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Enabling Technologies for Wireless Body Area Networks

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Researchers have made considerable progress in characterizing the body area propagation environment through both measurement-based and simulation-based – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enabling Technologies for Wireless Body Area Networks


1
Enabling Technologies for Wireless Body Area
Networks
A Survey and Outlook
Sunghwa Son
2
Wireless Body Area Network
  • WBANWireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)-gt
    Body Area Network (BAN)-gt WBAN
  • WBAN is a RF-based wireless networking technology
    that interconnects tiny nodes with sensor or
    actuator capabilities in, on, or around a human
    body
  • WBANs provide ubiquitous networking
    functionalities for applications varying from
    healthcare to safeguarding of uniformed personnel

3
Wireless Body Area Network
  • Typically, it covers a short range of about 2m
  • It can be connected to local and wide area
    networks
  • Human-computer interaction (HCI) is booming

4
WBAN characteristics
  • Architecture consists of two categories of
    nodes sensors/actuators and router nodes
  • Density nodes are not deployed with high
    redundancy, and thus do not require high node
    density
  • Data rate WBANs are employed for monitoring
    human physiological activities. Thus, the
    application data streams exhibit relatively
    stable rates

5
WBAN characteristics
  • Latency for both healthcare and consumer
    applications, latency resulting from the
    underlying network such as a WBAN should be
    minimized
  • Mobility WBAN nodes affiliated with the same
    wearer move together and in the same direction

6
Application of WBANs
  • WBANs for healthcare
  • WBANs for HCI

7
CodeBlue project
  • Harvard University
  • It considers a hospital environment where
    multiple router nodes can be deployed on the wall
    -gt all nodes use ZigBee radio
  • System is limited to 40 kb/s aggregate bandwidth
    per receiver because of mobility and multihop

8
Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N)
  • It is developed at Johns Hopkins University based
    on the CodeBlue architecture
  • GPS is employed for outdoor localizationand
    MoteTrack for indoors
  • Patients have mobility constraints- lack of
    routers in the network
  • Limited number of sensor nodes- limited bandwidth

9
Wearable Health Monitoring Systems (WHMS)
  • It is developed at the University of Alabama and
    targets a larger-scale telemedicine system
  • WHMS has a star-topology network
  • Power consumption and cost associated with
    long-term data uploading can hamper system
    realization

10
Application of WBANs
  • WBANs for healthcare
  • WBANs for HCI

11
Intra-Body Communications (IBC)
  • Traditional computer interfaces are all
    replaceable by potential WBAN devices
  • It can be used to assist handicapped people -gt
    blind person and deaf person

12
MITHrill
  • It is a wearable computing platform that includes
    electrocardiography (ECG), skin temperature, and
    galvanic skin response sensors for wearable
    sensing and context-aware interaction -gt not a
    real WBAN
  • MITHrill 2003 -gt using Wi-Fi

13
Microsystems Platform for Mobile Services and
Applications (MIMOSA)
  • Its approach is similar to WHMS while it
    exclusively employs a mobile phone as the
    user-carried interface device
  • Bluetooth Low Energy and RFID are used for
    connecting local sensor nodes
  • NanoIP, and Simple Sensor Interface (SSI)
    protocols are integrated into MIMOSA

14
Wireless Sensor Node for a Motion Capture System
with Accelerometers (WiMoCA)
  • It is concerned with the design and
    implementation of a distributed gesture
    recognition system
  • It uses star topology and coordinator in turn
    relays the data to an external processing unit
    using Bluetooth

15
Sensor devices
16
  • Sensors are key components of a WBANrole bridge
    the physical world and electronic systems
  • Previous -gt low sampling frequency and low data
    transmission rate would be sufficient
  • Today -gt for better monitor human, a wide range
    of commercially available sensors can be deployed

17
  • With advances in micro-electromechanical systems
    (MEMS), sensor devices are getting even tinier in
    size and changing the traditional way of
    measuring human physiological parameters

18
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19
Radio Technologies
  • Radio Propagation
  • Blutooth Low Energy Technology
  • UWB
  • BluTooth 3.0 High speed
  • ZigBee

20
  • Researchers have made considerable progress in
    characterizing the body area propagation
    environment through both measurement-based and
    simulation-based
  • Theses works have been conducted in both the
    industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) bands
    and the ultra-sideband (UWB)
  • In each of the frequency bands, intra-body,
    on-body, and off-body channels have been studied

21
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22
Significant progress been made toward
  • Identification of the propagation mechanisms that
    affect signal transmissions between nodes
  • Assessment of the effects of multipath
    reflections from the external environment to
    signal transmissions between nodes
  • Characterization of the fading statistics on body
    links that occur with body motion and change of
    body position in both sparse and rich scattering
    environment
  • Development of standard UWB channel impulse
    response models and evaluation of typical
    modulation schemes utilizing them

23
  • With advances in very large-scale integration
    (VLSI), dual and multiple-standard radios can be
    integrated into a single chip, greatly reducing
    the cost and power consumption

24
Radio Technologies
  • Radio Propagation
  • Blutooth Low Energy Technology
  • UWB
  • BluTooth 3.0 High speed
  • ZigBee

25
Bluetooth Low End Extension (LEE)
  • It was introduced in 2004 by Nokia
  • It was designed to wirelessly connect small
    devices to mobile terminals
  • LEE was released to the public with the name
    Wibree in 2006
  • Its products can be categorized into two groups-
    dual-mode chips equipped with sensors/actuators-
    standalone chips equipped with a personal
    server
  • It will likely operate using a simpler protocol
    stack and focus on short-range star-configured
    networks

26
Radio Technologies
  • Radio Propagation
  • Blutooth Low Energy Technology
  • UWB
  • BluTooth 3.0 High speed
  • ZigBee

27
UWB
  • According to the Federal Communications
    Commission (FCC), UWB refers to any radio
    technology
  • FCC also regulates license-free use of UWB in the
    3.1-10.6 GHz band
  • The suitability of UWB applications in
    short-range and indoor environments

28
UWB
  • UWB is also an ideal technology for precise
    localization
  • IEEE 802.15.6-Body Area Networks (BANs) will
    likely employ UWB
  • However, when this standard and any electronics
    that utilize it will become available remains
    unknown

29
Radio Technologies
  • Radio Propagation
  • Blutooth Low Energy Technology
  • UWB
  • BluTooth 3.0 High speed
  • ZigBee

30
BluTooth 3.0 High speed
  • BluTooth 3.0 High speed introduces the 802.11
    protocol adaptation layer (PAL) into the protocol
    stack, and increases data rate support from 3
    Mb/s to 24 Mb/s
  • Limitations of Bluetooth include the small number
    of active slaves (seven) that each piconet
    supports and indirect communications between
    slaves

31
Radio Technologies
  • Radio Propagation
  • Blutooth Low Energy Technology
  • UWB
  • BluTooth 3.0 High speed
  • ZigBee

32
ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4
  • It targets low-data-rate and low-power-consumption
    applications
  • It can provide a flexible framework and it better
    suits WBAN deployment scenarios in a limited area
  • Compared to Bluetooth and UWB, it can operate in
    three ISM bands, with data rates from 20 kb/s to
    250 kb/s

33
ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4
  • ZigBee supports three types of topologies-gt
    star, cluster tree, and mesh
  • The major advantage of ZigBee is its capability
    of providing multihop routing in a cluster three
    or mesh topology-gt WBAN network coverage can be
    expanded to a WPAN using the same radio

34
ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4
  • ZigBee mesh network- full-function devices
    (FFDs)- reduced-function devices (RFDs)
  • They think ZigBee may have a better chance to be
    adopted in the area of home automation and
    industrial automation and control

35
Connecting WBANs and the world
36
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37
  • A global trend for interconnection of data
    networks is to use IP
  • WBAN packets can be translated into IP datagrams
    by a gateway at the edge of a WBAN
  • The ubiquitous access and connectivity of WBANs
    into the global network requires
  • - network infrastructure support, low-power and
    low-footprint software implementations for
    routing, flow/error control, remote procedure
    calls, database management, and user interface

38
Open research issuesConclusion
39
Open research issues
  • Physical characteristics of sensor/actuator
    materials and electronic circuits
  • Development and evaluation of improved
    propagation and channel models
  • Networking and resource management schemes
  • Security, authentication, and privacy issues
  • Power supply issues
  • Rules of engagement

40
Conclusion
  • WBAN plays a very important role in ubiquitous
    healthcare applications and enjoys a huge
    potential market in the area of consumer
    electronics
  • While WBAN technologies provide a promising
    platform to enable ubiquitous communications,
    several open issues still need to be addressed
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