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Cardiovascular Health

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Cardiovascular Health Chapter 15 * * * * * * * * Coronary Bypass Surgery Treating Heart Disease Protecting Yourself Against Cardiovascular Disease Exercise regularly ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cardiovascular Health


1
Cardiovascular Health
  • Chapter 15

2
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
  • Leading cause of death in the U.S.
  • Affects nearly 81 million Americans
  • Claims one life every 38 seconds
  • The high rate of CVD is primarily caused by
    Americans lifestyles

3
Major Risk Factors That Can Be Changed
  • Tobacco Use
  • Number-one preventable cause of CVD in U.S.
  • Smoking harms the CV System in many ways
  • Damages the lining of arteries
  • Reduces HDLs
  • Raises triglycerides and LDLs
  • Nicotine increases blood pressure HR
  • CO displaces O2
  • Causes platelets to become sticky, leading to
    clotting
  • Speeds the development of fatty deposits in the
    arteries

4
Major Risk Factors That Can Be Changed
  • Diabetes
  • Death from CVD is 2 to 3 times more likely in
    obese people than in lean people.
  • Higher rates of other CVD risk factors
  • Hypertension
  • Obesity
  • Unhealthy blood lipid levels
  • Damaged endothelial cells
  • More vulnerable to atherosclerosis

5
Major Risk Factors That Can Be Changed
  • Blood Pressure
  • Normal adult
  • Hypertensive adult
  • Cholesterol Levels
  • Total cholesterol (mg/dl)
  • LDL
  • HDL
  • Level of Physical Activity
  • Physical activity

6
Major Risk Factors That Cant Be Changed
  • Heredity
  • Multiple genes contribute
  • Having a first-degree relative with CAD
  • Aging
  • 70 of Heart Attack victims
  • Over the age of 55
  • Being male
  • Men have higher risk of heart attack
  • Ethnicity
  • African Americans have higher risk of
    hypertension Hispanics have a greater risk of
    HBP and angina Asians have lower rates of CVD

7
The Cardiovascular System
8
Components of the Cardiovascular System
  • Heart
  • Blood vessels
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Capillaries
  • Blood

9
The Cardiovascular System
  • Each heartbeat has two phases
  • Systole
  • Diastole
  • Reporting BP

10
Anatomy of the Heart
11
Great Vessels of the Heart
  • From left to right (front view of heart)
  • Superior and Inferior vena cava
  • Returns blood from body to heart
  • Aorta
  • Delivers blood to entire body from heart
  • Pulmonary trunk
  • Delivers blood to the lungs from the heart

12
Great Vessels of the Heart
13
Chambers of the Heart
Left Atrium
Right Atrium
Left Ventricle
Right Ventricle
14
Circulation in The Heart
15
Chambers of the Heart
  • Right Atrium
  • Receives deoxygenated blood from entire body
  • Blood passes to right ventricle via tricuspid
    valve
  • Right ventricle
  • Pumps deoxygenated blood to lungs
  • Left Atrium
  • Receives oxygenated blood from lungs
  • Blood passes to left ventricle via bicuspid valve
  • Left Ventricle
  • Pumps oxygenated blood to the body

16
Circulation in The Heart
17
Coronary Circulation
  • Definition
  • Coronary arteries are the first arteries that
    branch from the aorta

18
Cardiovascular Disease
19
Major Forms of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Coronary Artery (Heart) Disease (heart attack,
    angina)
  • Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death
  • Congestive Heart Failure
  • Stroke

20
Major Forms of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Atherosclerosis
  • When coronary arteries become blocked with plaque
    buildup this results in
  • Symptoms of Heart Attack include
  • If an artery in a limb becomes narrowed or
    blocked this results

21
Stages of Plaque Development
22
Major Forms of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Angina Arteries are narrowed by disease but
    open enough to deliver blood under normal
    circumstances
  • During times of stress heart can not receive
    enough oxygen
  • Usually felt as
  • Arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death Electrical
    conduction system is disrupted

23
Major Forms of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Stroke when cells of the brain are starved of
    oxygenated blood for more than a few minutes,
    they die.
  • Types of Strokes
  • Ischemic stroke blockage in a blood vessel
  • Thrombotic stroke -
  • Embolic stroke -
  • Hemorrhagic stroke blood vessel ruptures in the
    brain
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Aneurysm

24
Types of stroke
25
Detecting Stroke
  • A quick way to recognize a stroke is to ask the
    person to do three things
  • 1. Smile. If her smile droops on one side, or
    if she is unable to move or open one side of her
    mouth
  • 2. Hold your arms out. If the person cannot
    move one arm or hold one arm still
  • 3. Repeat a simple, short sentence. If she has
    trouble speaking

26
The Effects of a Stroke Can Include
  • Paralysis (possible)
  • Walking disability
  • Speech impairment
  • Memory loss
  • Behavior changes
  • The area of brain damage will determine which
    part of the body is affected

27
Treating Stroke
  • For Ischemic Stroke
  • For Hemorrhagic Stroke
  • Transient Ischemic Attack
  • If a stroke is detected late

28
Major Forms of Cardiovascular Disease
  • Congestive Heart Failure A Number of conditions
    can damage the pumping mechanism of the heart
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart attack
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Alcoholism
  • Viral infections
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Birth defects
  • Pulmonary edema

29
Other Forms of Heart Disease
  • Congenital Heart Disease
  • Defect/malformation of heart/blood vessels that
    you are born with
  • Ex. A hole in the heart
  • Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
  • Enlarged heart
  • Can cause arrhythmias
  • Rheumatic Heart Disease
  • Resulting from a sequence of untreated
    streptococcal throat infections
  • Up to 3 of untreated strep. Infections lead to
    rheumatic fever

30
Detecting and Treating Heart Disease
31
Tests Used to Detect Heart Disease
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
  • Echocardiography
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

32
Detecting Heart Disease
  • Angiogram

33
Treating Heart Disease
  • Balloon angioplasty

34
Treating Heart Disease
  • Coronary Bypass Surgery

35
Protecting Yourself Against Cardiovascular Disease
  • Exercise regularly
  • Avoid tobacco
  • Know and manage your blood pressure (monitored
    once every two years)
  • Know and manage your cholesterol levels
  • Develop effective ways to handle stress and anger
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