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Africa and Trans-Sahara Trade Routes

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Africa and Trans-Sahara Trade Routes 600-1450 Always something new out of Africa (Greek Proverb; 1st C CE) What do you suppose this proverb is referring to? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Africa and Trans-Sahara Trade Routes


1
Africa and Trans-Sahara Trade Routes
  • 600-1450

2
Always something new out of Africa (Greek
Proverb 1st C CE)
  • What do you suppose this proverb is referring to?

3
Pre-600 CE
  • West Africa domesticated millet sorghum
  • Ironworking technology
  • Between North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa trade
    included ivory, hides, cola, copper, slaves, and
    dates
  • Expanded to Islamic World by 700 CE
  • 300 CE introduction of camels

4
Pre-600
  • Predominately Christian or ATR
  • State-level societies Jenne-Jeno and Gao (in
    present-day Mali)
  • Stateless societies organized around kinship
    boundaries
  • Not-consolidated power power-vacuum
  • Common language Bantu

5
Trans-Sahara Trade Routes
6
Trans-Sahara Trade Routes
  • Began with Soninke Empire (Ghana) in the 5th
    century
  • Linked to Mediterranean Empires?supplied gold and
    salt
  • Used camels (Ibn Battuta, camel caravan size
    1,000-12,000)
  • Eventually sent slaves north

7
Trans-Sahara Trade Routes
  • Beginning of trade Ghana
  • Height of trade Mali
  • Decline of trade Portuguese invaders/Atlantic
    slave trade

8
African Political Organization
  • Kinship groups
  • Through family groups
  • Village council male family heads
  • Chiefs
  • District
  • Chiefdoms
  • Population growth increased conflict
  • Organized military forces, around 1000 CE
  • Powerful chiefs overrode kinship networks and
    imposed authority
  • Ex Benin and Ife (Yoruba)

9
African Political Organization
  • Kingdom of Kongo
  • Villages formed small city-states along the Congo
    River, 1000 CE
  • Small states?larger principalities, 1200 CE
  • One conquered others Kongo
  • Centralized government
  • Royal currency system
  • Until mid-17th century

10
African Political Organization Christian
Kingdoms
  • Reached Africa by 1st C Axum by 4th C
  • Nubia
  • Independently Christian until the 13th C.
  • Ethiopia
  • King Lalibela (13th C)
  • Egypt Copts

11
African Political Organization Islamic Kingdoms
  • Spread of Islam
  • When did it spread through Africa?
  • How?
  • Why?

12
African Political Organization Islamic Kingdoms
  • Islamic Impact
  • Active trade with Islamic world (Dar al-Islam)
  • Islamic world interested in Ghana
  • The richest king on the face of the earth by
    reason of wealth and treasure of gold
  • By 11th C, Muslims part of culture of the Savannah

13
African Political Organization Islamic Kingdoms
  • Mansa Musa
  • Malian Muslim King
  • 1324-1325, set out to take a Hajj
  • Thousands of retainers
  • 100 camel loads of gold
  • Prices skyrocketed in Alexandria
  • Reports of wealthy Africans to Europe
  • Set out to build new mosques

14
African Political Organization Islamic Kingdoms
  • Timbuktu Center of learning
  • Young men kept in irons until they had memorized
    the entire Quran (Ibn Battuta)
  • Salt comes from the north, gold from the south,
    but the word of God and the treasures of wisdom
    come from Timbuktu."
  • High literacy rate

15
African Political Organization Islamic Kingdoms
  • Oral Tradition
  • What is a griot?
  • Any connections to other traditions?
  • What is the value of oral traditions?
  • What were the qualities people expected in a
    king?
  • Whats the connection between Africa and the
    wider world?

16
African Political Organization Islamic Kingdoms
  • Songhay Kingdom
  • Refer to your notes from chapter 8
  • What are key components of the Songhay Kingdom?
  • Timbuktu at its height decline of Mali and Ghana
  • Replaces Mali by the late 15th C

17
Commonalities in Sudanic Islamic States
  • Clans, kinship groups, etc. formed social aspects
  • Unified states allowed for coexistence of diverse
    groups and communities
  • Islam served as a common religion
  • Islam fused with existing traditions and beliefs
  • Matrilineal societies
  • Slavery and slave trade Africa and Islamic
    world 4.8 million people in the 700 years of the
    trans-Saharan trade

18
African Political Organization Islamic Kingdoms
East Africa
  • Swahili
  • Arabic term meaning coasters
  • Mogadishu to Sofala
  • Swahili Bantu derivative language Arabic
  • Trade with Muslim merchants
  • City-States
  • Chiefs gain power by taxing trade on ports
  • Ports?city-states governed by kings in 11th and
    12th centuries

19
African Political Organization Islamic Kingdoms
East Africa
  • Great Zimbabwe
  • The stone complex known as Great Zimbabwe built
    in 12th C
  • 18,000 people lived there in the 15th C (some say
    up to 30,000!)
  • Kings organized flow of gold, ivory, slaves
  • Wealth lie in cattle production

20
African Political Organization Islamic Kingdoms
East Africa
  • Kilwa
  • Began around the 9th C
  • Traded throughout the Indian Ocean
  • Trade
  • Gold and iron from Great Zimbabwe
  • Ivory and slaves from mainland Tanzania
  • Jewelry, porcelain and spices from Asia.
  • Islamic mosques
  • Ibn Battuta

21
African Society and Cultural Development
  • Social classes
  • Diverse dependent upon location
  • Kinship groups
  • No private property

22
African Society and Cultural Development
  • Men
  • Heavy labor
  • Public authority
  • Kings/chiefs
  • Women
  • child rearing, domesticity
  • High honor as source of life
  • Aristocratic women could influence public affairs
  • Women merchants
  • All-female military units

23
African Society and Cultural Development
  • Slavery
  • Most were captives of war, debtors, criminals
  • Agricultural labor
  • Increased after 11th C
  • Demand outstripped supply from eastern Europe
  • Large states began slave raids from small states
    or villages
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