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International Social Work

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Title: SW 655 Seminar in Advanced International Social Work Author: guest Last modified by: Andra Created Date: 1/26/2003 7:35:28 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: International Social Work


1
International Social Work
  • Opportunities in International Social Work
  • Introduction Review

2
Why is Intl Social Work Important?
  • What examples do you have?
  • We live in a shrinking globe
  • National actions cross national borders
  • Remember it can range from full time overseas
    work to domestic work with some intl. dimensions
  • Global interdependence

3
Intl. Social Work
  • 1. Social agency caseloads have changed
  • 2. Social problems shared even by developed
    countries
  • 3. Actions of one country effects others
  • 4. Advanced technologies travel has lead to
    enhanced sharing opportunities

4
History of Intl. Social Work
  • Role of COS Settlement House Movement
  • Formal schools develop in late 1890s
  • First Intl Conference of Social Work in 1928.
  • Dominance of US, Britain Germany
  • Eastern Europe Influence

5
History Contd.
  • Latin America
  • Africa
  • China
  • India
  • Role of early missionaries
  • Denmark

6
History Contd.
  • 1915 Abraham Flexners Report
  • Problems with the definition of the profession
  • current example in Latvia
  • Social Diagnosis

7
History Contd.
  • SW viewed as a female profession
  • Role in World War I
  • Impact of worldwide Depression
  • Rise of Nationalism and shift away from Intl.
    thinking

8
Social Work in World War II
  • Rise of Nationalism
  • Restrictions placed on German Italian Social
    Work Programs
  • SW attempts value-neutral stance
  • Japanese-Americans in Internment camps
  • Post war impacts of Communism

9
Post War Changes
  • Social work was officially abolished after the
    Soviet take over of Eastern Europe
  • It was declared as unnecessary a bourgeois
    profession in China as well
  • Social Work however continued in Poland in spite
    of the devastation
  • UNRRA--Intl. SW Involvement

10
UNRRA
  • November 1943 --established
  • Developed by 44 Nations
  • Promised to organize relief rehabilitation for
    nations invaded by the Axis powers.as soon as
    they are liberated
  • UNRRA programs are a high point of Intl. Social
    Work

11
Role of UN
  • With the est. of UNRRA subsequent developments
    the UN became the largest contributor to the
    spread of Social Work throughout the world

12
1950 to 1960
  • Time period of independence movements throughout
    Africa, Asia the Caribbean
  • The First International Conference of Ministers
    Responsible for Social Welfare was held in Africa
    in 1968officials from 89 countries, NGOs
    observers were present

13
1970s Rejection of the West
  • New nations reject Western models of Social Work
    in favor of a search for an indigenous form of
    social workboth culturally and economically
    relevant to the society
  • Latin America leads the way
  • Radical approach
  • Moderate approach

14
Latin American Social Work
  • Impact of Paulo Freire..stressing an approach
    based upon citizen participation
  • Additional impact of Liberation Theology

15
Fall of USSR
  • New opportunities occurred with the end of Soviet
    domination
  • Establishment of Social Work programs in Eastern
    Europe in early 1990s
  • First Intl. Russian Social Work Conference in
    1993
  • Movements in China in the late 1990s

16
Role of CSWE
  • 1956 CSWE forms working committee to develop
    definition of Intl. SW
  • Membership in IASSW stressed
  • CSWE International Commission formed
  • Intl. Commission impacts EPAS
  • Accredited Programs to include content

17
Healys Definition of Intl. Social Work
  • 1. Internationally related Domestic Practice
    Advocacy
  • 2. Professional Exchange
  • 3. International Practice
  • 4. International Policy Development Advocacy

18
Intl. Survey Results
  • Cross-cultural understanding
  • Comparative social policy
  • Concern with global problems
  • general worldview
  • knowledge of common profession worldwide
  • International Practice

19
Survey Results contd.
  • Intergovernmental social welfare experience
  • sense of collegiality with social workers in
    other countries
  • We can also add
  • a good sensed of humor
  • and a high degree of flexibility

20
NASW Intl. Social Work
  • By 1999 NASW had begun to focus on the role of
    Social Workers in International Practice
  • A position paper was called for on the role of
    social work in international development
  • Social works contribution to policy development
    was stressed

21
SW International Practice
  • Rosenthal in her 1991 article stated that
    although social work and International social
    welfare organizations have much in common, not
    many social workers appear to participate in
    international practice. WHY??

22
Elements of Occupational Choice
  • General Values Skills

23
General Values Skills
24
Technical Skills
  • Comm. Organizing skills
  • Administration skills
  • Social Policy analysis
  • Program design development
  • Education training skills

25
Practice Location
  • 1. Freedom to relocate from the US
  • 2. Makes Professional Personal demands
  • 3. Intercultural Experience
  • 4. Need to be global-mindedneed to be altruistic

26
Rosenthal Study Findings
  • Social Workers reported a lack of freedom to
    relocate
  • They also perceived that living working in the
    developing world would not be rewarding
  • Recruitment should focus on swers with few
    problems family obligations

27
Globalization from Below
  • What does CSWE CPS really mean?
  • This type of globalization represents the
    interests of the common person not the
    multinational corporation
  • Implemented through a pen-pal concept via the
    internet
  • Aids in student understanding of different
    peoples cultures

28
Use of Internet
  • Social workers can share information and
    collaborate in solving social problems
  • International Social Work must be a two-way
    street and American Social Workers have much to
    learn from their colleagues in other countries

29
Course Projects
  • List generated of potential student partners
    several local community organizations
  • American students required to communicate 2 times
    per week to discuss common social problems in
    both countries

30
Results of Project
  • Perhaps most significant is the increased
    awareness between students in the two cultures of
    the similarities differences they experienced
  • Additionally, it may be a way of answering the
    questions raised in the earlier Rosenthal
    studyit promoted American social worker interest

31
International Social Work Placement Possibilities
  • Practices, Responsibilities, Accountability
    Contracts

32
International Social Work
  • Massive changes taking place around the
    globesuch as??
  • What is a definition of global interdependence?
  • Has the end of the Cold War made the world a
    safer place?
  • Whats the role of International Social Work?

33
International Social Work
  • Why is social work a primarily locally focused
    profession?
  • Reality today is the social workers much have a
    global focus.local practice is increasingly
    impacted by global factors
  • What do social workers know about the World Bank
    the IMF?

34
International Social Work
  • End of Cold War means political ideologies
    decline ethnicity as well as religion become
    sources of conflict
  • How has this impacted upon the refugees
    resulting immigration issues?
  • Largest worldwide Diaspora of people in history

35
International Social Work
  • Increased need for professions to have an
    understanding of the cultural roots of the new
    immigrants ethnic groups
  • Worldwide poverty is increasing
  • Some societies have a nonexistent or shrinking
    middle class
  • Increasing disparities in the area of wealth

36
International Social Work
  • Too little food
  • Too little safe water
  • Poor or inadequate health care
  • Human rights violations
  • AIDS pandemic
  • Increasing poverty apathy

37
International Social Work
  • Obstacles to social works role
    internationally?????

38
International Social Work
  • Lack of status
  • Lack of resources
  • Political oppression
  • No official govt. sanction
  • Service structures that limit assistance
  • Limited societal understanding of the role of
    social work

39
International Social Work
  • How do social workers begin to take a global
    perspective??..without being overwhelmed by the
    problems of the world?
  • Role of social work organizations
  • IFSW
  • IASSW
  • ICSW and IUCISD

40
International Social Work
  • To date, the Intl. SW organizations perform a
    primarily educational role
  • Increased UN and International NGO involvement is
    needed.perhaps a role for MU ICD graduates??
  • Why are American SWers absent from these
    organizations?

41
International Social Work
  • Impacts of economic growth social improvements
  • Requires programs policies that enhance
    peoples welfare well-being while at the same
    time contributing to economic advancement

42
International Social Work
  • Disjointed development often means some benefit
    from economic policies, but not the majority
  • Many are left with the idea social benefits are
    an economic drain upon the society

43
International Social Work
  • Economic plans must enhance social programs
    services
  • Also Social development must contribute to
    economic development
  • Any IDEAS how this can be done at a National
    level?

44
International Social Work
  • FACT the highest standards of living in the
    world today are found in those nations that
    experienced economic modernization at the same
    time introduced extensive social programs.
  • What is distorted development?

45
International Social Work
  • The Developmental Perspective
  • Seeks to promote the well-being of people through
    harmonizing economic social policies within a
    dynamic process of development.
  • What was British experience in West Africa??

46
International Social Work
  • UN definition of Social Development stressed a
    movement beyond traditional remedial short-term
    services to that of promoting a wider inclusive
    view of social welfare
  • The UN challenged governments to ensure economic
    benefits reached ordinary people..equity concept

47
International Social Work
  • In response to a top-down model of social
    planning the UN in the late 1970s began to
    stress citizen or community participation to
    enhance local citizen involvement in the social
    planning process
  • Community participation is now considered vital
    in social development

48
International Social Work Problem
Statement
  • You have just taken a job as a social planner for
    the government of Belarus.what are your initial
    plans for work in the areas of social economic
    development?

49
International Social Work
  • How the approach works
  • First, it establishes organizational mechanisms
    to integrate economic social policies.
  • Second, economic growth must have a positive
    impact on peoples welfare
  • Third, social programs that directly impact
    economic development are stressed

50
International Social Work
  • Social workers social agencies need to have a
    focus that is concerned with the promotion of
    human welfare rather than the treatment of
    personal problems
  • This has not been worked out in the profession as
    we continue to deal the correctness of micro
    vs. macro practice

51
International Social Work
  • Midgleys perspective on SW involvement in
    Development
  • 1. Assist in mobilizing human capital
  • 2. Foster the formation of social capital
  • 3. Help low-income special-needs clients
    engage in employment

52
Realities of Practice
  • 2 billion people will be added to the worlds
    population in the next 30 years and another
    billion in the following 20 years..what is the
    concept of doubling time?
  • 2.5 billion to 3 billion people currently live on
    less than 2.00 per day!

53
Realities
  • Poverty declining but still a problem
  • Inequality widening
  • Increased conflict
  • Air pollution
  • Little fresh water
  • Soil forests destroyed
  • Biodiversity disappearing

54
Social Work the Global Economy
  • The Role of Global Interdependence

55
SW the Global Economy
  • Global Interdependence is a fact of life for us
    all
  • A Global focus has been strong in economics
    environmental issues
  • Understood by swers in developing nations given
    their involvement in structural adjustment
    programs through the IMF

56
SW the Global Economy
  • Today, global interdependence has impacted swers
    in developing nations as well.
  • Increasing similarities in social problems
  • Countries can no longer solve their problems
    themselves.for example the problem of human
    trafficking

57
SW the Global Economy
  • Social workers must be cognizant of global
    matters in order to understand the problems they
    face in working with clients and communities and
    in contributing to problem resolutions.
  • Can you think of any examples??

58
SW the Global Economy
  • Remember, in a global economy social problems at
    the local level may be caused in part or wholly
    by economic changes occurring far away
  • Impacts of capital-absorbing and labor-saving
    production technologies..leading to the
    reduction in the need for human capital

59
SW the Global Economy
  • Changes have come in the nature of human work
  • In the next 25 years many industrial countries
    will see the virtual elimination of the
    blue-collar assembly line worker
  • Impact of down sizing right sizing effects the
    white-collar workers

60
SW the Global Economy
  • Some white-collar workers are being transferred
    from permanent jobs to short-term employment
    including leased, temporary and contingent
    work.it reduces the companys fiscal liability
    in the areas of wages, benefits commitments.

61
SW the Global Economy
  • Social Political forces have widened the
    distance between rich poor people as well as
    rich poor nations.
  • Rich poor people increasingly live in separate
    worlds
  • the rising tide does not lift all the boats
    anymore but only lifts the yachts of the rich.

62
SW the Global Economy
  • Falling real wages job insecurity are lurking
    behind the host of social maladies that plague
    our societies, including family breakdown,
    welfare dependency teen pregnancy
  • Meanwhile, Govts. Have given up plans to temper
    the negative effects of economic development.

63
SW the Global Economy
  • Post WW II, European Govts. Established generous
    social welfare programs.
  • The Maastricht Treaty of 1991, helping to est. a
    single European currency, stressed the casting
    aside of generous social benefits and stressed
    the local level rather then the National level to
    solve social problems

64
SW the Global Economy
  • Economic Interdependence
  • 1. Long-term unemployment
  • 2. Labor insecurity
  • 3. Debt
  • 4. Low incomes
  • All are negatively impacting human welfare around
    the world

65
SW the Global Economy
  • Economic Interdependence is demonstrated by
  • World trade, investments, currency regulations,
    aid, lending the influence of multinational
    corporations.
  • Multinationals blur the concept of domestic
    foreign production

66
SW the Global Economy
  • In an increasingly more competitive world.some
    countries grow or produce only 1 or 2 major
    commodities. This leaves them to vulnerable
    economically to world trade events.
  • The global economy also means jobs can be shifted
    from one country to another with cheaper labor
    costs.

67
SW the Global Economy
  • Economic Interdependence is also present when one
    or a few countries possess items or commodities
    that other countries desire or more pointedly
    NEED like..oil for example.
  • What happened in the oil crisis of the 1970s
    today?

68
SW the Global Economy
  • Oil is the worlds most crucial essential
    non-renewable resource
  • OPEC forms in reaction to political/military
    action to influence politics of the future

69
SW the Global Economy
  • The need for poorer countries to purchase oil led
    to the international borrowing of money
  • The economy of poorer nations contd. to fall
    they were soon in debt
  • Debt payments were often more than the GDP of the
    nation

70
SW the Global Economy
  • The remedy for the debt crisis was a policy from
    the IMF and/or World Bank known as Structural
    Adjustment.
  • SA demanded that govts. Spend within their
    means, keep exchange rates competitive, let
    markets determine prices, diminish regulations
    subsidy and privatize industries previously
    nationalized.

71
SW the Global Economy
  • RESULTS of STRUCTURAL ADJUSTMENT
  • Govts. Spend less on health education
  • Govts. Remove subsidies on food
    transportation
  • Govts. Devalue their own currencies
  • Declining purchasing power for citizens

72
SW the Global Economy
  • The structurally adjusted world led to
  • Increasing poverty
  • Rising rates of infant mortality
  • Reappearance of diseases thought to be eliminated
  • Decreasing school enrollments

73
SW the Global Economy
  • Security Interdependence..what is this and how
    does it effect Social Work the world??

74
SW the Global Economy
  • Social Welfare Interdependence
  • Migration..
  • 1. As of 1997, 100 million people are
    involuntarily living outside their country of
    origin
  • 2. Most refugees have fled from developing
    nations to other developing nations

75
SW the Global Economy
  • What is a guest worker what impact are they
    having on migration?
  • What are the current trends in immigration both
    legal and illegal?
  • What is the definition of a multinational family
    what unique problems does it create for social
    workers?

76
SW the Global Economy
  • AIDS
  • Its rapid spread indicates no country is an
    island!
  • Global interdependence through trade, war air
    travel spread the problem
  • AIDS is now the worlds 4th leading killer disease

77
SW the Global Economy
  • POVERTY.is now a global phenomenon.
  • It is related to many if not all other social
    problemsmigration, AIDS, drug use, street
    children, homelessness, child labor, family
    breakups, abuse, disease, malnutrition and other
    indirect social issues.

78
SW the Global Economy
  • Status of Women
  • Women fare much worse in some countries than
    others
  • Two-thirds of the worlds illiterates are female
  • Girls have a low of access to education
  • Girls have poorer nutritional status

79
SW the Global Economy
  • Women Contd.
  • Impacts of sex-selection abortion infanticide
  • Two million girls a year suffer female genital
    mutilation (FGM)
  • Every 6th infant death in India is due to gender
    discrimination

80
SW the Global Economy
  • Street Children.caused by globally sponsored
    poverty worsening economic conditions
  • Social Policy Emulation. Policy of one country
    impacts the development of social policy in
    another..Reagans retrenchment policy is
    duplicated by the World Bank

81
SW the Global Economy
  • More countries are experiencing the unsettling
    paradox that the process of economic
    globalization has increased the prosperity of
    some but led to the growing numbers of unemployed
    poor people.
  • It is evident that the world economy increasingly
    affects social cohesion at the local level.

82
SW the Global Economy
  • Social Works Role
  • developing local empowerment or area-based
    strategies for securing the welfare of citizens
  • Developing ethically sound well defined
    comparative research studies
  • Transnational SW problem solving information
    exchanges

83
The UN NGOs
  • International Social Welfare Organizations

84
UN NGOs
  • There is a wide range of international
    organizations working on projects such as
  • planning income generating projects to combat
    poverty
  • continuing education 7 low cost education models
  • encouraging rights for women children

85
UN NGOs
  • International social welfare activities are
    provided by a myriad set of organizations
  • Some domestic organizations also perform
    international social welfare functions in the
    areas of economics, health agriculture.

86
UN NGOs
  • Three major groups of organizations are
  • 1. The intergovernmental agencies of the UN
  • 2. Governmental agencies of individual countries
  • 3. Private or nongovernmental (NGOs) agencies

87
UN NGOs
  • Most international agencies are engaged in
    development or social development work, the
    enhancement of social welfare, the promotion of
    social economic well-being the sponsorship of
    professional exchanges

88
UN NGOs
  • Most international social welfare organizations
    are involved in
  • 1. Development
  • 2. Promotion of human rights

89
UN NGOs
  • Economic development became a UN priority after
    WW II
  • Difficulty in achieving it became obvious by the
    1960s

90
UN NGOs
  • Today we realize development is a complex
    intertwined process involving social, economic,
    and environmental factors
  • Much of todays assistance is being provided
    through multilateral aid--assistance by
    intergovernmental organizations as well as NGOs.

91
UN NGOs
  • The UN its agencies are also major players in
    international social welfare and the provision of
    multilateral assistance.

92
UN NGOs
  • Remember the UN first began this role in the UN
    Relief Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA)
    near the end of WW II.
  • UNRRA its success provided the beginning of the
    evolution of the social development agenda of the
    UN

93
UN NGOs
  • The third purpose in the charter of the UN (1945)
    legitimizes the many social welfare and social
    development efforts of the UN.
  • It statesthe UN is to achieve international
    cooperation in solving international problems of
    an economic, social, cultural or human rights
    focus.

94
UN NGOs
  • The UN currently has 185 member nations.
  • A large amount of development work is carried out
    by specialized agencies including UNICEF, WHO
    the UN Development Program (UNDP).

95
UN NGOs
  • The Economic Social Council (ECOSOC) of the UN
    reports to the General Assembly. Its purposes
    are to Promote higher standards of living, full
    employment, conditions of social economic
    development, solutions to international problems,
    observation of human rights nondiscriminatory
    freedoms.

96
UN NGOs
  • ECOSOC also utilizes Regional Commissions,
    Functional Commissions, expert bodies.
  • Every 4 years the Dept. of Economic Social
    Development of the UN produces a major social
    welfare report entitled The Report on the Worlds
    Social Situation (most recent report 2001)

97
UN NGOs
  • The Centre for Social Development Humanitarian
    Affairs (now located in New York) has been a
    focal point of social welfare activity serving as
    the organizing force behind the Interregional
    Consultation. Additionally a renewed focus in
    this area has led to a restructuring of the
    Centre.

98
UN NGOs
  • UNICEFThe Un Childrens Fund has become a strong
    agency with a focus on development.
  • Its goal is to improve the lives of children
    youth in the developing world

99
UN NGOs
  • UNICEFs work in the area of child protection are
    of interest to social work.
  • The agency has addressed issues of abuse and
    exploitation through its various initatives.
  • UNICEF aides children affected by war, child
    labor sexual exploitation, AIDS disability.

100
UN NGOs
  • UNICEF has supported NGOs in their work on
    prevention, prevention rehabilitation
  • It also compiles statistics on the status of
    children to promote research and planning.
  • UNICEF helped the UN adopt the Convention of the
    Rights of Children in 1989.

101
UN NGOs
  • UNDP was created in 1965. It is now the largest
    source of multilateral grant assistance and
    provides a greater variety of services to more
    people in more countries than any other
    development institution.
  • It is also the source of technical assistance
    grants.

102
UN NGOs
  • 87 of UNDP grants go to the worlds poorest
    countries.
  • Largest sector aided by UNDP is agriculture,
    followed by industrial development,
    transportation, communications, natural resources
    and about 25 its resources on education,
    population, health human development.

103
UN NGOs
  • In 1986, UNDP set up a Division for Women in
    Development.
  • It administers the UN Development Fund for Women
    (UNIFEM)

104
UN NGOs
  • UNIFEM is a special fund to support projects for
    low-income women in poor countries. Priorities
    are poverty elimination, grassroots
    participation, environmental natural resource
    management, management for development, women in
    development technology transfer between
    developing nations.

105
UN NGOs
  • World Health Organization (WHO) is another
    specialized agency of the UN.
  • Goal is to encourage the best possible health for
    all.

106
UN NGOs
  • WHO monitors international health issues, works
    to control communicable diseases, sets
    international health standards in areas of drugs
    vaccines, conducts research, engages in efforts
    to solve health problems attempts to strengthen
    national health systems.

107
UN NGOs
  • WHO is now leading the campaign to control the
    spread of HIV.
  • Africa with almost 50 of the total world cases
    of HIV infection poorly developed health
    resources is a special priority.
  • WHO is credited with eradicating small pox.

108
UN NGOs
  • United Nations Fund for Population Activities
    (UNFPA) is the largest source of funds for family
    planning related programs in developing
    countries.
  • A recent focus has been on linking family
    planning reproductive health with development
    goals as well as to provide services to refugees.

109
UN NGOs
  • The United Nations High Commission for Refugees
    (UNHCR) established in 1951 provides protection,
    assistance, and aid to refugees in transit,
    voluntary repatriation where possible,
    resettlement integration into countries of
    first asylum.

110
UN NGOs
  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) the
    World Food Program.
  • The goal of these agencies is to work toward
    global food security.
  • Global Information Early Warning System
    identifies areas of risk of food shortage.it
    supplies 25 of the worlds food aid.

111
UN NGOs
  • Special Years, Conferences, Declarations
    Conventions
  • The UN designates special years decades
    global conferences to draw attention to important
    issues bring world leaders together to work on
    strategies to bring about change.

112
UN NGOs
  • 1968..UN Conference of Ministers Responsible for
    Social Welfare
  • 1987..Interregional Consultation on Developmental
    Social Welfare Policies Programs..this meeting
    resulted in adoption of guiding principles for
    developmental Social welfare policies in the near
    future.

113
UN NGOs
  • 1995..two major social welfare events
    occurredthe World Summit on Social Development
    (Copenhagen) the Fourth World Conference on
    Women (Beijing).
  • Copenhagen put the needs of people at the center
    of development efforts

114
UN NGOs
  • The World Summit addressed issues of achieving
    sustainable development with social justice,
    enhancing social integration, reducing poverty
    expanding opportunities for productive
    employment.
  • NGOs participated actively also held an NGO
    Forum at the same location.

115
UN NGOs
  • The Beijing Conference focused on a universal
    ratification of the Convention on the Elimination
    of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women by
    2000.
  • World Summit for Children in 1990adopted goals
    to improve the lives of children.

116
UN NGOs
  • 1992 UN Conference on Environment Development
    (Rio de Janeiro) explored relationship between
    environmental preservation sustainable
    development.
  • 1993 World Conference on Human Rights 1994
    Conference on Population Development.

117
UN NGOs
  • The UN designates international years decades
    to highlight issues attempt to mobilize
    resources.
  • For example International Year of the Family
    1994 International Year of Older Persons 1999.
    To recognize humanitys demographic coming of age
    the promise it holds.

118
UN NGOs
  • UN Conventions usually result in policy
    documents. In 1989, the UN adopted the
    Convention on the Rights of the Child. To date
    all but 2 nations have ratified the convention
    (Somalia the US). It focuses on identifying
    standards for survival, protection development
    of children.

119
UN NGOs
  • The World Bank and International Monetary Fund
    (IMF) are not social welfare organizations but
    their work often has an impact on the social
    welfare services of a developing nation.some
    times for good other times for bad!

120
UN NGOs
  • The IMF provides technical assistance to
    countries on banking, balance payments, taxation,
    etc.
  • The major goal of the World Bank is to provide
    loans to encourage economic development. It is a
    development organizationonly developing
    countries can borrow from the World Bank

121
UN NGOs
  • The IMF insists that nations with poor balances
    of payments large debt adopt programs of
    structural adjustment in order to qualify for
    additional credit.
  • Structural adjustment often leads to cutbacks in
    health, education social services.

122
UN NGOs
  • Governmental Agencies
  • International social welfare functions of Govts
    include foreign assistance, professional
    educational exchanges research

123
UN NGOs
  • It must be remembered that international
    assistance serves many purposes for the donor
    nations that humanitarianism is often not the
    major considerationcan you think of any
    examples??
  • Bilateral aid is an instrument of foreign policy

124
UN NGOs
  • Fully half the the US allocates for
    multilateral aid is spent on US goods.
  • US generosity in distributing food has benefited
    farm prices at home

125
UN NGOs
  • Examples of Bilateral Aid Agencies
  • US Agency for International Development
    (USAID)..directs economic humanitarian aid
    programs
  • Focus of USAID in the 1990s has been to
    strengthen democracy capitalism in countries of
    former Soviet Union.

126
UN NGOs
  • Peace Corps est. in 1961 to develop international
    cultural exchange efforts.
  • Volunteer programs that emphasize urban
    development, primary health care comm.
    participation

127
UN NGOs
  • Bilateral Aid is supplied by other countries such
    as Japan, Nordic Countries and Canada
  • Japan became the largest donor as early as 1989
  • Sweden, Finland, Norway Denmark have the most
    pro-development progressive aid programs.

128
UN NGOs
  • Canada through the Canadian International
    Development Agency (CIDA) strongly stresses
    cooperation with recipient countries to improve
    development

129
UN NGOs
  • Government Agency Exchange Efforts
  • In US DHHS the international affairs staff in the
    Office of Public Affairs of the Administration
    for Children Families organizes US
    participation in intergovernmental meetings,
    administers bilateral programs arranges visits
    for foreign visitors

130
UN NGOs
  • The US Information Agency.under the Bureau of
    Educational Cultural Affairs (where we received
    our Latvian Grant from!!)has been responsible
    for administering educational cultural
    international exchanges.as of 1999 USIA was
    abolished its work assumed by the State
    Department.

131
UN NGOs
  • Agencies dealing with Refugees
  • The best known is the Office of Refugee
    Resettlement (ORR) which is within DHHS.
  • The Dept. of Labor plays a role as well
  • The Dept. of Agriculture shares responsibility
    for international food assistance programs.

132
UN NGOs
  • Nongovernmental Organizations
  • play a significant and expanding role in
    international social welfare

133
UN NGOs
  • NGOs provide a wide range of functions
  • Relief development
  • Advocacy
  • Education
  • Exchange
  • International networks associations

134
UN NGOs
  • Relief Development
  • Working in developing countries
    poverty-stricken areas of industrialized nations
  • Example is the International Red Cross, CARE,
    Catholic Relief Services, PLAN the Christian
    Childrens Fund

135
UN NGOs
  • Innovative work often in politically difficult
    climates is being done by the American Friends
    Service Committee, Oxfam the Unitarian
    Universalist Service Committee.
  • Growing belief that development efforts must be
    self-sustaining community oriented to be
    successful.

136
UN NGOs
  • One of the best known NGOs is the Grameen Bank of
    Bangladesh. It is an organization that has
    developed micro-enterprise especially for
    women..like the Green Belt Movement in Kenyaa
    womens environmental movement in which 50,000
    women have planted more then 10 million trees to
    stem soil erosion.

137
UN NGOs
  • Advocacy
  • Most NGOs include advocacy as one of their
    functionswhich is usually focused on development
    priorities adequate funding for foreign
    assistance.
  • Or advocacy focuses on the intergovernmental
    level through consultation with the UN.

138
UN NGOs
  • Some NGOs are entirely devoted to advocacy
    particularly in the human rights area.like
    Amnesty International which documents abuses of
    human rights sponsors campaigns to improve
    human rights treatment prisoner release.

139
UN NGOs
  • Development Education NGOs which provide efforts
    to educate the public on conditions in the
    developing world to motivate action on behalf
    of the worlds poor.
  • Examples are the Save the Children NGO, Bread for
    the World the American Forum.

140
UN NGOs
  • Exchange Programs used as a means for the
    transfer of knowledge service models as well as
    bridging cultural barriers increasing
    understanding. Examples The Council of
    International Programs (CIP), World Learning
    formerly the Experiment in International Living)
    the Fulbright Scholar Program.

141
UN NGOs
  • Social Youth Agencies With International
    Aspects The Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, YMCA,
    YWCA, the Salvation Army, the Red Cross. These
    organizations have branches in many nations.

142
UN NGOs
  • Agencies in Cross-National Social Work
  • Serving areas such as.international adoption,
    child custody problems, divorce and family
    problems involving citizens laws of more than
    one country as well as sponsorship resettlement
    of refugees.

143
UN NGOs
  • Examples are International Social Services
    located in Geneva with branches in 16 countries.
    The agency maintains a document center on
    migration, refugees, family law childrens
    rights.
  • Holt International Childrens Services focuses on
    adoption issues.

144
UN NGOs
  • In summary basic needs issues continue to exist
    like food, shelter, primary health care,
    primary education. Ensuring respect for the
    rights of children, women, the disabled
    minorities remain a challenge.
  • At the same time governments are moving away from
    social welfare.

145
UN NGOs
  • In order to move forward organizations involved
    in international social welfare must assess both
    their success failures. And there have been
    millions of small social development successes in
    terms of individual lives changed villages
    revitalizedbut more needs to be done!!

146
HUMAN RIGHTS
  • Social Work the UN Conventions

147
Human Rights
  • Social work is a human rights profession
  • Human rights serves as a statement of social work
    values
  • They are also a source of policy guidelines
  • Human rights are therefore a core concept for
    global dialogue

148
Human Rights
  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
    develops 4 categories
  • 1. Human dignity
  • 2. Respect for civil political rights
  • 3. Economic rights (food, education, health care)
  • 4. Peace, justice clean environment

149
Human Rights
  • Clearly the 4 categories of rights can only be
    achieved by international cooperation.
  • They involve social works agenda in working for
    economic security, as well as social
    participation for all equality for special
    populations.

150
Human Rights
  • The human rights orientation of the profession
    assists social workers in focusing on social
    justice rather than individual pathology..at
    both the micro and macro levels of practice
  • Social work practice should be based upon the
    promotion of rights.

151
Human Rights
  • The human rights model bridges the gap between
    individual interventions and advocacy/social
    change
  • Client focused services can assist clients in
    need while also documenting the need to influence
    legislatures, funders as well as impacting public
    opinion.

152
Human Rights
  • The professions focus on human rights shapes its
    conviction that the fundamental nature of these
    needs requires that they be met not as a matter
    of choice but as an imperative of basic justice.
  • Social workers must uphold the rights of their
    individual collective clients.

153
Human Rights
  • Social work must be concerned about the
    protection of individual group differences.
    Human rights are inseparable from social work
    theory, values, ethics practice.
  • Advocacy of such rights must be an essential part
    of social work even under oppressive governments.

154
Human Rights
  • UN definition Human rights are rights which are
    inherent in our natureincluding fundamental
    freedoms to allow us to develop fully use our
    human qualities.
  • Denial of these rights creates conditions of
    social political unrest often leading to
    violence within or between people.

155
Human Rights
  • The historical development of current human
    rights is traced to the 18th century the
    American Declaration of Independence as well as
    the French Declaration of the Rights of Man.
  • The demand for civil political rights have
    joined today with the demand for economic, social
    cultural rights.

156
Human Rights
  • Both World Wars helped us realize the
    interdependence of humankind.
  • WWII led countries to adopt a new framework for
    international cooperation. Norms of
    international behavior needed to be stated as
    rights.
  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights has
    progressed since 1948.

157
Human Rights
  • Values behind Human Rights
  • 1. Life
  • 2. Freedom liberty
  • 3. Equality non-discrimination
  • 4. Justice
  • 5. Solidarity
  • 6.Social Responsibility

158
Human Rights
  • 7. Peace non-violence
  • 8. Relations between humankind nature
    .sometimes called biodiversity.
  • These values are the underpinnings of social
    workers schools of social work worldwide!

159
Human Rights
  • International Covenants on Human Rights produced
    the following elements
  • the right to life, liberty security
  • the right not to be subjected to torture or
    cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment
  • the prohibition of slavery

160
Human Rights
  • The right not to be arbitrarily detained
  • the rights to freedom of expression, religion,
    assembly association
  • the right to freedom of movement residence
  • the right to vote
  • the right to a fair trial

161
Human Rights
  • The rights of minorities to protection
  • the right to work
  • the right to social security
  • the right to protection of the family
  • the right to an adequate standard of living
  • the right to education

162
Human Rights
  • The right to health
  • the right to join trade unions
  • After WWII the international community began to
    accept its obligation to establish guarantees for
    human rights affording protection to people.

163
Human Rights
  • Various dilemmas will face social workers as they
    practice in an environment that emphasizes human
    rights.
  • Students via the web should dialogue on how they
    would handle the following practice situations..

164
Human Rights
  • Case 1 You believe that people have a right to
    work but the only cash crop in the area where
    you are a social worker is a narcotic drug I.e.
    the basis of illegal harmful traffic, when
    exported
  • What do you advise if there is a restriction on
    growing this substance?

165
Human Rights
  • Case 2 Your Government has to service a large
    international debt chooses to cut expenditure
    on social services, including the services you
    are working with for disadvantaged people.
  • How do you respond to this?

166
Human Rights
  • Case 3 As a social worker in a clinic you are
    aware of traditional practices of mutilating the
    sexual organs of young girls. A woman seeks
    advice on behalf of her younger sister, who fears
    that she will be mutilated in this way.
  • How do you respond?

167
Human Rights
  • Case 4 You are a social worker in a city
    project for street children, many of whom have
    been abandoned. The police say they are being
    directed to take action against these children
  • What do you say to the police to the
    children?..what do you do in other ways?

168
Human Rights
  • Case 5 As a social worker for a church-based
    NGO you are approached for advise by an elderly
    widow who is being urged to go live in an
    institution for elderly people. She wants to
    know what it is like to be there
  • What details do you find out to give her
    particularly about her rights?

169
Human Rights
  • Case 6 A development project proposes to bring
    irrigation hydroelectric power to a rural area.
    This will benefit many farmers other people
    but, by submerging existing villages, it will
    displace many economically socially
    disadvantaged persons. In response to criticism
    from

170
Human Rights
  • Social Activists the Government claims that the
    project will raise many peoples living standards
    help modernization. You perceive that this
    will be at the cost of the village communities.
  • As a social worker working in the villages what
    do you try to do?

171
Human Rights
  • Two particular areas in which social work human
    rights policies intersect are in guarantees of
    equality nondiscrimination as well as in
    economic social rights.
  • A remaining challenge is to secure global
    recognition of human rights for sexual minorities.

172
Human Rights
  • With social works special knowledge of human
    behavior ethical codes requiring
    antidiscrimination, the profession can provide
    leadership in overcoming the barriers to
    effective policies that embrace a human rights
    perspective

173
Human Rights
  • Nations have different records on human rights
    however no nation is without problems in
    first-and second-generation rights
  • For example even the US permits the execution of
    offenders for crimes committed when they were
    minors.

174
Multicultural Understanding
  • Education for cross-cultural practice

175
Multicultural Understanding
  • Little attention has been given to the needs of
    international and American social workers who are
    preparing for direct practice outside the USA.
  • American social work education has focused almost
    exclusively on practice with ethnic minority
    groups in America.

176
Multicultural Understanding
  • Yet there is a growing number of social workers
    who will be practicing outside the USA.
  • Garland Escobar make the point that preparation
    for cross-cultural practice differs significantly
    from practice with American ethnic minority
    groups.

177
Multicultural Understanding
  • A social worker in a cross-cultural setting needs
    to assess the match between a clients life
    patterns normative patterns in that culture.
  • Remember, in cross-cultural practice, the social
    worker not the client usually is the one
    attempting to adjust to the cultural setting.

178
Multicultural Understanding
  • Social workers cannot expect clients to translate
    their troubles to fit the expertise practice
    models they learned in graduate school.
  • Effective practice requires social workers to
    understand cultural differences the effect of
    their own culture on factors such as perception,
    assessment, values.

179
Multicultural Understanding
  • Further, effective cross-cultural practice
    requires not only an understanding of ones home
    culture but also a shift in the social workers
    cultural identity to what scholars call
    ethnorelativism or multiculturalism.

180
Multicultural Understanding
  • The identifications loyalties of multicultural
    persons transcend national boundaries. They view
    the world as a global community.
  • Social workers can feel as though they live on
    the fringe of two cultures, belonging to neither.

181
Multicultural Understanding
  • Although practice models are lacking, practice in
    cross-cultural settings can follow one of two
    directions.
  • They can identify culturally specific principles
    related to one particular culture
  • Or they can describe culturally general
    principles that apply in many cultural settings.

182
Multicultural Understanding
  • Given its complexity it follows that
    cross-cultural practice content has tended to
    focus on specific models of practice within one
    other culture and has stayed away from developing
    more generalized models of international
    practice. (To date!)

183
Multicultural Understanding
  • Some progress has been made in this universal
    model given the research conducted to identify
    the common functions purposes of family life.

184
Multicultural Understanding
  • The development of cross-cultural social work
    practice models needs to begin with identifying
    common processes of helping across cultural
    contexts.
  • It cannot begin with describing how American
    models can be adapted to other cultural
    contextsprofessional imperialism!

185
Multicultural Understanding
  • We need to understand that ideas about the nature
    of persons personality are culturally defined.
  • Most Western models naively imply that they are
    applicable to all populations, situations
    problems.
  • There may not be a universal agreement about the
    desirable outcome of helping.

186
Multicultural Understanding
  • In Taiwan
  • Interaction occurs between helper patient
  • Healer interprets the cause of the problem
  • Healer prescribes something the client does.

187
Multicultural Understanding
  • Cross-cultural social work practice must provide
    a general conceptual framework for organizing an
    overwhelming amount of information about
    cultures cultural differences.
  • Using a framework can permit the development of
    hypotheses about practice in that specific
    culture.

188
Multicultural Understanding
  • Developing the framework requires the social
    worker to know the dominate world-view in the
    host culture how problems of life are
    interpreted within that view.
  • Also, subcultural groups, which appear in each
    culture, may vary in significant ways in their
    systems of values beliefs.

189
Multicultural Understanding
  • Social workers need to explore how they will be
    seen as representatives of their home culture in
    the cross-cultural context.
  • For example, white social workers practicing in
    Zimbabwe need to really understand the
    cross-cultural history between African American
    cultures.

190
Multicultural Understanding
  • Every culture has a variety of patterns
    processes for helping persons with problems for
    making changes in persons, relationships social
    systems.
  • These systems can involve formal informal
    helpers in the society.

191
Multicultural Understanding
  • Different cultural groups have different ways of
    expressing emotional distress, but also different
    cultural groups may use similar symptoms as
    expressions of quite different processes.
  • The social worker needs to identify accepted
    processes of change in the culture.

192
Multicultural Understanding
  • For success, an attitude of mutual learning
    sharing needs to replace the assumption that
    majority American culture provides the expertise
    while other cultures provide the practice
    context.
  • Workers must be more aware of their own cultures
    worldview, values helping processes.

193
Multicultural Understanding
  • The effective cross-cultural social worker must
    understand not only a cultures definitions of
    problems the subsequent content of helping
    attempts but also the process of helping.

194
Multicultural Understanding
  • In Eskimo treatment sessions confession plays a
    central role and the interaction between the
    patient, Shaman and members of the community are
    key in facilitating this process.

195
Multicultural Understanding
  • Learning about cross-cultural practice involves
    learning about how change can be introduced.
  • Additionally, one must understand the amount of
    variance and change within the culture itself.
    Heterogeneous cultures have more difficulty
    undergoing rapid changes.

196
Multicultural Understanding
  • Simply teaching about distinct ethnocultural
    groups is not enough since it runs the risk of
    developing reinforcing stereotypes.
  • Yet social workers must have knowledge about
    specific cultures.
  • It requires a difficult balance to not
    overemphasize cultural differences.

197
Multicultural Understanding
  • Persons employed in cross-cultural settings are
    usually prepared for the personal adjustments by
    employer training programs or other forms of
    consultation/assistance.
  • A key to success is raising consciousness of
    ones own culture, identification of functional
    equivalents across cultures in developmental
    interpersonal issues.

198
Multicultural Understanding
  • We must recognize our own biasesusually at the
    most difficult timewhen we are first entering
    the new society most overwhelmed by adjustment
    issues. Strangeness brings about anxiety
    anxiety often leads to stereotyping.
  • Need to develop your consciousness of your own
    culture.

199
Multicultural Understanding
  • Being effective requires understanding of
    functional equivalents referring to different
    behaviors that carry the same meanings in
    different cultural contexts.
  • Process of adaptation involves learning new cues
    of the new culture functional equivalents in
    the home culture.

200
Multicultural Understanding
  • Language is the key to helping professionals
    learn functional equivalents as well as cultural
    variations. Studying a language presents
    insights into the culture that uses the language.
  • Ideally, intermediate fluency is necessary!

201
Multicultural Understanding
  • Theories of psychological interpersonal
    processes often are culturally relative. Stages
    of individual psychosocial development, normal
    grief processes, group development are
    culturally influenced.
  • Rememberthe importance of becoming bicultural.

202
Multicultural Understanding
  • VALUES--present one of the most challenging areas
    of content for cross-cultural practice. They
    differ across cultures professional social work
    values vary internationally.
  • Example value difference of the individual vs.
    the community or clan.

203
Multicultural Understanding
  • To be effective one must create cultural
    distance from ones own experiences, so that
    values attitudes that have worked before are no
    longer adequate.

204
Multicultural Understanding
  • Knowing ones own personal biases, values
    interests (which are a product of our culture),
    as well as ones own culture will greatly enhance
    your sensitivity toward other cultures.
  • The following questions can serve as a reference
    point

205
Multicultural Understanding
  • 1. What is my cultural heritage? What was the
    culture of my parents grandparents? With what
    cultural group(s) do I identify?
  • 2. What is the cultural relevance of my name?
  • 3. What values, beliefs, opinions, attitudes do
    I hold consistent with the dominate culture?

206
Multicultural Understanding
  • Contd. Which are inconsistent? How did I learn
    these?
  • 4. How did I decide to become a social worker?
    What cultural standards were involved in the
    process?
  • 5. What unique abilities, aspirations
    limitations do I have that might influence
    relations
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