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APUSH II: Unit 1 Chapter 20 The Commonwealth and Empire


APUSH II: Unit 1 Chapter 20 The Commonwealth and Empire Essential Question: How effective were politicians in meeting the needs of Americans during the Gilded Age? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: APUSH II: Unit 1 Chapter 20 The Commonwealth and Empire

APUSH II Unit 1 Chapter 20 The Commonwealth and
  • Essential Question
  • How effective were politicians in meeting the
    needs of Americans during the Gilded Age?
  • How did problems in govt (patronage coinage),
    the economy (depression of 1893), agriculture
    (Populists) impact the politics of the Gilded

Toward a National Governing Class

The Growth of Government
  • The size and scope of government at all levels
    grew rapidly during the gilded age.
  • New employees, agencies, and responsibilities
    changed the character of government.
  • Taxes increased as local governments assumed
    responsibility for providing such vital services
    as police, fire protection, water, schools, and

Civil Service Reform
  • The most important political issue of 1880s was
    civil service reform
  • The federal bureaucracy swelled in size after
    1860 these positions were appointed via
    patronage (spoils system)
  • Congressmen often took bribes or company stock
    for their votes
  • Political machines ruled cities through bribes
    personal favors

Govt Regulation of Industry
  • From 1870 to 1900, 28 state commissions were
    created to regulate industry, especially RRs
  • In 1870, Illinois declared RRs to be public
    highways this was upheld by Munn v. Illinois
  • But, was overturned in Wabash v. Illinois (1886)
    only Congress can regulate interstate trade

Tariffs Trusts
  • Congress responded by creating
  • The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) in 1887
    to regulate the railroad industry
  • The Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890 which made it
    illegal to restrain trade (punishable by
    dissolution of the company)

The Machinery of Politics
  • The federal government developed its departmental
  • Power resided in Congress and the state
  • The two political parties only gradually adapted
    to the demands of the new era.
  • Political campaigns featured mass spectacles that
    reflected the strong competition for votes.
  • Political machines financed their campaigns
    through kickbacks and bribes and ensured support
    by providing services for working-class
  • Offices were filled by the spoils system that
    rewarded friends of the winning party.

The Spoils System and Civil Service Reform
  • In 1885, Congress passed the Pendleton Civil
    Service Reform Act that created the civil service
    system and a professional bureaucracy.
  • A system of standards was developed for certain
    federal jobs.
  • This effort paralleled similar efforts at
    professionalism in other fields.
  • The legislative branch was also given a more
    active role in government under the Circuit Court
    of Appeals Act of 1891.

Civil Service Reform
  • Civil service reform received a boost when
    disaffected patronage seeker, Charles Guiteau,
    assassinated President Garfield
  • In 1883, Congress created the Pendleton Act for
    merit-based exams for civil service jobs
  • State local govts mirrored these reforms in
    1880s 1890s

Politics of Stalemate
  • The 5 presidential elections from 1876 to 1892
    were the most closely contested elections ever
  • Congress was split as well
  • Democrats controlled the House
  • Republicans held the Senate
  • This stalemate made it difficult for any of the
    5 presidents or either party to pass significant
    legislation for 20 years

The Two Party System
  • Republicans
  • Democrats
  • Supported by white southerners, farmers,
    immigrants, the working poor
  • Favored white supremacy supported labor unions
  • Pietists Methodists, Congregationalists,
    Presbyterians, Scandinavian Lutherans
  • Moral Reformers
  • Northern states
  • Supported by Northern whites, blacks, nativists
  • Supported big business favored anti-immigration
  • Weakened by opposition to the CW
  • Solid South
  • Litergicals Catholics, Episcopalian, German
  • Mid-Atlantic and lower Midwestern states

Bourbon Democrats
  • Planter-merchant elite dominated southern
  • New South entrepreneurs eager to promote a more
    diversified economy based upon industrial
    development and railroad expansion
  • Promote business interests, laissez-faire
    capitalism and opposed overseas expansion

Election of 1888
  • Democrats Cleveland
  • Republicans Benjamin Harrison, grandson of
    President Harrison and a decorated war vet
  • The Republicans accepted Clevelands challenge to
    make the protective tariff the chief issue it
    also promised a generous pension to Civil War
  • Cleveland won the popular vote Harrison won the
    electoral college

Urban Political Machines
  • Urban political machines were loose networks of
    party precinct captains led by a boss
  • Tammany Hall was the most famous machine Boss
    Tweed led the corrupt Tweed Ring
  • Political machines were not all corrupt (honest
    graft) helped the urban poor built public
    works like the Brooklyn Bridge

Farmers and Workers Organize Their Communities

The Farm Problem
  • The most discontent group during the Gilded Age
    were farmers
  • Harsh farming conditions
  • Declining grain cotton prices
  • Rising RR rates mortgages
  • Government deflation policies
  • Farmers lashed out at banks, merchants,
    railroads, the U.S. monetary system (gold

The Currency Debate
  • Grants decision to reduce the number of
    greenbacks deflated the post-war money supply
  • By 1879, the U.S. returned to the international
    gold standard stabilized the U.S. economy
  • But this policy hurt western farmers because
    money was more scarce credit was limited

Greenback Silver Movements
  • Many farmers supported the free silver
  • The U.S. minted silver gold coins at a ratio of
    161, but stopped in 1873 due to an oversupply of
  • But western miners found huge lodes of silver
    wanted free silverthe govt should buy all
    silver from miners coin it

The Grange
  • Formed in the 1870s by farmers in the Great
    Plains and South who suffered boom and bust
    conditions and natural disasters
  • Blamed hard times on a band of thieves in the
    night, especially railroads
  • Pushed through laws regulating shipping rates and
    other farm costs.
  • Created their own grain elevators, mutual
    insurance and set up retail stores for farm
  • The depression of the late 1870s wiped out most
    of these programs.

The National Farmers Alliance
  • In the 1880s, the National Farmers Alliance
    joined forced with the Colored Farmers Alliance
    to replace the Grange as the leading farmers
    group with the goals to
  • challenge the disproportionate power of the
    governing class
  • restore democracy
  • establish a cooperative economic program
  • Northern Plains farmer organizations soon joined
    the Alliance
  • Midwestern farm groups battled railroad
  • By 1890, the Alliance was a major power in
    several states demanding demanded a series of
    economic reforms known as the Ocala Demands
  • Allow farmers to store crops in govt silos when
    prices are bad
  • Free-coinage of silver, a federal income tax,
    regulation of RRs
  • Direct election of U.S. senators

Workers Search for Power
  • In 1877, a Great Uprising shut down railroads
    all across the country.
  • Federal troops were called out, precipitating
  • Government created national guards to prevent
    similar occurrences.
  • Workers organized stronger unions that
    increasingly resorted to strikes and created
    labor parties.
  • Henry George ran for mayor of New York on the
    United Labor Party ticket and finished a
    respectable second.
  • In the late 1880s, labor parties won seats on
    numerous city councils and in state legislatures
    in industrial areas where workers outnumbered
    other classes.

Women Build Alliances
  • Women actively shaped labor and agrarian protest.
  • The Knights included women at their national
    convention and even ran day-care centers and
    baking cooperatives.
  • Women were active members in the Grange and
  • The greatest female leader was Frances E.
    Willard, who
  • was president of the Womens Christian Temperance
  • mobilized nearly 1 million women to promote
    reform and to work for womens suffrage

Populism and the Peoples Party
  • Between 1890 and 1892, the Farmers Alliance, the
    Knights of Labor, the National Colored Farmers
    Alliance and other organizations formed the
    Peoples Party.
  • The Peoples Party platform called for
  • government ownership of railroads, banks, and the
  • the eight-hour day
  • the graduated income tax, and other reforms
  • Though the party lost the 1892 presidential race,
    Populists elected three governors, ten
    congressional representatives, and five senators.

Populism and the Peoples Party
  • Between 1890 and 1892, the Farmers Alliance, the
    Knights of Labor, the National Colored Farmers
    Alliance and other organizations formed the
    Peoples Party.
  • The Peoples Party platform called for
  • government ownership of railroads, banks, and the
  • the eight-hour day
  • the graduated income tax, and other reforms
  • Populists emerged as a powerful 3rd party got
    numerous state national politicians elected
  • In 1892 they even launched a 3rd party candidate

  • Congress passed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, the
    McKinley Tariff Acts and admitted Idaho and
    Wyoming as new states
  • The McKinley tariff of 1890 raised duties on
    manufactured goods to the highest level ever
  •  1890 midterm election landslide Democratic
  • 1892 Cleveland becomes the only president in
    history to ever serve two, non-consecutive terms

The Election of 1896
  • A Populist-Democrat merger looked possible in
    1896 when William Jennings Bryan received the
    Democratic nomination against Repub William
  • Called for free silver income tax attacked
    trusts injunctions
  • Bryan visited 26 states on his whistle-stop
    campaign to educate Americans about silver

The McKinley Administration
  • Republicans benefited from an improving economy,
    better crop production, discoveries of gold
  • The election of 1896 cemented Republican rule
    became the party of prosperity
  • From 1860-1890, Republicans had promoted
    industry by 1900, it was time to regulate it

The McKinley Administration
  • McKinley was an activist president and became the
    first modern president
  • He communicated well with the press
  • The Spanish-American War brought the USA respect
    as a world power
  • The Gold Standard Act (1900) ended the silver

The Crisis of the 1890s

The Depression of 1893
  • The most serious blow to politics in the Gilded
    Age was a five-year depression that began in
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 destabilized
    currency (remember, it was repealed in 1893 by
  • A stock market panic occurred when the
    Philadelphia Reading Railroad went bankrupt
  • 500 banks (nearly 50), 200 railroads, 1,500
    businesses failed
  • Companies cut wages laid off workers
    unemployment hit 20

Long Depression
  • Full recovery was not achieved until the early
  • Unemployment soared and many suffered great
  • Tens of thousands took to the road in search of
    work or food.
  • The Klondike Gold Rush of 1897 finally pulled the
    US out of the Long Depression
  • Jacob Coxey called for a march on Washington to
    demand relief through public works programs.
  • Coxeys Army was greeted warmly by most
    communities on the way to Washington.
  • The attorney general, who was a former lawyer for
    a railroad company, conspired to stop the march.
  • Police clubbed and arrested the marchers for
    trespassing on the grass in Washington.

Coxeys Army (1894)
  • In 1894, there were 1,400 strikes led by hordes
    of unemployed people demanding govt relief
  • Jacob Coxey led an army from Ohio to D.C.
    to convince
    Congress to create jobs by spending
    500 million on new roads

The Pullman Strike (1894)
  • In 1894, Pullman Palace Car workers went on
    strike when the company cut wages by 50
  • American RR Union leader Eugene V. Debs called
    for a national railroad strike
  • President Cleveland issued an injunction sent
    the army to end the strike resume rail traffic
  • Strikers in 27 states resisted U.S. troops
    dozens died

Pullman Strikes
  • 1894
  • 3000 Wildcat Strike ? 125,000 (four days)
  • ? 250,000 in 27 states
  • Scabs
  • Pres. Cleveland
  • Eugene V. Debs Clarence Darrow

The Pullman Strike (1894)
  • Effects of the Pullman Strike
  • Eugene Debs was arrested became committed to
    socialism while in jail, sparking a brief U.S.
    socialist movement
  • In the 1895 case, In re Debs, the Supreme Court
    used the Sherman Antitrust Act to uphold
    Clevelands injunction since the strike
    restrained U.S. trade

Strikes Coeur dAlene, Homestead, and Pullman
  • Strikes were sparked by wage cuts, longer work
    days, and big business attempts to destroy
  • In Idaho, a violence-plagued strike was broken by
    federal and state troops.
  • The miners formed the Western Federation of
  • The hard times precipitated a bloody
    confrontation at Andrew Carnegies Homestead
    steel plant.
  • A major strike in Pullman, Illinois
  • spread throughout the nations railroad system
  • ended with the arrest of Eugene Debs
  • resulted in bitter confrontations between federal
    troops and workers in Chicago and other cities.

The Free Silver Issue
  • Grover Cleveland won the 1892 election by
    capturing the traditional Democratic Solid South
    and German voters alienated by Republican
    nativist appeals.
  • When the economy collapsed in 1893, government
    figures concentrated on longstanding currency
    issues to provide a solution.
  • The debate was over hard money backed by gold or
    soft money backed by silver.
  • Cleveland favored a return to the gold standard,
    losing much popular support.

Populism's Last Campaign
  • The hard times strengthened the Populists, who
    were silver advocates.
  • They recorded strong gains in 1894.
  • But in 1896, when the Democrats nominated William
    Jennings Bryan as a champion of free silver,
    Populists decided to run a fusion ticket of Bryan
    and Tom Watson.
  • Republicans ran William McKinley as a safe
    alternative to Bryan.
  • Republicans characterized Bryan as a dangerous
    man who would cost voters their jobs.

The Election of 1896
  • Bryan won 46 of the vote but failed to carry the
    Midwest, Far West, and Upper South.
  • Traditional Democratic groups like Catholics were
    uncomfortable with Bryan and voted Republican.
  • The Populists disappeared and the Democrats
    became a minority party.
  • McKinley promoted a mixture of pro-business and
    expansionist foreign policies.
  • The return to prosperity after 1898 insured
    continued Republican control.

The Age of Segregation

Nativism and Jim Crow
  • Neither McKinley nor Bryan addressed the
  • racism and nativism throughout the nation.
  • Nativists blamed foreign workers for hard times
  • considered them unfit for democracy.
  • The decline of the Populist party led to the
  • of white supremacy as the political force in
    the South.
  • Southern whites enacted a system of legal
  • and disenfranchised blacks, approved by
    the Supreme
  • Court.
  • Reformers abandoned their traditional support for
  • rights and accepted segregation and
  • 1896 legal case, Plessy v. Ferguson, legalized
    separate but equal in private establishments,
    ex. railroads

Mob Violence and Lynching
  • Racial violence escalated.
  • Between 1882 and 1900 lynchings usually exceeded
    a hundred each year.
  • They were announced in newspapers and became
    public spectacles.
  • Railroads offered special excursion prices to
    people traveling to attend lynchings.
  • Postcards were often printed as souvenirs.
  • Ida B. Wells launched a one-woman anti-lynching
  • She argued that lynching was a brutal device to
    get rid of African Americans who were becoming
    too powerful or prosperous.

Imperialism of righteousness

The White Mans Burden
  • Many Americans proposed that the economic crisis
    required new markets for American production.
  • Others suggested Americans needed new frontiers
    to maintain their democracy.
  • The Chicago Worlds Fair
  • showed how American products might be marketed
    throughout the world
  • reinforced a sense of stark contrast between
    civilized Anglo-Saxons and savage people of
  • A growing number of writers urged America to take
    up the White Mans Burden.
  • Clergymen like Josiah Strong urged Americans to
    help Christianize and civilize the world.

For and Against
  • Anti-Imperialism
  • Imperialists
  • American Anti-Imperialist League
  • Republicanism
  • White Mans Burden
  • Missionary
  • Capitalism
  • Social Darwinism
  • Manifest Destiny
  • (Turner, City Upon a Hill)

Foreign Missions
  • After the Civil War, missionary activity
    increased throughout the non-western world.
  • College campuses blazed with missionary
  • The YMCA and YWCA embarked on a worldwide crusade
    to reach non-Christians.
  • Missionaries helped generate public interest in
    foreign lands and laid the groundwork for
    economic expansion.

An Overseas Empire
  • Beginning in the late 1860s, the United States
    began expanding overseas.
  • Secretary of State William Henry Seward launched
    the nations Pacific empire by buying Alaska and
    expanding the United States presence in Hawaii.
  • The U.S. policy emphasized economic control,
    particularly in Latin America.
  • During the 1880s and 1890s, the United States
    strengthened its navy and began playing an
    increased role throughout the Western Hemisphere
    and the Pacific.

  • Creating economic, cultural, and territorial
  • Empire building
  • Global Context
  • Source of Raw Materials
  • Market for Exports
  • Divert urban energies
  • New Frontier in American History???

Chinas Open Door
  • End of Sino-Japanese War in 1895 leaves a power
    vacuum in China
  • Secretary of State, John Hay requests Open-Door
  • spheres of influence
  • 1900 Boxer Rebellion
  • kill foreign devils

Annexation of Hawaii
  • 1880s
  • July 1898 Newlands Resolution
  • Joint Resolution
  • Extension of Chinese Exclusion Act to Hawaii and
    restriction of immigration
  • 1900 -

  • The United States annexed Hawaii in 1898.
  • Hawaii was a stepping-stone to Asian markets.
  • In 1899, Secretary of State John Hay proclaimed
    the Open Door policy in Asia to ensure American
    access and laid the basis for twentieth-century
    foreign policy.

Campaign of 1900
  • McKinley reelected in 1900
  • campaign on return to prosperity as the Long
    Depression is finally over
  • Bryan seen as one-issue candidate
  • Theodore Roosevelt elected as VP
  • Roosevelt takes over presidency in 1901 after
    McKinley is shot and killed
  • Uses presidency as bully pulpit
  • Big Stick diplomacy

  • Panama Canal
  • Hay-Paunceforte Treaty of 1901 British consent
    to American plan for a canal across Panama
  • 1903 - Colombia rejects the treat (Panama was
    province of Colombia)
  • 500 Panamanians revolt against Colombians and US
    prevents Colombian troops from surprising the
  • Nov. 7, 1903 Panama is declared independent
  • Nov. 18 Panama signs treaty extending Canal Zone
  • Canal opens two weeks after the outbreak of WWI

Roosevelt Corollary
  • Roosevelt Corollary - 1904
  • Starts over crisis in Dominican Republic
  • Stabilize Caribbean and Central America
  • Monroe Doctrine prohibited European intervention
    in the regions, the US was justified in
    intervening first to prevent the actions of
    outsiders and would act as an international
    police power

Plessy v. Ferguson McKinley defeats Bryan for
Sinking of the Maine Philippines Islands Hawaii
Annexed by US
Filipino insurrection Treaty of Paris ends
Spanish-American War Open Door Policy in China
Boxer Rebellion in China
Roosevelt issues the Roosevelt Corollary
US Recognizes Panamas independence
Theodore Roosevelt elected President
Platt Amendment
The Spanish-American War

The United States and Cuba
  • A movement to gain independence from Spain began
    in the 1860s.
  • Americans sympathized with Cuban revolutionaries.
  • The Spanish were imposing harsh taxes.
  • By 1895, public interest in Cuban affairs grew,
    spurred on by grisly horror stories of Spanish
    treatment of revolutionaries.
  • Spanish misrule of Cuba only provided a
  • American Investments in Cuba and Sugar and mining
    were increasing
  • Cuban Revolt/ Cuba Libra

Remember the Maine
  • February 15, 1898, the USS Maine explodes in
    Havana harbor
  • Blame the Spanish for torpedoing the ship
  • Battle cry of Remember the Maine! To Hell With
  • Roosevelt (Sect. of Navy) An act of dirty
    treachery on the part of the Spaniards. The US,
    Needs a war.
  • New York Journal, The Whole Country Thrills with
    War Fever

Yellow Journalism
  • Yellow Journalism (Hearst and Pulizter)
  • De Lome Letter
  • McKinleys war message April 11th, 1898
  • Approved April 21st, 1898
  • April 22 Blockade of Cuba, an act of war under
    international law
  • Teddy Roosevelt resigns as Secretary of the Navy
    to form the Rough Riders

A Splendid Little War in Cuba
  • The United States smashed Spanish power in what
    John Hay called a splendid little war.
  • The Platt Amendment protected U. S. interests and
    acknowledged its unilateral right to intervene in
    Cuban affairs.
  • This amendment paved the way for U.S. domination
    of Cubas sugar industry and provoked
    anti-American sentiments among Cuban nationals.
  • The United States also annexed a number of other
    Caribbean and Pacific islands including the
  • July 25th Americans moved to Puerto Rico
  • Treaty of Paris December 10, 1898 (144 day war)

War in Philippines
  • Roosevelt ordered Commodore George Dewey to
    Philippines to engage Spanish ships
  • Dewey destroyed or captured all the Spanish
    warships in Manila Bay
  • Fight for control of the island against Emilio
    Aguinaldo (until 1930s)

War in the Philippines
  • Initially, Filipino rebels welcomed American
    troops in their fight against Spain.
  • After the United States intended to annex their
    country, they turned against their former
  • Between 1899 and 1902, Americans fought a war
    that led to the death of one in every five
  • Supporters defended the war as bringing
    civilization to the Filipinos.
  • Critics saw the abandonment of traditional
    support for self-determination and warned against
    bringing in dark-skinned people.

Critics of Empire
  • The Filipino war stimulated the founding of an
    Anti-Imperialist League that denounced the war
    and territorial annexation in no uncertain terms.
  • Critics cited democratic and racists reasons for
  • Most Americans put aside their doubts and
    welcomed the new era of aggressive nationalism.

A Decade of Changes The 1890s
  • The Depression of 1893 and the problems faced by
    farmers industrial workers forced people to
    rethink industry, urbanization, the quality of
    American life
  • Many embraced the need for reform which opened
    the door to the Progressive Era
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