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CHEMISTRY SOL REVIEW

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Title: CHEMISTRY SOL REVIEW Author: Augusta County Schools Last modified by: Augusta County Schools Created Date: 5/13/2010 5:03:11 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHEMISTRY SOL REVIEW


1
CHEMISTRY SOL REVIEW
  • SOL 2

2
UNIT 2 - Matter
  • Matter is anything with mass _______
  • Volume
  • ____ substances are types of matter with definite
    uniform characteristics.
  • Pure
  • For example, _____ contain only one kind of atom.
  • Elements

3
UNIT 2 - Matter
  • A _____ is another pure substance that is made of
    more than one type of atom can only be broken
    down by chemical means.
  • Compound
  • _______ are types of matter with 2 or more
    substances that can vary in composition
    properties
  • Mixtures

4
UNIT 2 - Matter
  • A _______ mixture has a uniform composition
    (Stainless steel, KoolAid)
  • Homogeneous
  • _____ is considered the universal solvent
  • Water
  • The particles dissolved in a solvent are called
    the __________
  • Solutes
  • A _____ is really a heterogenous mixture but
    LOOKS like a solution (milk)

5
UNIT 2 - Matter
  • Phase changes are _____ changes (physical or
    chemical)
  • Physical
  • The process of a solid becoming a gas (without
    becoming a liquid first) is ___
  • Sublimation
  • What state of matter has the strongest IMF?
  • Solid

6
UNIT 2 - Matter
  • Name the 4 things used as evidence of a chemical
    reaction occurring
  • Production of a gas (odor or bubbles)
  • Color change
  • Release/absorption of energy (light or heat)
  • Forming a precipitate (chunks ?)

7
UNIT 3 History of the Atom
  • 5 part atomic theory all matter made of atoms
  • Dalton
  • Cathode Ray Tube experiments, Plum Pudding model,
    Electrons have mass a negative charge
  • JJ Thomson
  • Measured charge of an electron
  • Millikan

8
UNIT 3 History of the Atom
  • Passed alpha particles through gold foil and
    found that the nucleus is dense and positively
    charged
  • Rutherford
  • Electrons found in levels or shells around the
    nucleus
  • Bohr
  • Electrons behave like waves (ceiling fan)
  • de Broglie

9
UNIT 3 History of the Atom
  • Atomic number gives us of ____ in an atom of
    each element
  • Protons
  • Mass number is calculated by adding __
  • Protons plus neutrons
  • Different isotopes have different s of __
  • Neutrons
  • Different __ have different s of electrons
  • Ions

10
UNIT 3 History of the Atom
  • Calculate the average atomic mass of copper if
    copper has 2 isotopes. 69.1 has a mass of 62.93
    amu and the rest has a mass of 64.93 amu.
  • (.691 62.93) (.309 64.93)
  • 63.55
  • Flourine 19 has how many neutrons?
  • 10
  • What is the molar mass of carbon?

11
UNIT 3 History of the Atom
  • You find an artifact with a C-14C-12 ratio that
    is 1/16 the modern ratio. The half life of C-14
    is 5715 years. How old is the artifact?
  • 22860 years

12
UNIT 4 Electron Configuration
  • What is the longhand electron configuration for
    N?
  • 1s2 2s2 2p3
  • For Fe?
  • 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6
  • What is the shorthand config for Ca?
  • Ar 4s2
  • The electrons in the outermost shell are called
    the _______ electrons
  • Valence

13
UNIT 4 Electron Configuration
  • How many p orbitals are there?
  • 3
  • What shape is a p orbital?
  • Bowtie or dumbbell
  • How many electrons can be held in d orbitals?
  • 10

14
UNIT 4 Electron Configuration
  • How many valence electrons does oxygen have?
  • 6
  • The rows in the periodic table are called
  • Periods
  • Draw a Lewis dot diagram for Nitrogen
  • When an electron returns to its ground state
    after being excited, it releases energy and emits
    a _____, or a particle of light.

15
Unit 5 The Periodic Table
  • The elements on the right side of the staircase
    are _____
  • Nonmetals
  • The first column or group of elements are called
    the ____
  • Alkali metals
  • Group 7 is called the ___
  • Halogens

16
UNIT 5 The Periodic Table
  • The d-group elements are called the __
  • Transitional metals
  • The f-block elements are called the ___
  • Inner transition metals
  • What happens to atomic radius as you move from
    top to bottom down the periodic table?
  • Gets bigger

17
UNIT 5 The Periodic Table
  • The energy required to remove an electron from an
    atom is called __
  • Ionization energy
  • What happens to ionization energy as you move
    from left to right across a period?
  • Gets bigger
  • An atoms affinity for electrons in a compound is
    called its ___
  • Electronegativity

18
ANNOYING 2009 Question
  • Potassium (K) has a smaller atomic mass than (Ar)
    even though the atomic number of potassium is
    larger than the atomic number of argon. Which of
    the following BEST accounts for this observation?
  • F At STP, K is in the solid phase, but argon
    is gas
  • G It is easier for a potassium atom to lose an
    electron than it is for an argon atom
  • H The most common isotopes of argon have more
    protons than the most common isotopes of
    potassium
  • J The most common isotopes of potassium have
    fewer neutrons than the most common isotopes of
    Ar
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