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Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Framework National Disaster Management Systems

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Title: Organizational and Institutional Arrangements of National Disaster Management Systems Author: Denise Froning Last modified by: wb326993 Created Date – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Comprehensive Disaster Risk Management Framework National Disaster Management Systems


1
Institutional Arrangements and Organizational
Structures
  • Session 1World Bank Institute Katherine Kelman

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How are National Disaster Management Systems
Organized?
  • Maintain formal and informal interaction
    between institutions, financial
    mechanisms, regulations and policies
  • Engage senior government policymakers AND
    accommodating and supporting local
    decision-making and private market
    initiatives
  • Balance centralized (top-down) and
    decentralized (bottom-up) approaches

2
3
How are National Disaster Management Systems
Organized? contd.
  • Address both the ex ante (pre-disaster) and ex
    post (post-disaster) phases of the risk
    management cycle
  • However, they demand distinct technical and
    administrative approaches.
  • Tailor organization to the nature of federal or
    intergovernmental relations within the country.
  • National governments usually play a major role in
    risk identification, risk transfer, and
    rehabilitation and reconstruction.
  • Local governments, often with the help of NGOs,
    are involved in risk mitigation, preparedness and
    emergency response.

3
4
Building and Strengthening National Systems for
Disaster Prevention and Response
  • An integrated, cross-sectoral network of
    institutions addressing all the phases of
    risk reduction and disaster recovery
    requires
  • Policy and planning
  • Reform of legal and regulatory frameworks
  • Coordination mechanisms
  • Strengthening of participating institutions
  • National action plans for mitigation policies,
    and institutional development.
  • The organizational approach is also important
  • Reactive vs. proactive approach to risk
    management.
  • Powers and responsibilities concentrated in
    center vs. hierarchically distributed.
  • Interaction between the levels coercive vs.
    cooperative.

4
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Designing Effective National Disaster Management
Systems
  • Have an explicit national disaster strategy that
    is integrated into other national policies,
    such as
  • Environmental, poverty, development
  • Integrate key players in the national disaster
    management process, such as
  • Finance ministry, local community leaders, NGOs,
    and private market actors
  • Make provisions to ensure sufficient resources
    for key players to carry out their
    responsibilities, such as
  • Continual risk assessment
  • Country-wide risk transfer
  • Mutual aid agreements with other levels of
    government
  • Extended partnerships

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6
Philippines - Elements of An Effective Response
Operation
COMMAND AND CONTROL
LAW ENFORCEMENT
EVACUATION AND RELIEF
EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES
FIRE SUPPRESSION
SEARCH AND RESCUE
DAMAGE AND NEEDS ASSESSMENT
VOLUNTEER RESPONSE GROUPS / AUXILLIARIES
6
7
Typical Organizational Structure
7
8
Country Approaches to Disaster Management Systems
  • Risk management receives the attention of those
    responsible for long-term economic planning and
    is integrated into the planning process when
  • Disasters are considered as part of the
    development process
  • Ineffective systems fail to develop long-term
    sustainable support for members activities
  • Successful systems take advantage of the existing
    government structures and involve
  • National, provincial, local, and community
    government
  • Ministries and other institutions

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9
Incorporating Key Players Is Important
  • Finance ministries
  • Help ensure funding for the institutional
    framework
  • Facilitate incorporation of disaster management
    into development policy
  • Provide incentives for financing mitigation
    projects.
  • Communities
  • Local communities provide impetus for national
    disaster management when political motivation
    flags
  • Local level feedback is important in the disaster
    management process.
  • International aid and financial institutions
  • Policies and the incentives they create for
    countries can make or break the establishment of
    national disaster risk programs.

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Incorporating Key Players, contd.
  • Private sector risk transfer providers
  • Provide individuals and communities with a range
    of options for transferring disaster risk ex-ante
    through insurance, catastrophe hedges, etc.
  • Create incentives for mitigation and prevention
  • Can team up with governments to devise affordable
    insurance schemes
  • Military
  • Traditionally in control of civil defense

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11
Philippines National Disaster Coordinating
Councils ORGANIZATIONAL NETWORK
NATIONAL DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCIL
17 REGIONAL DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCILS
79 PROVINCIAL DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCILS
113 CITY DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCILS
1,496 MUNICIPAL DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCILS
41,956 BARANGAY DISASTER COORDINATING COUNCILS
11
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Becoming Integrated into Policies and National
Systems
  • Requires political will
  • Requires a constituency beyond disaster
    specialists
  • Needs to reflect the preferences of the
    population, such as when legislated through a
    participatory process
  • Needs to reflect correctly assessed risks through
    cooperation with researchers

12
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