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CHAPTER 3 MORPHOLOGY: THE WORDS OF LANGUAGE (71-114)

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Title: CHAPTER 3 MORPHOLOGY: THE WORDS OF LANGUAGE (71-114)


1
CHAPTER 3 MORPHOLOGY THE WORDS OF
LANGUAGE (71-114)
  • PowerPoint by Don L. F. Nilsen
  • to accompany
  • An Introduction to Language (8e, 2007)
  • by Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman
  • and Nina Hyams

2
CONTENT WORDS VS. FUNCTION WORDS
  • You may have been told that there are eight Parts
    of Speech in English.
  • You may have been told that their names are
    Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs, Pronouns,
    Articles, Auxiliary Verbs and Expletives.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 74-76)

3
  • What your teachers told you is not a lie, but it
    is very much an oversimplification.
  • These Part-of-Speech Categories need to be
    divided into two very different types of Parts of
    Speech.
  • The Content Words carry real-world meaning.
  • The Function words carry only grammatical
    meaning.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 74-76)

4
  • The Content Words are Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives
    and Adverbs.
  • The Function Words are Articles, Auxiliary Verbs
    and Expletives.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 74-76)
  • The Pronouns belong to neither of these
    categories. Pronouns can stand in the place of
    Nouns, Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositional Phrases, or
    even Sentences.

5
  • Since Content Words carry real-world meaning
  • Content words can be stressed.
  • Content words cannot be easily figured out if
    they are deleted.
  • Content words can be inflected.
  • Content words more readily enter into compounds.
  • Content words are an open set new ones enter our
    language daily.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 74-76)

6
  • Pronouns meet some of these criteria but not
    others. They carry some real-world meaning, but
    not as much as the words they replace.
  • They can sometimes be stressed.
  • They can be figured out if deleted.
  • They can be inflected.
  • They dont enter into compounding.
  • They are a closed set.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 74-76)

7
CATEGORIES VS. FUNCTIONS
  • Noun is a category. Subject is a function.
  • A Noun or a Pronoun can function as a Subject, a
    Subject Complement, a Direct Object, an Indirect
    Object, an Object Complement or an Object of a
    Preposition.
  • Pronouns functioning as S or SC are in subject
    form those functioning as DO, IO, OC, or OP are
    in object form.

8
  • A Verb functions as a Predicate.
  • An Adjective or an Adverb functions as a
    Modifier.
  • An Adjective answers which, what kind of, or
    how many and modifies a Noun.
  • An Adverb answers how, when, where or how
    much and modifies a Verb, an Adjective, an
    Adverb or a Sentence.

9
  • Function Words have only grammatical meaning.
  • Prepositions relate Nouns to other Nouns (fourth
    of July).
  • Conjunctions relate Sentences to other Sentences.
  • Articles mark Nouns.
  • Auxiliaries mark Verbs.
  • Expletives mark the place of the Subject so that
    the Subject can be postponed.

10
OLD AND NEW INFORMATION
  • The Subject of a sentence gives Old Information.
    It provides the subject for the people to talk
    about.
  • The Predicate of a sentence gives New
    Information. It provides new and insightful
    information about the Subject.

11
  • Subject and Predicate are important not only to
    Linguists, but also to Rhetoricians,
    Psychologists, Logicians, etc., but different
    names are used in different fields
  • Subject vs. Predicate
  • Topic vs. Comment
  • Old Information vs. New Information
  • Theme vs. Rheme
  • Presupposition vs. Assertion

12
Contrast the following
  • Bound vs. Free Morphemes
  • Stem vs. Affix
  • Prefix vs. Suffix vs. Infix
  • Derivational vs. Inflectional
  • Content vs. Functional Morphemes
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 76-84)

13
Analyze the following word
  • antidisestablishmentarianism
  • STEM stable or establish
  • Suffixes -ment, -arian, -ism
  • Prefixes dis-, anti-

14
NOUNS
  • PLURAL cats, dogs, horses, deer, data, mice,
    alumni
  • POSSESSIVE dogs, its
  • PLURAL POSSESSIVE dogs
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 98-101)
  • NOTE English used to have four cases
    Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and Accusative

15
VERBS
  • THIRD PERSON SINGULAR PRESENT INDICATIVE goes
  • PAST TENSE buzzed, walked, heated, sang
  • PAST PARTICIPLE driven, hit, liked
  • PRESENT PARTICIPLE driving
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 98-101)
  • NOTE English used to have two more forms
    driveth, drivest

16
SUPPLETIVE VERBS
  • A suppletive form is one which comes from two
    different paradigms. These must be
    high-frequency words, or they will become
    regularized through common use.
  • Go-went is a suppletive verb, as is is-be.
    Go comes from the go paradigm, while went
    comes from the wend paradigm.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 101)

17
ADJECTIVES
  • COMPARATIVE higher, more beautiful, more
    friendly
  • SUPERLATIVE highest, most beautiful, most
    friendly
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 98-101)
  • NOTE Old English Adjectives used to have four
    cases (Nom, Gen, Dat, Acc), agreed with nouns,
    and came after nouns

18
ADVERBS
  • COMPARATIVE faster, more imaginatively
  • SUPERLATIVE fastest, most imaginatively
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 98-101)
  • Adverbs usually end in ly, however there are
  • FLAT ADVERBS fast, first
  • AND LY ADJECTIVES friendly

19
PERSONAL PRONOUNS
  • Sing Nom Obj Pos Substantive
    Reflexive
  • 1st I me my mine
    myself
  • 2nd you you your yours
    yourself
  • 3rd he him his his
    himself
  • she her her hers
    herself
  • it it its
    its itself
  • Plural
  • 1st we us our ours
    ourselves
  • 2nd you you your yours
    yourselves
  • 3rd they them their theirs
    themselves

20
RELATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS
  • RELATIVE INTERROGATIVE
  • when when
  • where where
  • why why
  • how how
  • which which
  • what what
  • that

21
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS
  • singular plural
  • close this that
  • far these those

22
Contrast these sentences
  • When did she arrive? (Int Pro)
  • I know when she arrived. (Rel Pro)
  • This is the pen that you borrowed. (Rel Pro)
  • Please give me that pen. (Dem Pro)
  • I know that you wanted to do well. (SC)

23
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS (GO WITH A SINGULAR VERB)
  • THING PLACE TIME
  • ANY anything anywhere anytime
  • NO nothing nowhere never
  • SOME- something somewhere sometime

24
ARCHAIC FORMS SHAKESPEARE THE BIBLE
  • NOMINATIVE POSSESSIVE ACCUSATIVE
  • SINGULARS thou (Nom), thy, thine (Gen),
    thee (Acc)
  • PLURALS you, ye
  • DUALS wit, uncer, unc, git, incer, inc (NOTE
    No longer in Modern English

25
MORPHOLOGICAL HUMOR
26
UGLIFICATION
  • I never heard of Uglification, Alice ventured
    to say. What is it? The Gryphon lifted up
    both its paws in surprise. never heard of
    uglifying! it exclaimed. You know what to
    beautify is, I suppose? Yes, said Alice
    doubtfully it meansto makeanything-prettier.
    Well, then, the Gryphon went on, if you dont
    know what to uglify is, you are a simpleton.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 83)
  • (Carroll 128-129)

27
  • The term uglification is part of a longer quote
    in which Alice is being told about the education
    system in Wonderland. Students in Wonderland
    study Reeling, Writhing, Uglification and
    Derision.
  • They call their teacher Tortoise because he
    taught us.
  • Lessons get shorter each day. Thats why theyre
    called lessens.
  • In Wonderland, Latin and Greek becomes
    Laughing and Grief, and drawing, sketching and
    painting in oils becomes Drawling, Stretching,
    and Fainting in Coils.
  • (Carroll 128-129)

28
CLICK AND CLACK THE TAPPET BROTHERS
  • On National Public Radios Cartalk, Click and
    Clack are playing with Morphology in their list
    of credits
  • Copyeditor Adeline Moore
  • Accounts Payable Ineeda Czech
  • Pollution Control Maury Missions
  • Purchasing Lois Bidder
  • Statistician Marge Innovera
  • Russian Chauffeur Picov Andropov
  • Legal Firm Dewey, Cheetham, and Howe.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 72)

29
!BILINGUAL MORPHOLOGICAL WORD PLAY
  • Un petit dun petit
  • Sétonne aux Halles
  • This makes no sense in French, but it makes
    perfect sense in English
  • Humpty Dumpty
  • Sat on a wall
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 72)

30
!!WATERGATE
  • The Watergate Hotel is where the break-in of the
    National Democratic headquarters occurred.
  • Todays dictionaries give more room to the
    metonymous meaning of Watergate than to the
    literal meaning of a gate controlling the flow
    of water.
  • Gate has now become a suffix meaning scandal
    as in Irangate, Contragate, Iraqgate, Pearlygate,
    Rubbergate, Murphygate, Gennifergate, Nannygate,
    Monicagate, ad infinitum.
  • (Nilsen Nilsen 180)

31
!!!NEW DEFINITIONS
  • Artery The study of painting
  • Bacteria The back door of a cafeteria
  • Barium What doctors do when patients die.
  • Nilsen Nilsen 177)

32
  • References
  • Carroll, Lewis. Alices Adventures in Wonderland.
    New York, NY Random House, 1960.
  • Clark, Virginia, Paul Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa.
    Language Readings in Language and Culture, 6th
    Edition. New York, NY St. Martins Press, 1998.
  • Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams.
    Morphology The Words of Language. An
    Introduction to Language, 8th Edition. Boston,
    MA Thomson Wadsworth, 2007, 71-114.
  • Gleason, H. A. Jr. The Identification of
    Morphemes (Clark, 144-153).
  • Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen.
    Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor.
    Westport, CT Greenwood, 2000.
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