A
Sogdian
Chinese
Khotanese
Bactrian
Middle Persian
Arabic
New Persian
Tibetan
(Gandhari)
Sanskrit
Background map through Google Earth
9
Scripts and Languages in Pre-Islamic Central Asia
Turfan Studies. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of
Sciences and Humanities. Berlin 2007. p.9
10
Tarim Basin Manuscript Finds by Language
Turfan Studies. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of
Sciences and Humanities. Berlin 2007. p.20-21
11
Religious and Artistic Diversity
Religious Diversity Buddhism 10 Languages
Chinese, Sanskrit, Old Turkic, Tocharian A and B,
Sogdian, Khotanese, Tumshuqese, Tangut,
Mongolian and Tibetan. Manicheism 7
Languages Old Turkic, Chinese, Sogdian, Middle
Persian, Parthian, Tocharian B, and
Bactrian. Nestorian Christianity 4 Languages
Old Turkic, Syriac, Sogdian and Middle
Persian Zoroastrianism (burials) (Taoism)
Artistic Influences Indian Iranian Greek Chine
se
12
Buddhist Multiculturalism
Frescos from the Bezeklik Caves in the Turfan
Oasis
Europoid and Asiatic Buddhist Monks (Wikimedia
Commons, Central_Asian_Buddhist_Monks.jpeg)
Bearded Donors in Western Iranian
Dress (Wikimedia Commons, BezeklikSogdianMerchants
.jpeg)
13
Recent photo of Buddhist fresco, Bezeklik Caves
Wikimedia Commons, Turpan-bezeklik-pinturas-d02.jp
g
14
Manis Car, Frankfurt Airport, July 1, 2009
15
Manichean Scriptorium. Uygur Script and Language
Khocho, Turfan
When one believes heretics(?), When one
believes those who follow wrong teachings, When
there are unbelieving begrudgers, greedy
wanters, Then one must recognize that everything
is perishable. (from an unidentified Manichean
text)
Turfan Studies, p.17
16
Christian Sogdian Language
Modified Syriac (Estrangelo) Script
Turfan Studies, p.19
17
Tarim Basin Kingdoms, 3rd C AD
Wikimedia Commons, Tarimbecken_3._Jahrhundert.png
18
Kucha and Kuchean
6 Languages Tocharian B (Kuchean), Old Turkic,
Sanskrit, Chinese, Sogdian, Prakrit 1 Religion
Buddhism
North Tarim Brahmi. Tocharian B Language
dharma
TITUS. Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und
Sprachmaterialien. Tocharian Manuscripts from the
Berlin Turfan Collection.THT 0101. Toch B 101.
Recto. http//titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/
tocharic/thtind07.htmTHT101
19
Khotan and Khotanese
7 Languages Khotanese, Sanskrit, Chinese,
Prakrit, Old Turkic, Tibetan, New Persian 1
Religion Buddhism
Stein. Ancient Khotan, vol.2, plate CX MSS..
Image from the Digital Archive of Toyo Bunko Rare
Books http//dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/
20
Khotanese Formal Brahmi. Khotanese Language
Buddha thus spoke
Balysi tta hvate
Stein. Ancient Khotan, vol.2, plate CX MSS..
Image from the Digital Archive of Toyo Bunko Rare
Books http//dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/
21
Tumshuq and Tumshuqese
5 Languages Tumshuqese, Tocharian B (Kuchean),
Old Turkic, Sanskrit, Chinese 1 Religion Buddhism
Tumshuqese contract in cursive North Tarim Brahmi
amane puri du?a hva bra?e wa our son, daughter,
sister or brother
BBAW Turfanforschung, Digitales
Turfan-Archiv http//www.bbaw.de/forschung/turfanf
orschung/dta/ts/images/ts25total.jpg
22
3rd C Shanshan and Tocharian C?
2 Foreign Languages Prakrit and Chinese 1
Religion Buddhism
Local language(s) undetermined. Hypothesized from
phonetic structure of names and loan words in
(Niya/Kroraina) Prakrit as form of Tocharian.
Ruin at Niya. Stein's first find place of Prakrit
and Kharo??hi
Stein. Ancient Khotan, vol.1, p.371. Image from
the Digital Archive of Toyo Bunko Rare Books
http//dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/VIII-5-B2-7/V-1/pag
e-hr/0379.html.en
23
Kashgar and Yarkand
No archeological traces of pre-Turkic language or
religion
11th Ce Ma?mud al-Ka?ari kancaki or käncaki
dialect, accent similar to Khotanese, people not
Turks hypothesized Saka substratum
Tarim 3rd Ce Indigenous Languages
Kuchean
Tumshuqese
Saka ?
Tocharian C ?
Khotanese
24
Turfan, Qarashahr and Tocharian A ?
Classical View (Krause-Thomas) Tocharian A
documents only come from Qarashahr and Turfan
therefore the language is native there.
Werner Winter Tocharian B materials in Kucha,
Qarashahr and Turfan. B could be native to all
three. No civil documents in A. All documents are
Buddhist. orcuk (Qarashahr) monastery records in
B. Possible that A was the language of Buddhist
mission among the Turks. Possible that the home
of A was farther north or east.
North Tarim Brahmi. Tocharian A Language
TITUS. Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und
Sprachmaterialien. Tocharian Manuscripts from the
Berlin Turfan Collection.THT 0742. Toch A 109.
Recto. http//titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/
tocharic/thtind07.htmTHT742
25
Karez (Qanat)
Turfan Water Museum model
Developed in Iran 1,000 BC. In the Tarim
Basin found only in Turfan.
Cross-section
Wikimedia Commons, Turpan-karez-maqueta-d01.jpg
Wikimedia Commons, Qanat-3.svg
26
Distribution of Kharo??hi with Prakrit in the
Tarim
27
Special Features of Turfan
More than 20 languages, more than 20 scripts,
yet... No certain native language 4 or 5
religions Karez unique in Tarim Basin No
Kharo??hi with Prakrit
and at least one more …
28
Pattern of Contract Structure
Shanshan (Niya Prakrit), Tumshuqese, Khotanese,
Yarkand (Uygur), Bactrian (Guzgan) contracts
appear to show a legal heritage which featured
1. family members have the same obligations and
rights as one of the parties, 2. a prohibition
against disputing the agreement or decision, 3.
a financial penalty paid to the state, and/or 4.
a corporal punishment through lashes with a stick.
But not Turfan (Uygur) contracts
29
Niya Prakrit Contracts
Schøyen Collection, ms4759/1
Image found at http//www.schoyencollection.com/g
reekdocscr.htm
" Whoever, at a later time wishes to make this
agreement otherwise, his representation at the
royal gate (court) shall be without authority,
and will be punished. If the agreement is broken
the punishment will be 70 blows."
http//www.schoyencollection.com/greekdocscr.htm
30
Kharo??hi Inscription 437
translations by T. Burrow
Whoever at a future time, whether he be brother
of ca?kura Kap?eya, or brother's son, or
grandson, or relative, or any other person from
the district (kilmeci), shall again bring the
question up before the ?asus and a?etas
concerning that girl, and shall desire to make it
otherwise, his representations at the king's
court shall be without authority, and he shall
pay the penalty which ensues (namely, a fine of)
one four-year-old gelding and fifty blows.
571
Whoever shall bring up the matter a second time
shall receive a fine of one gelding and seventy
strokes.
31
419
Whoever at a future time shall bring up
arguments (in an attempt) to alter it, he shall
have no authority in front of the bhik?u-sa?gha.
The fine (for such an attempt) is five pieces of
cloth, and the punishment (dha?ta da??a) fifty
strokes.
573
So from now on whatever relation or son of ours
there is, they are not to take possession of her.
209
Whoever should want to alter this agreement at a
future time, they fixed a similar penalty (for
each), (a fine of) one vito horse and seventy
blows.
32
580
Whoever at a future time informs, disputes, or
disagrees about this, his bringing up again of
the matter shall be without authority at the
kings court… Whoever a second time shall bring
up the queston of the land again, they shall
impose a penalty on him, (namely a fine of) a
horse and seventy strokes.
345
If at a future time the monk Ana?dasena or his
son or grandson, or any kinsman of his or son of
a kinsman should want to alter this, or should
stir up a dispute about the decision, in such a
case their renewal of action (muha cota?na) shall
be without authority and they shall incur a
penalty. They shall pay as a penalty into the
royal funds (rayaka?mi) thirty lengths of
cloth.
33
Khotanese Contracts
Translations by H.W. Bailey
or 9268, Document III
… no other has a claim in this. This which has
been prepared, suppose anyone would change the
matter of the decisions, he shall give 200 muras
to the Royal Court and shall receive 50 sticks (
BS da??a) and shall give one prahänaji (gift) of
3 coins.
Kt III 138, 12, 7
what has been prepared and made, (if) he should
change the matter, ... and he shall receive
thirty sticks.
34
Tumshuqese Contracts
Tq1
amane puri du?a hva bra?e wa our son, daughter,
sister or brother (Tq1.89)
kwa hve hma?a januwa pura bi?o druhvamnai, ji
nu graphi da??i dza?u gu?di ri?e thesa barre
roro patsasu, bandina xera xi?ta Or if we
ourselves likewise januwa pura should quarrel,
then nu the graphi penalty must apply to the
Gu?di king I must give fifty thesa barre, the
fine for the state is sixty (Tq1.1113)
35
Linguistic Analysis
kwa hve hma?a januwa pura bi?o druhvamnai,
kwa or if, a contraction of ka if (Khotanese
ka if) plus wa or postpositive conjunction
(Khotanese va or) hve self own (Avestan
hva- self) hma?a likewise, the same
(Khotanese hama- same) bi?o acc. sing. fem.
tongue (Khotanese bisaa- ) druhvamnai third
pl. pres. mid. subj. of druhv- misbehave (Konow
gives lie and compares Khotanese drruja-
falsehood while Bailey gives dispute which
suits the context bi?o druhv- may be a fixed
phrase, literally misbehave the tongue or
quarrel, cf. Bactrian ?????- of uncertain
meaning which appears to be a phonological match)
36
Linguistic Analysis continued
ji nu graphi da??i dza?u
ji then heads a clause following a clause
headed by ka if or ki when da??i nom. sing.
masc. from Sanskrit da??a- punishment dza?u
third sing. pres. imperative active from dza-
go (Kh jsa- go)
gu?di ri?e thesa barre roro patsasu,
gu?di- should likely be corrected to gu?diya
gen.-dat. sing. masc. of Gu?di (Guzhdian)
ri?e gen.-dat. sing. masc king (Khotanese
rrundä gen-dat.sing.masc, rre nom. sing. masc
king) roro first sing. act. injunctive I
must give (Khotanese haur- give) patsasu
fifty (Khotanese pa?jsasä fifty)
37
one more phrase
bandina xera xi?ta
bandina fine (possibly Bactrian aß??daµ?, Niya
Prakrit avi?dhama, avi?tama, avidama, etc.
recompense, penalty Buddhist Sogdian ßntm
punishment, Manichean Sogdian mrc ßndm,
Christian Sogdian mrc bntm-, mrc bndm- death
penalty ) xsera gen.-dat. sing. masc state
(Khotanese k?ira- country, kingdom) xi?ta
sixty (Khotanese k?a?tä).
38
Tq3
amane puri bra?e handare … our son, brother,
(or) another … (Tq3.4)
ji nu da??i dza?i, gu?diya ri?e thesa barre rorye
patsasu, ka?e hvarye xi?ta Then nu the penalty
applies to the Gu?di- king I should give fifty
thesa barre, I should receive sixty lashes.
(Tq3.67)
dza?i third sing. pres. ind. active from dza-
go (Khotanese jsa- go) rorye first sing.
optative act. I should give (Khotanese haur-
give) ka?e nom.-acc. pl. masc. stick,
(metaphorically) blow (lt Prakrit ka?a-, cf.
Sanskrit ka??a- stick, staff arrow etc. )
hvarye first sing. opt. act. I should receive
(Khotanese hvar- consume take, suffer).
39
Tq4
ki wa bi?o druhva?e, ri?e da??u barre rorye
dase, ka?e hvarye bista Or if (anyone) should
quarrel, I should give ten barras to the king in
punishment, I should receive twenty sticks.
(Tq4.1011)
druhva?e third sing. subj. mid. (Khotanese -ate)
da??u adverbial acc. dase ten (Khotanese
dasau ten) bista twenty (Khotanese bistä
twenty)
Tq13
gu?dya ri?e … ka?e hvarye xi?ta to Gu?di-
king … I should receive sixty blows (Tq13.3-4)
40
Yarkand Uygur Contracts
bizing-dä ken kedin oglumiz-qa ya qizimiz
kisimiz-kä qada-larmiz-qa kim-ärsä-kä da?va
dastan yoq. kim dava qilsa, qanmasa ?a?il,
tanuqi yalgan. There will, after us, be no
quarrel or deceit by our sons, our daughters, our
wives, our family or by anybody. Whoever, not
being satisfied, starts a dispute, (that) is null
and his witnesses are false.
(Erdal 1984 I, Turki 45, lines 14-17)
bu yer birlä k(i)m-gä ersä d(a)wa d(a)stan
yoq. k(i)m d(a)wa qilsa d(a)wa-si ba?(i)l turur
teb Concerning this land there is no quarrel or
deceit for anybody. Saying, Who starts a
dispute, his dispute is null.
(Erdal 1984 VI, Arabic Script, lines 7-8)
41
Bactrian Contracts
Translations, N. Sims-Williams
Schøyen Collection, MS 4580
Image found at http//www.schoyencollection.com/g
reekdocscr.htm
excerpt
So now I, Khay, and I, Khatul, and my children
and descendants have received the fine in full
from you, Meyam, and from you, Zhulad, and from
the Nospil family, so that from now until
eternity we, khay and khatul and our children and
descendants, have no dispute at all with Meyam or
Zhulad or their children and descendants … So, if
we should dispute anything with you, our claim
and argument shall not be valid in court we also
shall pay a fine to the judicial treasury of 500
dirhams of King Kawad, and we shall pay 500
dirhams to you, Meyam, and to your brothers and
children.
www.schoyencollection.com/greekdocscr.htm
document Uu
42
More Bactrian
Sims-Williams, Bactrian Legal Documents from
7th- and 8th-Century Guzgan
Nn concerning the sale of a piece of land
(Then) this declaration was made freely (and)
willingly by me, Bay son of Yoz, and (by) me,
Kay, and (by) me, Yoz, and (by) me, Wanak, the
sons of Khwas, … we whose house they call Nanan.
I make (this) declaration to you, Bramarz, and to
you Moyan, the sons of Laguk, you whose house
they call Lagukan,
Whoever may dispute with you, Bramarz,
concerning the (piece of) ground described
herein, (or) may fight, argue, invoke the law,
(or) cause litigation, I shall make compliant
and if I do not make compliant, then I shall
pay a fine to the treasury of Goz(g)an of fifty
dinars of gold struck by the king and I shall pay
fifty dinars to you, Bramarz, and I shall
(likewise) pay your brothers, children, (and)
descendants
From context, including comparison with Tarim
contracts, aß??ß??d? aß?ß??d? ???- should mean
something like to make compliant rather than
make (the property) detached
43
Bactrian 3
O agreement following a sword fight
If I should disputeI, Yobig myself, or my
brothers, or my sons, or my own (household and)
family, or my (fellow-)citizens, or the men of
the districtthen my claim (and) argument shall
not be valid in court, and also I shall pay a
fineI, Yobig, myself, and my brothers (and)
sonsto the treasury of the lords of Gozgan of
fifty dinars of struck gold, and we shall pay
fifty dinars to you, Bramarz.
R contract of undertaking (dispute unknown)
I, Pap, and my brothers, children (and)
descendants, shall not have the right to dispute
with you, Kanag, and with you, Moyan, and with
you, Finz-lad, and with your brothers, children,
(and) descendants, nor to invoke the law. And if
it should so happen that I should dispute, then I
shall pay a fineI, Pap, and my brothers,
children, (and) descendantsto the treasury of
Kag Gozgan of a hundred dirhams of (king) Kawad,
and also I shall pay a hundred dirhams of (king)
Kawad to you, Kanag, and to you, Moyan and to
you, Finz-lad, and to your brothers, children,
(and) descendants.
44
Tarim-Bactria Contract Summary
45
Turfan Uygur Contracts
no dispute prohibition, no fine, no lashings, and
maybe no family responsibility instead there is
an if-I-escape clause, and family are guarantors
MORI Masao a loan of sesame
birgincä / bar yoq bolsar m(ä)n inim Qasuq -nï? /
tägi-lär birlä köni birsünlär Before repaying,
if I escape, the family of my younger brother
Qasuq together, rightly they shall repay.
Guarantor differences between Uygur and Chinese
contracts from Turfan
Uygur Guarantors always family members wife,
son, younger brother or the families of sons or
younger brothers. No guarantor signatures. Chinese
Guarantors usually not family, always signed.
46
Turfan Uygur 2
MATSUI Dai
B land tenancy
bu sav qayu-sï a?ïsar ....... birsür biz
bu tam?a biz If any of us deviates (from)
this matter (i.e. contract), we will pay
....... one another. This seal is ours
C sale of vinyard
bu savda olur?ucï ?rslan totoq The guarantor
of this statement (i.e. contract) is
Arslan-totoq.
D loan of grain
bu tarï? birgincä örü qodï bolsar män .......
sambodu köni birzün If I escape before paying
this corn, ....... Sambodu shall repay truly
47
Contract Distribution
48
Contract Kharo??hi and Prakrit Distribution
49
Contract Kharo??hi Kushan Empire
50
Evidence for Kushan Tarim Control
Kharo??hi and Prakrit scribal tradition
Shared legal heritage Numismatics
Sino-Kharo??hi Coin
Kharo??hi Of the great king of kings, king of
Khotan, Gurgamoya
Chinese Twenty-four grain copper coin
Wikimedia Commons, KingGurgamoyaKhotan1stCenturyCE
.jpg
51
Bactrian Administrative Terms in the Tarim
Languages
52
Bactrian Administrative Terms in the Tarim 2
Administrative Title
53
Prakrit Administrative Terms in the Tarim
Languages
54
Specialness of Turfan
More than 20 languages, more than 20 scripts,
yet... No certain native language 4 or 5
religions Karez unique in Tarim Basin No
Kharo??hi with Prakrit tradition
A different legal heritage from the rest of the
Tarim Less likely under Kushan domination
55
Hypothesis
Climate Change and Migration
Early first millenium Turfan region savannah, not
desert, population nomadic Jushi not farmers.
Nomads not controlled by Kushans. By mid
millenium, desert and oasis farming. Pastoralists
gone. New farm land brings immigration with many
languages, religions and karez Tocharian A
arrives from the south
56
Historical Evidence
57
Hou Hanshu 88 Some Tarim Populations
Modern Tarim Populations (Wikipedia)
58
Population of Ancient and Medieval Turfan in the
Chinese Annals (Stein 1928)
59
More from the Annals
108 bc Chinese approach and attack Turfan from
the south grass and water 67 bc Jushi king
retreats with a portion of his people,
indicating mobile folk 153 ad Jushi chief settles
near Dunhuang with 300 tents (change from warm
and wet to cool and dry climate) 4-5 Ce no nearby
pasture as sheep and horses were kept in distant
little-known localities 557-618 Men dress like
barbarians, women like Chinese, both barbarian
and Chinese scripts are in use, most traders use
the road to Hami
60
Environmental Evidence
Ellsworth Huntington (1907) notes Lop Nor in
early first millenium decreases in size then
later increases and then decreases again Mutsumi
HOYANAGI (1975) showed the diminution of the
snowfields occurred in pulses. He revived
Huntington's idea that long term climate
fluctuations, wet and dry periods, can answer
some questions about settlement patterns.
Conjectured decreases and increases in water
flowing in the Tarim
Tarim Water Volume
61
Extent of Ancient and Modern Snowfields Rimming
the Tarim Basin
62
Tarim Climate Change Science
Three late holocene studies
Caotanhu wetland pollen, phytolith, charcoal
Zhang Yun, et al.
2600550 BC cold and dry climate, sparse
vegetation 550 BC140 AD warm and humid climate.
A lot of freshwater aquatic plants and green alga
grew in the wetland surrounded by desert-steppe
vegetation 140790 AD dry climate. Aquatic
plants decreased greatly except some reeds, and
the water level dropped down. 7901300 AD warm
and humid climate again 1300 ADpresent again a
dry climate, drier than the preceding dry period
63
Three Climate Study Sites
Caotanhu
Ürümchi
Turfan
Gaochang
Qarashahr/Yanqi
Kaidu River Delta
Bosten Lake
Korla
64
Bosten Hu sediment samples
Bernd Wünnemann, et al
650 BC to 250 AD positive water balance 250 to
850 AD negative water balance 850 to 1450
AD positive water balance
Kaidu River Delta core
Bernd Wünnemann, et al
550 BC to 50 AD positive water balance 50 to 900
AD negative water balance 900 to 1450 AD positive
water balance
65
Conclusions
2nd-3rd Ce AD drying of climate changed the
grasslands in the Turfan area to desert, forcing
nomads to leave but opening land to irrigation
agriculture. Turfan not part of Kushan Empire,
because it was a nomadic area, and so did not
have either a Kharo??hi and Prakrit scribal
tradition or a western legal tradition. As
Kroraina became uninhabitable, climate refugees
moved north to Qarashahr and Turfan, possibly
bringing Tocharian A. Immigrants from Western
Asia came to Turfan seeking land and possibly
refuge. They brought languages, scripts,
religions and the karez.
66
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