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Food, Soil, and Pest Management

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Title: Food, Soil, and Pest Management


1
Food, Soil, and Pest Management
  • Chapter 12

2
Grains of Hope or an Illusion?
  • Vitamin A deficiency in some developing countries
    leads to
  • Blindness
  • Death
  • 1999 Porrykus and Beyer
  • Genetically engineered rice with beta-carotene
    and more iron

3
What Is Food Security and Why Is It Difficult to
Attain?
  • Many of the poor suffer health problems from
    chronic lack of food and poor nutrition, while
    many people in developed countries have health
    problems from eating too much food.
  • The greatest obstacles to providing enough food
    for everyone are poverty, political upheaval,
    corruption, war, and the harmful environmental
    effects of food production.

4
Many of the Poor Have Health Problems Because
They Do Not Get Enough to Eat
  • Food security daily access to enough nuritious
    food
  • Food insecurity live with chronic hunger snd
    poor nutrition
  • 1 in 6 in developing countries
  • Root cause poverty

5
Many People Suffer from Chronic Hunger and
Malnutrition
  • Macronutrients
  • Carbohydrates
  • Proteins
  • Fats
  • Micronutrients
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals

6
Many People Suffer from Chronic Hunger and
Malnutrition
  • Chronic under nutrition,
  • hunger ,
  • mental retardation,
  • stunted growth
  • Chronic malnutrition
  • low protein, high-carbohydrate
  • weak, more susceptible to disease, hinders
    development
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies in people in
    developing countries Iron, Vitamin A, Iodine

Goiter in Bangladesh
7
Key Nutrients for a Healthy Human Life
8
Acute Food Shortages Lead to Famines
  • Famine severe shortage of food
  • Usually caused by crop failures from
  • Drought
  • Flooding
  • War
  • Mass migration of starving people to other areas

War and the Environment Starving Children in
Famine-Stricken Sudan, Africa
9
Many People Have Health Problems from Eating Too
Much
  • Overnutrition when food energy intake exceeds
    energy use and causes excess body fat
  • Similar health problems to those who are underfed
  • Lower life expectancy
  • Greater susceptibility to disease and illness
  • Lower productivity and life quality

10
Food Production Has Increased Dramatically
  • Three systems produce most of our food
  • Croplands grains 77 use 11 of land area
  • Rangelands, pastures, and feedlots 16 ,using
    29 of the worlds land area
  • Aquaculture 7
  • Importance of wheat, rice, and corn
  • provide about 47 of the calories , 42 of the
    protein
  • Tremendous increase in global food production
  • technological advancement , machinery

11
Industrialized Crop Production Relies on
High-Input Monocultures
  • Industrialized agriculture, high-input
    agriculture
  • uses heavy equipment and large amounts of
    financial capital, fossil fuels, water,fertilizer
  • Goal is to steadily increase crop yield
  • Plantation agriculture developing countries
  • cash crops bananas, soybeans, sugarcane,coffee,
    vegetables on monocultures

12
Satellite Images of Greenhouse Land Used in the
Production of Food Crops
Increased use of greenhouses to raise crops
13
Traditional Agriculture Often Relies on Low-Input
Polycultures
  • Traditional subsistence agriculture human labor
    and draft animals, enough food to feed family
    only
  • Traditional intensive agriculture human and
    draft animals, fertilizer, water, enough to feed
    family, sell some for income
  • Polyculture several crops on the same plot,
    crop diversity
  • Benefits over monoculture
  • Slash-and-burn agriculture- clearing in tropical
    forests growing a variety of cash crops 20
    types
  • mature at different times ,keeps soil covered

14
Soil Is the Base of life on land
  • Soil composition complex mixture of eroded rock,
    mineral nutrients, decaying organic matter,
    water, air and billions of living organisms
  • Soil formation bedrock subject to mechanical and
    chemical weathering and biological processes to
    form soil
  • Layers (horizons) of mature soils
  • O horizon leaf litter
  • A horizon topsoil , humus
  • B horizon subsoil, inorganic matter,
    (sand,silt,clay,gravel)
  • C horizon parent material, often bedrock
  • Soil erosion water and wind

15
Soil Formation and Generalized Soil Profile
16
A Closer Look at Industrialized Crop Production
  • Green Revolution increase crop yields(since
    1988)
  • Monocultures of high-yield key crops
  • E.g., rice, wheat, and corn
  • Use large amounts of fertilizers, pesticides, and
    water
  • Multiple cropping
  • Second Green Revolution -1967. FAst growing dwarf
    varieties of rice and wheat . India , China,
    Central and South America
  • World grain has tripled in production

17
Global Outlook Total Worldwide Grain Production
(Wheat, Corn, and Rice)
18
Industrialized Food Production in the United
States
  • Agribusiness giant multinational increasingly
    control the growing
  • Annual sales more than automative , steel,
    housing combined .1/5 of the countrys GDP
  • Food production very efficient
  • Percent of income spent on food 2 of income

19
Crossbreeding and Genetic Engineering Can Produce
New Crop Varieties
  • Gene Revolution
  • Cross-breeding through artificial selection
  • Slow process 15 years or more to produce a crop
  • Resulting varieties remain useful for only 5-10
    years.
  • Genetic engineering
  • Genetic modified organisms (GMOs) transgenic
    organisms

20
Crossbreeding and Genetic Engineering Can Produce
New Crop Varieties
  • Age of Genetic Engineering developing crops that
    are resistant to
  • Heat and cold
  • Herbicides
  • Insect pests
  • Parasites
  • Viral diseases
  • Drought
  • Salty or acidic soil
  • Advanced tissue culture techniques

21
Meat Production and Consumption Have Grown
Steadily
  • Animals for meat raised in
  • Pastures
  • Densely Packed Feedlots
  • Confined animal feeding operations
  • Meat production increased fourfold between 1961
    and 2007
  • Demand is expected to go higher as countries
    become more industrialized and incomes increase

22
Fish and Shellfish Production Have Increased
  • Aquaculture, blue revolution
  • Worlds fastest-growing type of food production
  • Raising marine and freshwater species in ponds
    and underwater cages
  • Dominated by operations that raise herbivorous
    species carp,catfish,tilapia

23
Poly aquaculture
  • Integrate crop growing and aquaculture by using
    rice straw, pig and duck manure to fertilize farm
    ponds and rice paddies in order to produce
    phytoplankton eaten by various species of carp

24
Environmental Problems Arise from Food Production
  • Food production in the future may be limited by
    its serious environmental impacts, including soil
    erosion and degradation, desertification, water
    and air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and
    degradation and destruction of biodiversity.

25
Environmental Impacts of food production
Food Production
Biodiversity Loss
Soil
Water
Air Pollution
Human Health
Loss and degradation of grasslands, forests, and
wetlands
Erosion
Water waste
Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2) from fossil fuel
use
Nitrates in drinking water (blue baby)
Aquifer depletion
Loss of fertility
Increased runoff, sediment pollution, and
flooding from cleared land
Greenhouse gas emissions (N2O) from use of
inorganic fertilizers
Pesticide residues in drinking water, food, and
air
Salinization
Fish kills from pesticide runoff
Waterlogging
Contamination of drinking and swimming water from
livestock wastes
Desertification
Pollution from pesticides and fertilizers
Greenhouse gas emissions of methane (CH4) by
cattle (mostly belching)
Killing wild predators to protect livestock
Algal blooms and fish kills in lakes and rivers
caused by runoff of fertilizers and agricultural
wastes
Loss of genetic diversity of wild crop strains
replaced by monoculture strains
Bacterial contamination of meat
Other air pollutants from fossil fuel use and
pesticide sprays
Fig. 12-9, p. 286
26
Topsoil Erosion Is a Serious Problem in Parts of
the World
  • Soil erosion movement of soil components
  • Natural causes-wind, water
  • Human causes-
  • Two major harmful effects of soil erosion
  • Loss of soil fertilitydepletion of plant
    nutrients in topsoil
  • Water pollution in surface waters, sediment,
    residues of fertilizers and pesticides

27
Global Soil Erosion
Serious concern
Some concern
Stable or nonvegetative
Stepped Art
Fig. 12-11, p. 287
28
Drought and Human Activities Are Degrading
Drylands
  • Desertification
  • Moderate 10-25 drop
  • Severe 25-50 drop
  • Very severe more than 50 - gullies, dunes
  • Effect of global warming on desertification
  • increase drought in arid areas
  • drop in food production,

Sahel region in W Africa
29
Desertification of Arid and Semiarid Lands
30
consequences of Excessive Irrigation
  • Irrigation problems
  • Salinization accumulation of salts -Asia
  • Waterlogging water accumulates underground and
    raises the water table

31
Limits to Expanding the Green Revolutions
  • Expansion of the green revolution
  • requires huge inputs of fertilizer, pesticide,
    water, otherwise yields not much more than
    traditional crops
  • costs too much for subsistence farmers
  • Depletion of water, soil salinization, climate
    change
  • Solutions
  • Irrigating more cropland? 80 increase by 2050
  • Cultivating more land? mostly marginal land.
  • Using GMOs? increase yield /acre
  • Multicropping

32
Industrialized Food Production Requires Huge
Inputs of Energy
  • Industrialized food production and consumption
    have a large net energy loss

Industrialized Agriculture uses 17 of All
Commercial Energy Used in the U.S.
33
GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS
Projected Advantages
Projected Disadvantages
Irreversible and unpredictable genetic and
ecological effects
Need less fertilizer
Need less water
More resistant to insects, disease, frost, and
drought
Harmful toxins in food from possible plant cell
mutations
Grow faster
New allergens in food
Can grow in slightly salty soils
Lower nutrition
Increase in pesticide- resistant insects,
herbicide- resistant weeds, and plant diseases
May need less pesticides
Tolerate higher levels of herbicides
Can harm beneficial insects
Higher yields
Lower genetic diversity
Less spoilage
Fig. 12-16, p. 291
34
Food and Bio fuel Production Systems Have Caused
Major Biodiversity Losses
  • Biodiversity threatened when
  • Forest and grasslands are replaced with croplands
  • tropical forests and cerrado (savanna) in Brazil
  • Agrobiodiversity threatened when
  • Human-engineered monocultures are used
  • Replacing natures resilient genetic diversity
  • India 30,000 varieties of rice, now only 10
  • Importance of seed banks
  • Newest underground vault in the Norwegian Arctic

35
Producing Fish through Aquaculture Can Harm
Aquatic Ecosystems
Aquaculture
Advantages
Disadvantages
Needs large inputs of land, feed, and water
High efficiency
High yield in small volume of water
Large waste output
Can destroy mangrove forests and estuaries
Can reduce overharvesting of fisheries
Uses grain to feed some species
Low fuel use
Dense populations vulnerable to disease
High profits
Fig. 12-18, p. 293
36
How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More
Sustainably?
  • We can sharply cut pesticide use without
    decreasing crop yields by using a mix of
    cultivation techniques, biological pest controls,
    and small amounts of selected chemical pesticides
    as a last resort (integrated pest management).

37
Nature Controls the Populations of Most Pests
  • What is a pest interferes with human welfare
  • Natural enemiespredators, parasites, disease
    organismscontrol pests
  • In natural ecosystems
  • In many polyculture
  • agroecosystems

38
We Use Pesticides to Try to Control Pest
Populations
  • Pesticides
  • Insecticides insects killers
  • Herbicides weed killers
  • Fungicides fungus killers
  • Rodenticides rat and mouse killers
  • Herbivores overcome plant defenses through
    natural selection coevolution

39
We Use Pesticides to Try to Control Pest
Populations
  • First-generation pesticides-natural chemicals
    from plants
  • Second-generation pesticides
  • Paul Muller DDT Nobel Prize 1948
  • Benefits versus harm
  • Broad-spectrum agents toxic to many pests and
    non-pest species. Chlorinated hydrocarbons DDT,
    organophosphates malathion, parathion
  • Selective or narrow spectrum agents -
  • Persistence length of time they remain deadly
    in the environment for years, biologically
    magnified in food webs

40
Individuals Matter Rachel Carson
  • Biologist DDT use was increasing to control
    mosquitoes
  • Silent Spring - 1962
  • Potential threats of uncontrolled use of
    pesticides
  • Gave impetus to the US environmental movement

41
Modern Synthetic Pesticides Have Several
Advantages
  • Save human lives prevented deaths from malaria,
    typhus and bubonic plague at least 7 million
    people
  • Increases food supplies and profits for farmers
    protect 55 of the worlds food supply. Profit
    14
  • Work quickly, long shelf life, easily shipped and
    applied
  • Health risks are very low relative to their
    benefits
  • New pest control methods safer and more effective

42
Modern Synthetic Pesticides Have Several
Disadvantages
  • Accelerate the development of genetic resistance,
    5 to 10 years, sooner in the tropics
  • Financial treadmill
  • Kill natural predators and parasites that help
    control
  • Only 0.1-2 of the pesticide applied by aerial or
    ground spraying reaches the target pest. Rest
    pollutes air, water, harm wild life, affect
    human health


  • Expensive for farmers
  • Some insecticides kill natural predators and
    parasites that help control the pest population
  • Pollution in the environment
  • Some harm wildlife
  • Some are human health hazards

43
Modern Synthetic Pesticides Have Several
Disadvantages
  • David Pimentel Pesticide use has not reduced
    U.S. crop loss to pests
  • Loss of crops is about 31, even with 33-fold
    increase in pesticide use
  • High environmental, health, and social costs with
    use, 5-10 in damages for every 1 spent
  • Use alternative pest management practices could
    halve the use of chemical pesticides on 40 major
    US crops
  • Pesticide industry refutes these findings
  • Campbell soup tomatoes in Mexico, Rice in
    Indonesia, Sweden

44
Glyphosate-Resistant Crop Weed Management System
A Dilemma
  • Best-selling herbicide (Roundup), Monsanto
  • Advantages does not harm living things,
    degrades into harmless substances within weeks
  • Disadvantages - resistant weeds , expensive to
    develop other pesticides

45
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46
Case Study Ecological Surprises
  • 1955 Dieldrin sprayed to control mosquitoes
  • Malaria was controlled
  • Dieldrin didnt leave the food chain
  • Domino effect of the spraying
  • Happy ending

47
Laws and Treaties Can Help to Protect Us from the
Harmful Effects of Pesticides
  • U.S. federal agencies
  • EPA
  • USDA
  • FDA
  • Effects of active and inactive pesticide
    ingredients are poorly documented
  • Circle of poison, boomerang effect residues of
    banned chemicals exported to other countries may
    come back on food, winds carry persistent
    pesticides such as DDT

48
International Treaties
  • 1998 50 countries developed treaty that
    requires exporting countries to have consent from
    importing countries for exports of 22 pesticides
    , 5 industrial chemicals
  • 2000 100 countries signed to phase out 12 of
    the most hazardous persistent organic pollutants
    (POPs), 9 of them hydrocarbons (DDT)
  • United States has not signed this agreement

49
Alternatives to Using Pesticides
  • Fool the pest rotate crops, adjust plant times
  • Provide homes for pest enemies
  • Implant genetic resistance GMOs
  • Bring in natural enemies natural predators
  • Use insect perfumes
  • Hormones
  • Scald them

50
Integrated Pest Management Is a Component of
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Integrated pest management (IPM)
  • Coordinate cultivation, biological controls, and
    chemical tools to reduce crop damage to an
    economically tolerable level
  • Disadvantages
  • expert knowledge

51
Use Government Policies to Improve Food
Production and Security
  • Control prices keep artificially low
  • Provide subsidies price supports, tax breaks,
    subsidies for 31 of global farm income
  • Developed 280 billion /year
  • Substitute traditional subsidies with ones that
    promote sustainable farming practices
  • Subsidies to fishing promotes destructive
    fishing practices
  • Let the marketplace decide

52
Use Government Policies to Improve Food
Production and Security
  • United Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) suggests
    these measures. Can be done at an average annual
    cost of 5-10 / child
  • Immunizing children against childhood diseases
  • Encourage breast-feeding
  • Prevent dehydration in infants and children
  • Prevent blindness Vitamin A capsule (75c/child)
  • Provide family planning services
  • Increase education for women

53
How Can We Produce Food More Sustainably?
  • Sustainable food production will require reducing
    topsoil erosion, eliminating overgrazing and
    overfishing, irrigating more efficiently, using
    integrated pest management, promoting
    agrobiodiversity, and providing government
    subsidies for more sustainable farming, fishing,
    and aquaculture.

54
How Can We Produce Food More Sustainably?
  • Producing enough food to feed the rapidly
    growing human population will require growing
    crops in a mix of monocultures and poly cultures
    and decreasing the enormous environmental impacts
    of industrialized food production.

55
Reduce Soil Erosion
  • Soil conservation, some methods
  • Terracing
  • Contour planting
  • Strip cropping with cover crop
  • Alley cropping, agroforestry
  • Windbreaks or shelterbeds
  • Conservation-tillage farming
  • No-till
  • Minimum tillage
  • Identify erosion hotspots

56
Solutions Mixture of Monoculture Crops Planted
in Strips on a Farm
57
Soil Erosion in the United States Dust Bowl
  • Poor cultivation and prolonged drought
  • Plowing prairie dug up root system
  • Severe wind erosion
  • Largest internal migration from the Midwest
  • Soil Erosion Act 1935

58
The Dust Bowl of the Great Plains, U.S.
59
Restore Soil Fertility
  • Organic fertilizer
  • Animal manure dung , urine
  • Green manure freshly cut, growing green
    vegetation
  • Compost microorganisms to break down organic
    waste
  • Commercial inorganic fertilizer active
    ingredients
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorous
  • Potassium
  • Crop Rotation

60
Reduce Soil Salinization and Desertification
  • Soil salinization
  • Prevention
  • Clean-up
  • Desertification, reduce
  • Population growth
  • Overgrazing
  • Deforestation
  • Destructive forms of planting, irrigation, and
    mining

Flush soil (expensive and wastes water
Reduce irrigation
Stop growing crops for 25 years
Switch to salt-tolerant crops (such as barley,
cotton, and sugar beet
Install underground drainage systems (expensive)
61
Practice More Sustainable Aquaculture
  • Open-ocean aquaculture US developing,
  • raising large carnivorous fish in underwater pens
    located 300 Km offshore. Fish fattened with fish
    meal
  • Raising shrimp far inland in zero-discharge
    freshwater ponds to minimize damage to Florida
    coastal areas salmon, trout, tuna, grouper, cod
  • Choose herbivorous fish carp, tilapia
  • Polyaquaculture raise fish, shrimp, algae,
    seaweeds and shellfish coastal lagoons

62
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63
Produce Meat More Efficiently and Humanely
  • Shift to more grain-efficient forms of protein
  • Shift to farmed herbivorous fish
  • Develop meat substitutes eat less meat
  • Whole Food Markets more humane treatment of
    animals
  • World Organization for Animal Health humane
    transportation and slaughter of livestock animals

64
Efficiency of Converting Grain into Animal Protein
People food habits changing eating lower down
on the food chain
65
Shift to More Sustainable Agriculture
  • Paul Mader and David Dubois
  • 22-year study
  • Compared organic and conventional farming
  • Benefits of organic farming
  • little or no use of synthetic pesticides,
    fertilizers or genetically engineered seeds,
    fields free for 3 years
  • livestock raised without genetic engineering

66
Shift to More Sustainable Agriculture (2)
  • Strategies for more sustainable agriculture
  • Research on organic agriculture with human
    nutrition in mind
  • Show farmers how organic agricultural systems
    work
  • Subsidies and foreign aid
  • Training programs college curricula

67
SOLUTIONS
Organic Farming
Improves soil fertility
Reduces soil erosion
Retains more water in soil during drought years
Uses about 30 less energy per unit of yield
Lowers CO2 emissions
Reduces water pollution by recycling livestock
wastes
Eliminates pollution from pesticides
Increases biodiversity above and below ground
Benefits wildlife such as birds and bats
Fig. 12-32, p. 308
68
Scientists Are Studying Benefits and Costs of
Organic Farming
  • Effect of different fertilizers on nitrate
    leaching in apple trees
  • calcium nitrate and alfalfa residues, composted
    chicken manure, integrated approach (combined)
  • Less nitrate leached into the soil after organic
    fertilizers were used 4.4 to 5.6 times less

69
Sustainable Polycultures of Perennial Crops
  • Polycultures of perennial crops
  • Wes Jackson natural systems agriculture benefits
  • No need to plow soil and replant each year
  • Reduces soil erosion and water pollution
  • Deeper roots less irrigation needed
  • Less fertilizer and pesticides needed

70
Comparison of the Roots between an Annual Plant
and a Perennial Plant
Roots of a tall grass prairie plant
Annual Wheat Crop Plant
Better at using water and nutrients
71
Buy Locally Grown Food
  • Supports local economies
  • Does not have to be transported far reduces
    greenhouse gas emissions, 5 to 17 times less
  • Reduces environmental impact on food production
    grow organic food or buy organic food grown
    locally
  • Community-supported agriculture (CSA)

72
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73
Scientific Principles of Sustainability violated
..
  • Modern industrial agriculture .
  • depends on nonrenewable fossil fuels
  • too little recycling of crop and animal wastes
  • accelerates soil erosion
  • does not preserve agro biodiversity
  • destroy or degrade wildlife habitat
  • disrupt natural species interactions that help to
    control pest population sizes

74
Scientific Principles of sustainability preserved
.
  • rely more on solar energy than oil
  • sustaining nutrient cycling by soil conservation
    and by returning crop residues and animal wastes
    to the soil
  • sustain natural /agricultural biodiversity by
    relying on a greater variety of crop and animal
    strains
  • controlling pest populations
  • broader use of polyculture and IPM
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