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Ethics in Human Robot Interaction (HRI)

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Ethics in Human Robot Interaction (HRI) Ethics in Human Robot Interaction (HRI) Evolution of robots (then) What can robots do? How do they fit into our ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ethics in Human Robot Interaction (HRI)


1
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
2
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • Evolution of robots (then)
  • What can robots do?
  • How do they fit into our
    lives?
  • What are the possibilities?
  • Dangers?

3
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction (HRI)
  • Asimov's laws (1942)
  • (1) A robot may not injure a human being or,
    through inaction, allow
    a human being to come to harm.
  • (2) A robot must obey any orders given to it by
    human beings, except
    where such orders would conflict with the First
    Law.
  • (3) A robot must protect its own existence as
    long as such
    protection does not conflict with the First or
    Second Law.
  • (Wikipedia http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T
    hree_Laws_of_Robotics)
  • 0th law (added later) A robot may not harm
    humanity, or, by inaction, allow humanity to come
    to harm.

4
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • Impact of the robot evolution on roboethics
  • What should we consider?

5
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • Roboethics is a young field even less has been
    studied about roboethics applied to HRI
  • Good robotics
  • What does this mean?
  • What are the implications of more able robots?
  • Necessary paradigm shift
  • From Design from the engineer's perspective
  • To Design from the perspective of the end user
  • What does this require?

6
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • Facts
  • In 2006, there were 77 reported robot-related
    accidents in England alone, according to the
    Health and Safety Executive. (Robots AI Methods
    in Robotics)
  • In 2007 a military robot used in the South
    African army killed nine soldiers after a
    malfunction
  • According to the United Nations Economic
    Commission for Europe's World Robotics Survey, in
    2002 the number of domestic and service robots
    more than tripled, nearly outstripping their
    industrial counterparts. ...
  • If a robot is autonomous and capable of learning,
    can its owner/designer be held responsible for
    all its actions?

7
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • A few basic questions to consider
  • If someone is harmed by a robot or because of a
    robot's actions, who's to blame?
  • If robot is a tool, could we
    blame the saw manufacturer if
    somone gets cut?
  • If someone is harmed because they use the robot
    for a purpose other than that intended, who is to
    blame?
  • If the robot experiences catastrophic failure,
    and someone is harmed by the robot's inaction,
    who's to blame?

8
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • These are diffcult questions to answer
    definitively, but what about unpredictable
    behavior?
  • Emergent behavior is the sometimes unexpected
    behavior that results from interactions between
    the robots control system and the real world
  • Not uncommon!
  • How accountable is the designer for emergent
    robot behavior?

9
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • Open texture risk
  • Risk occurring from unpredictable interactions in
    unstructured environments.
  • Example getting robots to understand the
    nuances of natural (human) language.
  • Ambiguity resulting from interpretation that
    varies due to outside factors.
  • Asimovs Three Laws do not specifically address
    these risks!
  • Ethics are embedded into robots
  • Through code designed to resolve issues

10
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • Executing complex tasks in unstructured and
    dynamic worlds is an immensely challenging
    problem
  • The most efficient form is the humanoid robot
    form since the real world environment is designed
    to serve dual-armed bipeds (stairs, railings,
    etc...)
  • However, merely giving a robot the human shape
    does not make it friendly to humans.
  • Present day humanoid robots instead of
    stepping over a person lying on the ground
    would most probably walk on the person
    without falling over
  • What expectations does a humanoid inspire?

11
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • Key areas for emerging roboethics include
  • Ensuring human control of robots
  • Preventing illegal use
  • Protecting data acquired by robots
  • Establishing clear identification and
    traceability of the machines

12
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • Case study Hospital delivery robot
  • What kinds of services could this robot provide?
  • Provide directions to specific hospital locations
  • Provide efficient delivery of meds, charts, food
  • Consult with patients' families regarding
    diagnosis, prognosis and treatment
  • Self care (charge battery, etc)
  • Stay out of the way!
  • What kinds of services should the robot provide?
  • How should the robot accomplish these tasks?

13
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • Ethical issues for robots used in health care
    (carebots)
  • If the development and use of carebots is driven
    by management motivations will this be the only
    motivationand expected benefit?
  • Are carebots also meant to improve the care
    itself?
  • Will they actually improve care?
  • Will they enhance the quality of the lives of the
    patients?
  • Will they enhance values such as autonomy?
  • Is it ethically desirable or allowed to replace
    human-human interaction with human-robot
    interaction in this context?
  • What is genuine social interaction?
  • The use of robots may allow more frequent contact
    with patients, but what is the value of that kind
    of contact desirable? And how can we evaluate
    this?
  • Will carebots enhance the quality of life of
    patients, given that human-human interaction will
    be substituted for human-robot interaction?

14
Ethics in Human Robot Interaction(HRI)
  • A few last thoughts
  • Robot use is becoming increasingly pervasive in
    society
  • Assist ill and elderly people by monitoring them
  • Assist developmentally disabled adults and
    children
  • Helping stroke patients with rehabilitation
  • Deliver drugs, food, mail in hospitals
  • Robots in the home assist with domestic tasks
  • How can we prepare?
  • Design, develop and test realistic scenarios and
    evaluate these scenarios as we focus on the
    ethical aspects of HRI
  • Design, develop and implement contingencies to
    handle potentially harmful robot behavior
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