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Survival for Cadets

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Title: Survival for Cadets


1
Survival for Cadets
2
Survival for Cadets
Your private charter aircraft has crashed in the
Canadian wilderness. You have just enough time
to grab one item before the plane is consumed in
flames. What do you grab on your way out the
door?
  1. Matches
  2. Survival knife
  3. Sleeping bag

3
Sources Resources
  • FM 3-05.70
  • FM 21-76
  • SAS Survival Guide
  • Air Force Pamphlet 36-2246

4
Course Overview
  • Unit 1 The Elements of Surviving
  • Unit 2 Personal Protection
  • Unit 3 Necessities to Maintain Life
  • Unit 4 Orientation and Traveling

5
Unit 1 The Elements of Surviving
  • Survival Preparedness
  • Conditions Affecting Survival
  • The Survivors Needs
  • Psychological Aspects of Survival
  • The Will to Survive

6
Chapter 1-1 Survival Preparedness
  • Chapter 1-1 Survival Preparedness
  • Chapter Objective
  • Know how to survive in situations where your
    safety and life depend on your decisions.
  • Samples of Behavior/Main Points
  • a. Define survival preparedness.
  • b. List several items a survival pattern must
    include.
  • c. Define the letters in the keyword survival.

7
CHAPTER 1-1 VOCABULARY
  • Survival Preparedness
  • Survival Pattern
  • Hypothermia
  • Hyperthermia
  • Terrain
  • Vanquish
  • Improvise

8
Survival Actions. A. Everyday of our lives,
we are engaged in surviving. Continually, we
need air to breathe, food and water to nourish
ourselves and protection from the elements.
1. As a society, weve created complex
networks of food production, distribution, and
storage that can put fresh fruits on our tables
in the winter. 2. Eating ice cream is an
everyday occurrence, even where there are no
cows and no ice. 3. Our water comes from
public systems that are so convenient we seldom
think about the wonder of having fresh, pure
water piped into our homes. 4. Our homes
are sturdy and secure, insulated against heat and
cold and kept comfortable by furnaces and air
conditioners.
9
Survival Actions. B. Most of the time we
survive without much effort, but when we travel
in the backcountry, down wild rivers and across
rugged terrain, we remove ourselves from the
familiar networks of society. 1. For a
while we are on our own, fully responsible for
our comfort and safety. 2. That
responsibility means we must do all we can to be
prepared to survive. 3. Lets define
survival. According to Websters Dictionary
survival is (1) living or continuing longer than
another person or thing (2) the act or process
of surviving.
10
Survival Actions. C. Pattern for
Survival. 1. Develop a survival pattern that
lets you beat all odds against you for survival.
This pattern must include food, water, shelter,
fire, first aid, and signals placed in order of
importance. 2. For example, in a cold
environment, you would need a fire to get warm a
shelter to protect you from the cold, wind, and
rain or snow traps or snares to get food a
means to signal for help and first aid to
maintain health.
11
Psychology of Survival
S Size up the situation U Use all Your
Senses, Undue haste makes waste R Remember
where you are V Vanquish Fear and Panic I
Improvise V Value Living A - Act only after
thinking L Live by your wits, but for now,
Learn Basic Skills
12
Chapter 1-1 Survival Preparedness
  • Summary
  • Defined survival preparedness.
  • Listed several items a survival pattern must
    include.
  • Defined the letters in the keyword survival.

13
Chapter 1-2 Conditions Affecting Survival
  • Chapter Objective
  • Know the three basic conditions affecting
    survival.
  • Samples of Behavior/Main Points
  • a. List the three basic conditions that affect
    every survival situation.
  • b. List the basic components of all
    environments.
  • c. Identify a few examples of land forms which
    describe terrain.
  • d. List the three primary elements of the
    survivors mission.
  • e. Name the two basic life forms.
  • f. Describe the primary factors which
    constitute the survivors condition.
  • g. State the most important psychological tool
    that will affect the outcome of a survival
    situation.

14
CHAPTER 1-2 VOCABULARY
  • Three Basic Conditions of Survival
  • Environmental Condition
  • Survivors Condition
  • Duration
  • Legal and Moral Obligation

15
Chapter 1-2
  • The three primary elements of the survivors
    mission are
  • The conditions affecting survival
  • The survivors needs
  • The means for surviving

16
Chapter 1-2
  • Three Basic Conditions that affect every survival
    situation.
  • The conditions may vary in importance from one
    situation to another and from individual to
    individual.
  • The conditions can be neutral.
  • The conditions exist in each survival episode.
    They will have a great bearing on the survivors
    every need, decision and action.

17
Chapter 1-2
  • Climate. Temperature, moisture and wind are the
    basic climate elements.
  • Extreme cold or hot temperatures, complicated by
    moisture or lack of moisture, and the possibility
    of wind, may have life threatening impact on the
    survivors needs, decisions and actions.
  • The primary concern is the need for personal
    protection
  • Climatic conditions also have a significant
    impact on other aspects of survival.

18
Chapter 1-2
  • Terrain. Mountains, prairies, hills and lowlands
    are only a few examples of the infinite variety
    of land forms which describe terrain.
  • The existing terrain will affect the survivors
    needs and activities in such areas as travel,
    recovery, food, water and personal protection.
  • Depending on its form, terrain may cause travel
    to be difficult provide protection or make
    survival a seemingly impossible task.

19
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20
Chapter 1-2
  • Life Forms For survival purposes there are two
    basic life forms plant and animal.
  • Plant Life. There are hundreds of thousands of
    different types of species of plants life.
  • Animal Life. Reptiles, amphibians, birds, fish,
    insects and mammals are life forms which directly
    affect a survivor by posing hazards or by
    satisfying needs.

21
Chapter 1-2
  • The Survivors Condition.
  • Physical
  • Survivors who are physically fit will be better
    prepared to face survival episodes than those who
    are not.
  • High Levels of physical fitness will enhance a
    survivors ability to cope with such diverse
    variables as temperature extremes, lack of rest,
    lack of water and food, and extended survival
    situations.
  • Psychological
  • The survivors psychological state greatly
    influences their ability to successfully return
    from a survival situation.

22
Chapter 1-2
  • The Survivors Condition.
  • Material
  • At the beginning or a survival episode, the
    clothing and equipment in your possession, the
    contents of the survival kit and resources
    recovered are the sum total of your material
    assets.
  • Special attention must be given to the care and
    storage of all materials.
  • The equipment available to a survivor affects all
    decisions, needs and actions. The ability to
    improvise may provide ways to meet some needs.

23
Chapter 1-2
  • The Survivors Condition.
  • Legal and Moral Obligation
  • Responsibilities influence behavior during
    survival episodes and influence the will to
    survive. Examples include feelings of obligation
    or responsibilities to family, self, and/or
    spiritual beliefs.
  • A survivors individual perception of
    responsibilities influence survival needs, and
    affect the psychological state of the individual
    both during and after the survival episode.

24
Chapter 1-2
  • The Survivors Condition.
  • Duration
  • The duration of the survival episode has a major
    effect upon the survivors needs.
  • Every decision and action will be driven in part
    by an assessment of when recovery or return is
    probable.
  • Rescue capabilities, the distances involved,
    climatic conditions, the ability to locate the
    survivor, are major factors which directly
    influence the duration (time condition) of the
    survival episode.
  • A survivor can never be certain that rescue is
    near.

25
Chapter 1-2 Conditions Affecting Survival
  • SUMMARY
  • The three basic conditions that affect every
    survival situation.
  • List the basic components of all environments.
  • Identify a few examples of land forms which
    describe terrain.
  • List the three primary elements of the
    survivors mission.
  • Name the two basic life forms.
  • Describe the primary factors which constitute
    the survivors condition.
  • State the most important psychological tool that
    will affect the outcome of a survival situation.

26
Chapter 1-3
  • 1. Chapter Objective
  • Know the two fundamental goals of a
    survivor are maintaining life and returning.
  • 2. Samples of Behavior/Main Points
  • a. List the four basic needs of a
    survivor.
  • b. List the components of maintaining life.
  • c. Describe the survivors primary defense
    against the effects of the environment.
  • d. Describe why nutrition is important to a
    survivor.
  • e. Describe the survivors food crises.
  • f. Describe why prevention, self-aid, and
    psychological health important to a survivor.
  • g. List the basic tasks confronting the
    survivor when faced with the need to return.
  • h. Describe how a survivor can effectively
    aid in recovery.
  • i. List the factors the survivor must
    weigh when faced with the need to travel against
    capabilities and/or safety.

27
Chapter 1-3
  • I. Goals of a Survivor.
  • A. The two fundamental goals of a survivor.
  • 1. To maintain life.
  • 2. To return.
  • B. These two goals may be further divided
    into four basic needs.
  • 1. Personal Protection.
  • 2. Health.
  • 3. Travel.
  • 4. Communications (signaling for
    recovery).

28
Chapter 1-3
  • II. Maintaining Life. The essential components of
    maintaining life are personal protection,
    nutrition, and health.
  • A. Personal Protection.
  • 1. The human body is fragile. Without
    protection, the effects of environmental
    conditions (climate, terrain, and life forms)
    and of induced conditions
  • (radiological, biological agents, and
    chemical agent) may be fatal.
  • 2. The survivors primary defense against the
    effects of the environment and some of the
    effects of induced conditions are clothing,
    equipment, shelter, and fire.
  • 3. The need for adequate clothing and its
    proper care and use cannot be
  • overemphasized.
  • 4. The human bodys tolerance for temperature
    extremes is very limited. However,
    its ability to regulate heating and cooling is
    extraordinary.
  • 5. Survival equipment is designed to aid
    survivors throughout their episode. It must be
    cared for to maintain its effectiveness.
  • 6. The survivors need for shelter is twofold
    as a place to rest and for protection
    from the effects of the environment.
  • 7. In cold climates, the criticality of
    shelter can be measured in minutes, and rest is
    of little immediate concern.
  • 8. Fire serves many survivor needs purifying
    water, cooking and preserving food,
    signaling, and providing a source of heat to warm
    the body and dry clothing.

29
Chapter 1-3
  • Nutrition.
  • Survivors need food and water to maintain normal
    body functions and to provide strength, energy,
    and endurance to overcome the physical stresses
    of survival.
  • 1. Water. The survivor must be constantly aware
    of the bodys continuing need for water.
  • 2. Food. During the first hours of a survival
    situation, the need for food receives little
    attention. During the first 2 or 3 days, hunger
    becomes a nagging aggravation which a survivor
    can overcome.
  • 3. The first major food crisis occurs when the
    loss of energy, stamina, and strength begin to
    affect the survivors physical capabilities.
  • 4. The second major food crisis has a more
    gradual effect. A marked increase in irritability
    and other attitudes may occur as the starvation
    process continues.
  • 5. Most people have food preferences. The
    natural tendency to avoid certain types of food
    is a major problem which must be overcome early
    in the survival situation.
  • 6. The starvation process ultimately overcomes
    all food prejudices. The successful
  • survivor overcomes these dislikes before
    physical or psychological deterioration
  • sets in.

30
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31
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32
Chapter 1-3
  • Health (Physical and Psychological).
  • Self-aid is the survivors sole recourse.
  • 1. Prevention. The need for preventive
    medicine and safety cannot be
    overemphasized. Attention to sanitation and
    personal hygiene is a major factor to
    preventing physical, morale, and attitude
    problems.
  • 2. The need for cleanliness in the
    treatment of injuries and illness is self-
    evident.
  • 3. Safety must be foremost in the mind
    of the survivor carelessness is
    caused by ignorance and/or poor judgment or bad
    luck.
  • 4. Self-Aid. In the event of injury,
    the survivors existence may depend on
    the ability to perform self-aid.
  • 5. Illness and the need to treat it is
    more commonly associated with long-
    term situations such as an extended evasion
    episode or captivity.
  • 6. When preventive techniques have
    failed, the survivor must treat
    symptoms of disease in the absence of
    professional medical care.
  • 7. Psychological Health. Perhaps the
    survivors greatest need is the need
    for emotional stability and a positive,
    optimistic attitude.
  • 8. An individuals ability to cope with
    psychological stresses will enhance
    successful survival.
  • 9. Optimism, determination, dedication,
    and humor, as well as many other
  • psychological attributes, are all
    helpful for a survivor to overcome
    psychological stresses.

33
Chapter 1-3
  • Returning.
  • The need to return is satisfied by successful
    completion of one or both of the basic tasks
    confronting the survivor aiding with recovery
    and traveling.
  • A. Aiding With Recovery.
  • 1. For survivors to effectively aid in
    recovery, they must be able to make
    their position and the situation on the ground
    known.
  • 2. This is done either electronically,
    visually, or both.
  • 3. Electronic signaling covers a wide
    spectrum of techniques. As problems
    such as security and safety become significant
    factors, procedures for using electronic
    signaling to facilitate recovery
    become increasingly complex.
  • 4. Visual signaling is primarily the
    technique for attracting attention
    and pinpointing an exact location for rescuers.
  • 5. Simple messages or information may
    also be transmitted with visual
    signals.

34
Chapter 1-3
  • B. Travel on Land.
  • 1. A survivor may need to move on land for a
    variety of reasons, ranging from going for water
    to attempting to walk out of the situation.
  • 2. In any survival episode, the survivor must
    weigh the need to travel against capabilities and
    safety.
  • Factors to consider may include
  • a. The ability to walk or traverse existing
    terrain.
  • (1) In a nonsurvival situation, a twisted
    or sprained ankle is an inconvenience accompanied
    by some temporary pain and
    restricted activity.
  • (2) A survivor who loses the mobility to
    obtain food, water, and shelter, can face death.
  • (3) There is a safe and effective way to
    travel across almost any type of terrain.
  • b. The need to transport personal possessions
    (burden carrying).
  • There are numerous documented instances
    of survivors abandoning equipment and clothing
    simply because carrying it
    was a bother.
  • (1) Later, the abandoned materials were
    not available when needed to save life, limb, or
    aid in rescue.
  • (2) Burden carrying should not be
    difficult or physically stressful.
  • c. The ability to determine
    present position.
  • (1) Maps, compasses, etc., permit
    accurate determination of position during travel.

35
Chapter 1-3
  • SUMMARY
  • List the four basic needs of a survivor.
  • List the components of maintaining life.
  • Describe the survivors primary defense against
    the effects of the environment.
  • Describe why nutrition is important to a
    survivor.
  • Describe the survivors food crises.
  • Describe why prevention, self-aid, and
    psychological health important to a survivor.
  • List the basic tasks confronting the survivor
    when faced with the need to return.
  • Describe how a survivor can effectively aid in
    recovery.
  • List the factors the survivor must weigh when
    faced with the need to travel against
    capabilities and/or safety.

36
Chapter 1-4 Psychological Aspects of Survival
  • 1. Chapter Objective
  • Know that coping with the psychological
    aspects of survival is a key ingredient in any
    survival situation.
  • Samples of Behavior/Main Points
  • a. Define stress.
  • b. List the positive benefits of stress.
  • c. List ten common signs of distress.
  • d. Define fatigue.
  • e. Describe two critical threats to a
    successful survival.
  • f. Describe why comfort is not a survivors
    greatest need.
  • g. List and describe the survival stresses.
  • h. Define aversion.
  • i. List several tasks that can be done in
    spite of fatigue.
  • j. List and describe the natural reactions.
  • k. List seven ways a survivor can prepare to
    rule over natural reactions and stresses
    common to survival.

37
Chapter 1-4 VOCABULARY
  • Stress - Any emotional, physical, and social
    factor that requires a response or change which
    can cause an increase in body temperature.
  • Apathy - Lack of emotion or feeling an
    indifference to things generally found to be
    exciting or moving.
  • Exhaustion - The condition of being extremely
    tired, to wear out completely.
  • Fatigue - Physical or mental weariness due to
    energetic activities.
  • Resignation - A giving up of a possession, claim
    or right.
  • Pain - A warning signal calling attention to an
    injury or damage to some part of the body. Pain
    is discomforting but is not, in itself, harmful
    or dangerous.
  • Thirst - Indicates the bodys need for water.
  • Dehydration - Decreases the bodys ability to
    function.
  • Rest - A basic factor for recovery from fatigue
    and is also important in resisting further
    fatigue.
  • Fear - An emotional response to dangerous
    circumstances that we believe have the potential
    to cause death, injury, or illness.
  • Insecurity - The survivors feeling of
    helplessness or inadequacy resulting from varied
    stresses and anxieties.
  • Self-esteem - The state or quality of having
    personal self-respect and pride.
  • Anger - A strong feeling of displeasure and
    belligerence aroused by a real or supposed wrong.
  • Frustration - Occurs when ones efforts are
    stopped, either by obstacles blocking progress
    toward a goal or by not having a realistic goal.
  • Hate - Feelings of intense dislike, extreme
    aversion, or hostility, a powerful emotion which
    can have both positive and negative effects on a
    survivor.
  • Resentment - Experiencing an emotional state of
    displeasure toward some act, remark, or person
    that has been regarded as causing personal insult
    or injury.

38
Chapter 1-4
  • I. Psychology to Survival.
  • A. It takes much more than the knowledge and
    skills to build shelters, get food, make
  • fires, and travel without the aid of
    standard navigational devices to live
    successfully
  • through a survival situation.
  • 1. Some people with little or no survival
    training have managed to survive life-
  • threatening circumstances.
  • 2. Some people with survival training
    have not used their skills and died.
  • 3. A key ingredient in any survival
    situation is the mental attitude of the
    individual(s)
  • involved.
  • 4. Having survival skills is important,
    having the will to survive is essential. Without
  • a desire to survive, acquired skills
    serve little purpose and invaluable knowledge
  • goes to waste.
  • B. The person in a survival environment faces
    many stresses that ultimately impact on
  • his mind.
  • 1. These stresses can produce thoughts
    and emotions that, if poorly understood, can
  • transform a confident, well-trained
    person into an uncertain, ineffective individual
  • with questionable ability to survive.
  • 2. Every survivor must be aware of and be
    able to recognize those stresses commonly
  • associated with survival.

39
Chapter 1-4
  • II. Contributing Factors.
  • A. Need for Stress. Stress is not a disease
    that you cure and eliminate. Instead, it is a
    condition we all experience.
  • 1. Stress can be described as our
    reaction to pressure.
  • 2. It is the name given to the experience
    we have as we physically, mentally, and
    emotionally respond to lifes tensions.
  • 3. We need stress because it has many
    positive benefits.
  • a. Stress provides us with challenges.
  • b. It gives us chances to learn about our
    values and strengths.
  • c. Stress can show our ability to handle
    pressure without breaking.
  • d. It tests our adaptability and flexibility.
  • e. It can stimulate us to do our best.
  • f. It highlights what is important to us.
  • 4. We need to have some stress in our
    lives, but too much of anything can be bad.
  • 5. Too much stress leads to distress.
  • 6. Distress causes an uncomfortable
    tension that we try to escape and, preferable
    avoid. Listed below are a few of the common
    signs of distress
  • a. Difficulty making decisions.
  • b. Angry outbursts.
  • c. Forgetfulness.
  • d. Low energy level.
  • e. Constant worrying.

40
Chapter 1-4
  • B. Survival Stresses. Injury, illness, or
    death uncertainty and lack of control
  • environment pain thirst and
    dehydration cold and heat hunger fatigue
    sleep
  • deprivation and isolation are several
    survival stresses a survivor will encounter.
  • 1. Maintaining an even, positive
    psychological state or outlook depends on the
  • individuals ability to cope with
    many factors. Some include
  • a. Understanding how various physiological
    and emotional signs, feelings, and
  • expressions affect ones bodily needs and
    mental attitude.
  • b. Managing physical and emotional reactions
    to stressful situations.
  • c. Knowing individual tolerance limits, both
    psychological and physical.
  • d. Exerting a positive influence on
    companions.
  • 2. Two of the critical threats to
    successful survival are yielding to comfort and
  • apathy. Both threats represent
    attitudes which must be avoided.
  • 3. To survive, a person must focus
    planning and effort on fundamental needs.
  • 4. Many people consider comfort their
    greatest need. Yet, comfort is not essential to
  • human survival. Survivors must value
    life more than comfort, and be willing to
  • tolerate heat, hunger, dirt,
    itching, pain, and any other discomfort.
  • 5. As the will to keep trying lessens,
    drowsiness, mental numbness, and indifference
  • will result in apathy. This apathy
    usually builds on slowly, but ultimately takes
  • over and leaves a survivor helpless.

41
Chapter 1-4
  • C. Injury, Illness, or Death are real
    possibilities a survivor has to face.
  • 1. Perhaps nothing is more stressful
    than being alone in an unfamiliar environment
  • where you could die from hostile
    action, an accident, or from eating something
  • lethal.
  • 2. Illness and injury can also add to
    stress by limiting your ability to maneuver, get
  • food and drink, find shelter, and
    defend yourself.
  • 3. Even if illness and injury dont lead
    to death, they add to stress through the pain
  • and discomfort they generate.
  • D. Uncertainty and Lack of Control.
  • 1. It can be extremely stressful
    operating on limited information in a setting
    where
  • you have limited control of your
    surroundings.
  • 2. This uncertainty and lack of control
    also add to the stress of being ill or injured.
  • E. Environment.
  • 1. In survival, a survivor will have to
    struggle with the stresses of weather, terrain,
  • and the variety of creatures
    occupying an area.
  • 2. Heat, cold, rain, winds, mountains,
    swamps, deserts, insects, dangerous reptiles,
  • and other animals are just a few of
    the challenges awaiting the survivor working to
  • survive.
  • 3. Depending on how a survivor handles
    the stress of his environment, his

42
Chapter 1-4
  • F. Pain.
  • 1. Pain, like fever, is a warning signal
    calling attention to an injury or damage to
  • some part of the body.
  • 2. Pain is discomforting but is not, in
    itself, harmful or dangerous. Pain can be
  • controlled, and in an extremely
    grave situation, survival must take priority over
  • giving in to pain.
  • 3. When personal goals are maintaining
    life and returning, and these goals are valued
  • highly enough, a survivor can
    tolerate almost anything.
  • G. Thirst and Dehydration.
  • 1. Lack of water and its accompanying
    problems of thirst and dehydration are among
  • the most critical problems facing
    survivors.
  • 2. Thirst, like fear and pain, can be
    tolerated if the will to carry on, supported by
  • calm, purposeful activity is strong.
  • 3. When the bodys water balance is not
    maintained, thirst and discomfort result.
  • Ultimately, a water imbalance will
    result in dehydration.
  • 4. While prevention is the best way to
    avoid dehydration, virtually any degree of
  • dehydration is reversible simply by
    drinking water.
  • H. Cold and Heat.
  • 1. Cold is a serious stress since even
    in mild degree it lowers the ability to function.

43
Chapter 1-4
  • I. Hunger.
  • 1. Hunger and semi-starvation are more
    commonly experienced among survivors
  • than thirst and dehydration.
  • 2. An early effort should be made to
    procure and consume food to reduce the stresses
  • brought on by the lack of food.
  • 3. Controlling hunger during survival
    episodes is relatively easy if the survivor can
  • adjust to discomfort and adapt to
    primitive conditions.
  • J. Fatigue.
  • 1. A survivor must continually cope with
    fatigue and avoid the accompanying strain
  • and loss of efficiency.
  • 2. A survivor must avoid complete
    exhaustion which may lead to physical and
  • psychological changes.
  • 3. Although a person should avoid
    working to complete exhaustion, in emergencies
  • certain tasks must be done in spite
    of fatigue.
  • a. Rest is a basic factor for recovery from
    fatigue and is also important in
  • resisting further fatigue.
  • b. Short rest breaks during extended stress
    periods can improve total output.
  • c. Survivors should rest before output shows
    a definite decline.
  • d. Fatigue can be reduced by working
    smarter.

44
Chapter 1-4
  • Sleep Deprivation.
  • 1. The effects of sleep loss are closely
    related to those of fatigue.
  • 2. Sleeping at unaccustomed times, sleeping
    under strange circumstances (in a strange place,
    in noise, in light, or in other distractions) or
    missing part or all of the accustomed amount of
    sleep will cause a person to react with feelings
    of weariness, irritability, emotion, tension, and
    some loss of efficiency.
  • 3. When one is deprived of sleep, sleepiness
    usually comes in waves. A person may suddenly be
    sleepy immediately after a period of feeling
    awake.
  • Isolation.
  • 1. Loneliness, helplessness, and despair which
    are experienced by survivors when they are
    isolated are among the most severe survival
    stresses.
  • 2. Isolation can be controlled and overcome by
    knowledge, understanding, deliberate
    countermeasures, and a determined will to resist
    it.

45
Chapter 1-4
  • III. Natural Reactions.
  • It is not surprising that the average person
    will have some
  • psychological reactions in a survival situation.
  • A. Fear.
  • 1. Fear is an emotional response to dangerous
    circumstances that we believe have the potential
    to cause death, injury, or illness.
  • 2. Fear can save a lifeor it can cost
    one. Some people are at their best when they are
    scared.
  • 3. Anyone who faces life-threatening
    emergencies fear. Fear is conscious when it
    results from a recognized situation or when
    experienced as worry of upcoming disaster.
  • 4. Fear also occurs at a subconscious
    level and creates feelings of uneasiness,
    general discomfort, worry, or depression.

46
Chapter 1-4
  • Anxiety.
  • 1. Associated with fear is anxiety. Because it
    is natural for us to be afraid, it is also
    natural for us to experience anxiety.
  • 2. Anxiety can be an uneasy feeling we get when
    faced with dangerous situations (physical,
    mental, and emotional). It is generally felt when
    individuals perceive
  • something bad is about to happen.
  • 3. To survive, the survivor must learn
    techniques to calm his anxieties and keep them in
    range where they help, not hurt.

47
Chapter 1-4
  • Insecurity.
  • 1. Insecurity is the survivors feeling of
    helplessness or inadequacy resulting from
  • varied stresses and anxieties.
  • 2. These anxieties may be caused by uncertainty
    regarding individual goals, abilities,
  • and the future in a survival situation.
  • 3. The better a survivor feels about individual
    abilities to achieve goals and adequately meet
    personal needs, the more secure the survivor will
    feel.

48
Chapter 1-4
  • Loss of Self-Esteem.
  • 1. Self-esteem is the state or quality of
    having personal self-respect and pride.
  • 2. Lack of (or loss of) self-esteem in a
    survivor may bring on depression and a change in
    perspective and goals.
  • 3. Survivors should try to maintain proper
    perspective about both the situation and
    themselves.
  • Loss of Self-Determination.
  • 1. Some factors which may cause individuals to
    feel they have lost the power of
    self-determination are bad weather, or rescue
    forces that make time or movement demands.
  • 2. Survivors must decide how unpleasant factors
    will be allowed to affect their
  • mental state. They must have the
    self-confidence, fostered by experience and
  • training, to live with their feelings and
    decisions, and to accept responsibility for both
    the way they feel and how they let those feelings
    affect them.

49
Chapter 1-4
  • F. Anger.
  • 1. Anger is a strong feeling of displeasure and
    belligerence aroused by a real or
  • supposed wrong.
  • 2. People become angry when they cannot fulfill
    a basic need or desire which seems
  • important to them.
  • 3. When anger is not relieved, it may turn into
    a more enduring attitude of hostility,
  • characterized by a desire to hurt or
    destroy the person or thing causing the
    frustration.
  • 4. When anger is intense, the survivor loses
    control over the situation, resulting in
  • impulsive behavior which may be destructive
    in nature.
  • G. Frustration.
  • 1. Frustration occurs when ones efforts are
    stopped, either by obstacles blocking
  • progress toward a goal or by not having a
    realistic goal.
  • 2. It can also occur if the feeling of
    self-worth or self-respect is lost. The goal of
  • survival is to stay alive until you can
    reach help or until help can reach you.
  • 3. Frustration must be controlled by channeling
    energies into a positive, worthwhile,
  • and obtainable goal.

50
Chapter 1-4
  • Panic.
  • 1. In the face of danger, a person may
    panic or freeze and cease to function in an
    organized manner.
  • 2. A person experiencing panic may have no
    conscious control over individual actions.
  • 3. Panic is brought on by a sudden
    overwhelming fear, and can often spread quickly
    through a group of people.
  • 4. Panic has the same signs as fear and
    should be controlled in the same manner as fear.
  • Hate.
  • 1. Hatefeelings of intense dislike,
    extreme aversion, or hostilityis a powerful
    emotion which can have both positive and
    negative effects on a survivor.
  • 2. An understanding of the emotion and its
    causes is the key to learning to control it.
  • 3. Survivors must not allow hate to control
    them.
  • Resentment.
  • 1. Resentment is the experiencing of an
    emotional state of displeasure toward some act,
    remark, or person that has been regarded as
    causing personal insult or injury.
  • 2. It is damaging to morale and could affect
    survival chances if feelings of resentment over
    anothers attainments become too strong.

51
Chapter 1-4
  • Depression.
  • 1. As a survivor, depression is the biggest
    psychological problem that has to be
    conquered.
  • 2. Depressed survivors may feel fearful,
    guilty, or helpless. They may lose interest in
  • the basic needs of life. Many cases of
    depression also involve pain, fatigue, loss of
  • appetite, or other physical ailments. Some
    depressed survivors try to injure or kill
  • themselves.
  • 3. Depression usually begins after a
    survivor has met the basic needs for sustaining
  • life, such as water, shelter, and food.
    Then there is often too much time to dwell on
  • the past, the present situation, and on
    future problems.
  • 4. The survivor must be aware of the necessity
    to keep the mind and body active to
  • eliminate the feeling of depression.
  • Impatience.
  • 1. The effects of impatience can cause changes
    in physical and mental well-being.
  • 2. Survivors who allow impatience to control
    their behavior may find that their
  • efforts prove to be counterproductive and
    possibly dangerous.

52
Chapter 1-4
  • Loneliness and Boredom.
  • 1. As human beings we enjoy the company of
    others. Very few people want to be alone all the
    time.
  • 2. The ability to combat feelings of loneliness
    during a survival episode must be developed long
    before the episode occurs. Self-confidence and
    self-sufficiency are key factors in coping with
    loneliness.
  • 3. In a survival situation, the countermeasure
    to conquer loneliness is to be active, to plan
    and think purposefully.
  • Hopelessness.
  • 1. Hopelessness stems from negative
    feelingsregardless of actions taken, success is
  • impossible, or the certainty that future
    events will turn out for the worst no matter
  • what a person tries to do.
  • 2. One way to treat hopelessness is to
    eliminate the cause of the stress. Rest, comfort,
  • and morale building activities can help
    eliminate this psychological problem.
  • O. Guilt.
  • 1. It is not uncommon to feel guilty
    about being spared from death while others were
    not.
  • 2. This feeling, when used in a positive way,
    has encouraged people to try harder to
    survive with the belief they were allowed
    to live for some greater purpose in life.
  • 3. The living who abandon their chance to
    survive accomplish nothing.

53
Chapter 1-4
  • IV. Preparing Yourself. Your mission as a
    survivor in a survival situation is to stay
    alive.
  • A. Know Yourself.
  • 1. Through training, family, and friends take
    the time to discover who you are on the inside.
  • 2. Strengthen your stronger qualities and
    develop the areas that you know are
  • necessary to survive.
  • B. Anticipate Fears.
  • 1. Dont pretend that you will have no
    fears.
  • 2. The goal is not to eliminate the fear,
    but to build confidence in your ability to
  • function despite your fears.

54
Chapter 1-4
  • C. Be Realistic.
  • 1. Dont be afraid to make an honest
    estimate of situations. See circumstances as they
    are, not as you want them to be.
  • 2. Keep your hopes and expectations
    within the estimate of the situation. Follow the
    saying, Hope for the best, prepare for the
    worst.
  • D. Adopt a Positive Attitude.
  • 1. Learn to see the potential good in
    everything.
  • 2. Looking for the good not only boasts
    morale, it also is excellent for exercising your
    imagination and creativity.
  • E. Remind Yourself What is at Stake.
  • 1. Remember, failure to prepare yourself
    psychologically to cope with survival leads to
    reactions such as depression, carelessness,
    inattention, loss of confidence, poor
    decisionmaking, and giving up before the body
    gives in.
  • 2. At stake is your life and the lives of
    others who are depending on you to do your share.

55
Chapter 1-4
  • F. Train.
  • 1. Through military training and life
    experiences, begin today to prepare yourself to
    cope with the hardship of survival.
  • 2. Demonstrating your skills in training
    will give you the confidence to call upon them
    should the need arise.
  • G. Learn Stress Management Techniques.
  • 1. People under stress have a potential
    to panic if they are not well-trained and not
    prepared psychologically to face whatever the
    circumstances maybe.
  • 2. Learning stress management techniques
    can significantly enhance your capability to
    remain calm and focused as you work to keep
    yourself and others alive.
  • 3. A few good techniques to develop
    include relaxation skills, time management
    skills, assertiveness skills, and the ability to
    control how you view a situation.
  • 4. Remember, the will to survive can
    also be considered, the refusal to give up.

56
Chapter 1-5 The Will to Survive
57
Chapter 1-5 The Will to Survive
  • 1. Chapter Objective
  • Know the importance of having the will to
    survive in hopeless situations.
  • 2. Samples of Behavior/Main Points
  • a. Define the will to survive.
  • b. Describe how the will to survive can
    overcome most hardships.
  • c. Describe the importance of overcoming
    stress.
  • d. Define crisis period and coping period.
  • e. Describe what occurs during the crisis
    period.
  • f. Describe the actions of the survivor during
    the coping period.
  • g. Identify the most important element of the
    will to survive.
  • h. List four physical and psychological
    discomforts a survivor will encounter.
  • i. State why overcoming fear is important to a
    survivor.
  • j. Identify one of the survivors key assets.

58
Chapter 1-5 The Will to Survive
  • I. The Will To Live. With the right frame of
    mind, a person can survive hopeless situations.
  • A. How can you develop a positive mental
    attitude?
  • 1. Some people seem to have a natural
    ability to remain optimistic in the face of
  • hardship, and everyone can practice
    the mental toughness survival situations
  • demand.
  • 2. Push yourself now and then when
    conditions are right so that you realize you have
  • those energy reserves and mental
    toughness, and in a real emergency they may tip
  • the balance in your favor.
  • B. The will to survive is defined as the
    desire to live despite seemingly hopeless mental
  • and/or physical obstacles.
  • 1. The tools for survival are furnished
    by the individual and the environment.
  • 2. The training for survival comes from
    survival publications, instruction, and the
  • individuals own efforts.
  • 3. But tools and training are not enough
    without a will to survive.
  • 4. In fact, the records prove that
    will alone has been the deciding factor in many

59
Chapter 1-5 The Will to Survive
  • II. Overcoming Stress. The ability of the mind
    to overcome stress and hardship becomes
  • most apparent when there appears to be little
    chance of a person surviving.
  • A. Crisis Period.
  • 1. The crisis period is the point at
    which the person realizes the gravity of the
  • situation and understands that the
    problem will not go away.
  • 2. At this stage, action is needed. Most
    people will experience shock in this stage as a
  • result of not being ready to face
    this new challenge.
  • 3. Shock during a crisis is normally a
    response to being overcome with anxiety.
  • Thinking will be disorganized. At
    this stage, direction will be required because
    the
  • individual is being controlled by
    the environment.
  • 4. The persons center of control is
    external.
  • 5. In a group survival episode, a
    natural leader may appear who will direct and
  • reassure the others.
  • 6. But if the situation continues to
    control the individual or the group, the response
  • may be panic, behavior may be
    irrational, and judgment is impaired.
  • 7. In a lone-survivor episode, the
    individual must gain control of the situation and
  • respond helpfully.

60
Chapter 1-5 The Will to Survive
  • B. Coping Period.
  • 1. The coping period begins after the
    survivor recognizes the gravity of the situation
    and resolves to endure it rather than give in.
  • 2. The survivor must tolerate the effects
    of physical and emotional stresses. These
    stresses can cause anxiety which becomes the
    greatest obstacle of self-control and solving
    problems.
  • 3. Coping with the situation requires
    considerable internal control.
  • 4. For example, the survivor must often
    overcome urgent desires to travel when that would
    be counterproductive and dangerous.
  • 5. A person must have patience to sit in
    an emergency action shelter while confronted with
    an empty stomach, aching muscles, numb toes, and
    suppressed feelings of depression and
    hopelessness.

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Chapter 1-5 The Will to Survive
  • C. Attitude.
  • 1. The survivors attitude is the most
    important element of the will to survive. With
  • the proper attitude, almost anything
    is possible.
  • 2. The desire to live is sometimes based
    on the feelings toward another person and/or
  • thing. Love and hatred are two
    emotional extremes which have moved people to
  • do exceptional things physically and
    mentally.
  • 3. The lack of a will to survive can
    sometimes be identified by the individuals lack
  • of motivation to meet his survival
    needs.
  • 4. It is essential to strengthen the will
    to survive during an emergency. The first step
  • is to avoid a tendency to panic or
    fly off the handle.
  • 5. Sit down, relax, and analyze the
    situation rationally. Once thoughts are collected
  • and thinking is clear, the next step
    is to make decisions.
  • 6. Failure to decide on a course of
    action is actually a decision for inaction.
  • 7. This lack of decision making may even
    result in death.
  • 8. Tolerance is the next topic of
    concern. A survivor will have to deal with many
  • physical and psychological
    discomforts, such as unfamiliar animals, insects,
  • loneliness, and depression.
  • 9. Survivors must face and overcome fears
    to strengthen the will to survive. These
  • fears may be founded or unfounded, or
    be generated by the survivors uncertainty

62
Chapter 1-5 The Will to Survive
  • D. Optimism.
  • 1. One of a survivors key assets is
    optimismhope and faith.
  • 2. Survivors must maintain a positive,
    optimistic outlook on their circumstance and how
    well they are doing.
  • 3. Prayer or meditation can be helpful.
    How a survivor maintains optimism is not so
    important as its use.
  • E. Summary.
  • 1. Survivors do not choose or welcome
    their fate and would escape it if they could.
    They are trapped in a world of seemingly total
    dominationa world hostile to life and any sign
    of dignity or resistance.
  • 2. The survival mission is not an easy
    one, but it is one in which success can be
    achieved.

63
Unit Two Personal Protection
64
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • 1. Chapter Objective
  • Know basic survival medicine procedures,
    treatments, and prevention measures when faced
    with medical encounters.
  • 2. Samples of Behavior/Main Points
  • a. List some of the most frequent injuries.
  • b. Describe the procedures and expedients that
    survival medicine encompasses.
  • c. State and describe what is essential to
    prevent infection in a survival situation.
  • d. Describe what reduces the chances of
    infection from small scratches and abrasions.
  • e. Describe ways a survivor can take a bath
    when water is in short supply.
  • f. Describe how to care for the mouth and
    teeth.
  • g. Describe how to care for the feet.
  • h. Describe why rest is important to a
    survivor.
  • i. List the rules for avoiding illness.
  • j. Describe what could cause breathing
    problems.
  • k. Define tourniquet.
  • l. Describe how to control external bleeding.
  • m. Define gangrene.
  • n. Define shock.
  • o. Describe how to treat injured persons
    suffering from shock.

65
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • I. Medical Encounters.
  • A. The most frequent injuries are fractures,
    strains, sprains, and dislocations, as
    well as burns and other types of wounds.
  • 1. Many survivors have difficulty in treating
    injuries and illness due to the lack of
    training and medical supplies.
  • 2. Injuries and illnesses unusual to certain
    environments can reduce survival
    expectancy. In cold climates, and often in an
    open sea survival situation, exposure to
    extreme cold can produce serious tissue trauma,
    such as frostbite, or death from
    hypothermia.
  • 3. Exposure to heat in warm climates, and in
    certain areas on the open seas, can
    produce heat cramps, heat exhaustion, or
    life-threatening heatstroke.
  • B. Procedures.
  • 1. Survival medicine encompasses procedures
    and expedients that are
  • a. Required and available for the
    preservation of health and the
    prevention, improvement, or treatment of injuries
    and illness encountered during
    survival.
  • b. Suitable for application by nonmedical
    personnel in the circumstances of the
    survival situation.
  • 2. Survival medicine is more than first aid in
    the conventional sense. It approaches
    final treatment in that it is not dependent upon
    the availability of technical medical
    assistance within a reasonable period of time.

66
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • II. Health Requirement.
  • A. Personal Hygiene.
  • 1. In a survival situation, cleanliness
    is essential to prevent infection. Adequate
    personal cleanliness will not only protect
    against disease germs that are present in
    individuals surroundings, but will also
    protect the group by reducing the spread of
    these germs.
  • 2. Washing the face, hands, and feet
    reduces the chances of infection from small
    scratches and abrasions.
  • 3. Soap, although an aid, is not
    essential to keeping clean. Ashes, sand, and
    fertile soil may be used to clean the body and
    cooking utensils.
  • 4. When water is in short supply, the
    survivor should take an air bath or sun bath.
  • 5. Hair should be kept trimmed,
    preferably 2 inches or less in length, and the
    face should be clean-shaven.
  • 6. Hair provides a surface for the
    attachment of parasites and the growth of
    bacteria.
  • 7. The principal means of infecting food
    and open wounds is contact with unclean hands.

67
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • B. Care of the Mouth and Teeth.
  • 1. The mouth and teeth should be cleansed
    thoroughly with a toothbrush at least once each
    day.
  • 2. When a toothbrush is not available, a
    chewing stick can be made from a twig.
  • 3. Gum tissues should be stimulated by rubbing
    them vigorously with a clean finger each day.
  • 4. Use as much care cleaning dentures and other
    dental appliances, removable or fixed, as when
    cleaning natural teeth.
  • 5. If you have cavities you can make temporary
    fillings by placing candle wax, tobacco, aspirin,
    hot pepper, toothpaste or powder, or portions of
    ginger root into the cavity.

68
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • C. Care of the Feet.
  • 1. Proper care of the feet is of the utmost
    importance in a survival situation, especially if
    the survivor has to travel.
  • 2. The feet should be washed, dried thoroughly,
    and massaged each day.
  • 3. If water is in short supply, the feet should
    be air cleaned along with the rest of the
    body.
  • 4. Toenails should be trimmed straight across
    to prevent the development of ingrown
    toenails.
  • 5. Boots should be broken in before wearing
    them on any mission.
  • 6. Socks should be large enough to allow the
    toes to move freely but not so loose that they
    wrinkle.
  • 7. When traveling, the feet should be examined
    regularly to see if there are any red spots or
    blisters

69
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • D. Clothing and Bedding.
  • 1. Clothing and bedding can have disease
    germs which may be present on the skin, in
  • the stool, in the urine, or in
    secretion of the nose and throat.
  • 2. Outer clothing should be washed with
    soap and water when it becomes soiled.
  • Under clothing and socks should be
    changed daily.
  • 3. Sleeping bags should be turned inside
    out, fluffed, and aired after each use.
  • 4. Bed linen should be changed at least
    once a week, and the blankets, pillows, and
  • mattresses should be aired and
    sunned.
  • E. Rest.
  • 1. Rest is necessary for the survivor
    because it not only restores physical and mental
  • energy, but also promotes healing
    during an illness or after an injury.
  • 2. If possible, regular rest periods
    should be planned in each days activities.
  • 3. The survivor must learn to become
    comfortable and to rest under less than ideal
  • conditions.

70
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • F. Rules for Avoiding Illness.
  • 1. All water obtained from natural
    sources should be purified before consumption.
  • 2. The ground in the camp area should not
    be soiled with urine or feces. When toilets
  • are not available, individuals
    should dig cat holes and cover their waste.
  • 3. Fingers and other infected objects
    should never be put into the mouth. Hands
  • should be washed before handling any
    food or drinking water, care of the mouth
  • and teeth, caring for the sick and
    injured, and handling any material likely to
    carry
  • disease germs.
  • 4. After each meal, all eating utensils
    should be cleaned and disinfected in boiling
    water.
  • 5. The mouth and teeth should be cleansed
    thoroughly at least once each day.
  • 6. Bites and insects can be avoided by
    keeping the body clean, by wearing proper
  • protective clothing, and by using
    head net, improvised bed nets, and insect
  • repellents.
  • 7. Wet clothing should be exchanged for
    dry clothing as soon as possible to avoid
  • unnecessary body heat loss.
  • 8. Do not share personal items.
  • 9. Remove and bury all food scraps, cans,
    and garbage.
  • 10. A survivor should get 7 to 8 hours of
    sleep each night.

71
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • III. Medical Emergencies.
  • A. Breathing Problems. Any one of the
    following can cause airway difficulty, resulting
    in stopped breathing.
  • 1. Foreign matter in the mouth or throat
    that blocks the opening to the trachea.
  • 2. Face or neck injuries.
  • 3. Inflammation and swelling of mouth and
    throat caused by inhaling smoke, flames, and
    irritating vapors or by an allergic
    reaction.
  • 4. Kink in the throat (caused by the
    neck bent forward so that the chin rests
    upon the chest) may block the passage of air.
  • 5. Tongue blocks passage of air to the
    lungs upon unconsciousness.

72
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • B. Severe Bleeding.
  • 1. Severe bleeding from any major blood
    vessel in the body is extremely dangerous.
  • 2. The loss of 1 liter of blood will
    produce moderate symptoms of shock.
  • 3. The loss of 2 liters will produce a
    severe state of shock that places the body in
    extreme danger.
  • 4. The loss of 3 liters is usually fatal.
  • C. Control Bleeding.
  • 1. In a survival situation, you must
    control serious bleeding immediately because
    replacement fluids normally are not available
    and the victim can die within a matter of
    minutes.
  • 2. The tourniquet, when required and
    properly used, will save life. If improperly
    used, it may cost the life of the survivor.

73
Chapter 2-1 Basic Survival Medicine
  • D. External Bleeding.
  • 1. Arterial. Blood vessels called
    arteries carry blood away from the heart and
    through the body.
  • a. A cut artery issues bright red blood from
    the wound in distinct spurts or pulses that
    correspond to the rhythm of the heartbeat.
  • b. Arterial bleeding is the most serious type
    of bleeding. If not controlled promptly, it can
    be fatal.
  • 2. Venous. Venous blood is blood that is
    returning to the heart through blood vessels
    called veins.
  • a. A steady flow of dark red, maroon, or
    bluish blood, characterizes bleeding from a vein.
  • b. You can usually control venous bleeding
    more easily than arterial bleeding.
  • 3. Capillary. The capillaries are the
    extremely small vessels that connect the arteries
    with the veins. Most commonly occurs in minor
    cuts and scrapes.
  • 4. You can control external bleeding by
    direct pressure, indirect (pressure points)
    pressure, elevation, digital legation, or
    tourniquet.
  • a. Direct Pressure. The most effective way to
    control external bleeding is by applying pressure
    directly over the wound.
  • b. Elevation.
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